Zuni people

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For other uses, see Zuni (disambiguation).
A:shiwi
Zuni
Zuni-girl-with-jar2.png
Zuñi girl with jar, 1903
Total population
10,228 enrolled members (2000)[1]
Regions with significant populations
United States (New Mexico)
Languages
Zuni, English
Religion
Zuni religion, Christianity (incl. syncretist forms)
Related ethnic groups
Hopi, Pueblo people!

The Zuni (Zuni: A:shiwi; formerly spelled Zuñi) are a federally recognized Native American tribe, one of the Pueblo peoples. Most live in the Pueblo of Zuni on the Zuni River, a tributary of the Little Colorado River, in western New Mexico, United States. Zuni is 55 km (34 mi) south of Gallup, New Mexico. In addition to the reservation, the tribe owns trust lands in Catron County, New Mexico and Apache County, Arizona.[2] They called their homeland Shiwinnaqin.

Demographics[edit]

In 2000, 10,228 people were enrolled in the Zuni tribe.[1] According to the 2000 Census, there were approximately 7,790 people in the zip code of the Zuni reservation, with 7,619 living in either the statistical areas of Zuni or Blackrock.[3] Tribal estimates for the entire reservation run from 10,000 to 12,000, with over 80% being Native Americans. Nearly half, or 43.0% of the population, lives below the poverty line as defined by the U.S. income standards. As of 2010, 538 Zuni lived in Arizona.

History[edit]

Distribution of the Zuni language.

Archaeology suggests that the Zuni have been farmers in their present location for 3,000 to 4,000 years. Irrigation agriculture in riverine environments in Zuni began about 3,000 years ago.[4] More recently, Zuni culture seems related to both the Mogollon and Ancestral Pueblo peoples cultures, who lived in the deserts of New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and southern Colorado for over two millennia. The "village of the great kiva" near the contemporary Zuni Pueblo was built in the 11th century CE. The Zuni region, however, was probably only sparsely populated by small agricultural settlements until the 12th century when the population and the size of the settlements began to increase. In the 14th century, the Zuni inhabited a dozen pueblos between 180 to 1,400 rooms in size. All of these pueblos, except Zuni, were abandoned by 1400, and over the next 200 years, nine large new pueblos were constructed. These were the "seven cities of Cibola" sought by early Spanish explorers.[5] By 1650, there were only six Zuni villages.[6]

In 1539, Moorish slave Estevanico led an advance party of Fray Marcos de Niza's Spanish expedition. The Zuni killed him as a spy.[6] This was Spain's first contact with any of the Pueblo peoples.[7] Francisco Vásquez de Coronado traveled through Zuni Pueblo. Spaniards built a mission at Hawikuh in 1629. The Zunis tried to expel the missionaries in 1632, but Spanish built another mission in Halona in 1643.[6]

Before the Pueblo Revolt of 1680, the Zuni lived in six different villages. After the revolt, until 1692, they took refuge in a defensible position atop Dowa Yalanne, a steep mesa 5 km (3.1 miles) southeast of the present Pueblo of Zuni; Dowa means "corn", and yalanne means "mountain". After the establishment of peace and the return of the Spanish, the Zuni relocated to their present location, only briefly returning to the mesa top in 1703.[8]

The Zunis were self-sufficient during the mid-19th century, but faced raiding by the Apaches, Navajos, and Plains Indians. Their reservation was officially recognized by the United States federal government in 1877. Gradually the Zuni farmed less and turned to sheep and cattle herding as a means of economic development.[6]

Frank Hamilton Cushing, a pioneering anthropologist associated with the Smithsonian Institution, lived with the Zuni from 1879 to 1884. He was one of the first participant observers and an ethnologist.[9]

A controversy during the early 2000s was associated with Zuni opposition to the development of a coal mine near the Zuni Salt Lake, a site considered sacred by the Zuni and under Zuni control.[10] The mine would have extracted water from the aquifer below the lake and would also have involved construction between the lake and the Zuni. The plan died in 2003 after several lawsuits.[11]

Culture[edit]

She-we-na (Zuni Pueblo). Kachina Doll (Paiyatemu), late 19th century. Brooklyn Museum

The Zuni traditionally speak the Zuni language, a language isolate that has no known relationship to any other Native American language. Linguists believe that the Zuni have maintained the integrity of their language for at least 7,000 years. The Zuni have, however, borrowed a number of words from Keresan, Hopi, and Pima pertaining to religion and religious observances.[12] The Zuni continue to practice their traditional religion with its regular ceremonies and dances, and an independent and unique belief system.

The Zuni were and are a traditional people who live by irrigated agriculture and raising livestock. Their success as a desert agri-economy is due to careful management and conservation of resources, as well as a complex system of community support. Many contemporary Zuni also rely on the sale of traditional arts and crafts. Some Zuni still live in the old-style Pueblos, while others live in modern flat-roofed houses made from adobe and concrete block. Their location is relatively isolated, but they welcome respectful tourists.

The Zuni Tribal Fair and rodeo is held the third weekend in August. The Zuni also participate in the Gallup Inter-Tribal Ceremonial, usually held in early or mid-August.

Zuni ethnobotany[edit]

The Zuni utilize many local plants in their culture. For an extensive list, see main article Zuni ethnobotany.

Zuni pottery[edit]

Water Jar, 1825-1850, Brooklyn Museum
Zuni olla, late 19th-early 20th century, 12.5" high, Brooklyn Museum

Traditionally, Zuni women made pottery for food and water storage. They used symbols of their clans for designs. Clay for the pottery is sourced locally. Prior to its extraction, the women give thanks to the Earth Mother (Awidelin Tsitda) according to ritual. The clay is ground, and then sifted and mixed with water. After the clay is rolled into a coil and shaped into a vessel or other design, it will be scraped smooth with a scraper. A thin layer of finer clay, called slip, is applied to the surface for extra smoothness and color. The vessel is polished with a stone after it dries. It is painted with home-made organic dyes, using a traditional yucca brush. The intended function of the pottery dictates its shape and images painted on its surface. To fire the pottery, the Zuni used animal dung in traditional kilns. Today Zuni potters might use electric kilns. While the firing of the pottery was usually a community enterprise, silence or communication in low voices was considered essential in order to maintain the original "voice" of the "being" of the clay, and the purpose of the end product.[13][14] Sales of pottery and traditional arts provide a major source of income for many Zuni people today. An artisan may be the sole financial support for her immediate family as well as others. Many women make pottery, clothing, and baskets.

Carving and silversmithing[edit]

Zuni also make fetishes carvings and necklaces for the purpose of rituals and trade, and more recently for sale to collectors.

The Zuni are known for their fine silversmithing, which began in the 1870s after they learned fundamental techniques from the Navajo.[15] Lanyade was the first Zuni silversmith, who learned the art from Atsidi Chon, a Navajo smith.[16] By 1880, Zuni jewelers set turquoise in silver.[17] Today jewelry making thrives as an art form among the Zuni. Many Zuni have became master silversmiths and perfected the skill of stone inlay. They found that by using small pieces of stone, they were able to create intricate designs and unique patterns.

Small oval-shaped stones with pointed ends are set in silver, close to one another and side by side. The technique is normally used with turquoise, sometimes with coral and occasionally with onyx, in creating necklaces, cuffs, earrings and rings. The fine setting technique is known as "needle point" and even finer, as "petit point".[citation needed]

Religion[edit]

Lutakawi, Zuni Governor, photographed before 1925 by Edward S. Curtis
Zuni pueblo in 1879
Further information: Zuni religion

Religion is central to Zuni life. Their religious beliefs are centered on the three most powerful of their deities: Earth Mother, Sun Father, and Moonlight-Giving Mother, as well as Old Lady Salt and White Shell Woman, as well as other katsinas.[18]

Zunis have a cycle of religious ceremonies. Each person's life is marked by important ceremonies to celebrate the passage of certain life milestones. Birth, coming of age, marriage and death are especially celebrated.

The Zuni make a religious pilgrimage every four years on the Barefoot Trail to Kołuwala:wa, also called Zuni Heaven or Kachina Village; a 12,482-acre (50.51 km2) detached portion of the Zuni Reservation about 60 miles (97 km) southwest of Zuni Pueblo. The four-day observance occurs around the summer solstice. It has been practiced for many hundreds of years and is well known to local residents.

Another pilgrimage conducted annually for centuries by the Zuni and other southwestern tribes is made to Zuni Salt Lake. They harvest salt during the dry months, and celebrate religious ceremonies. The lake is home to the Salt Mother, Ma'l Okyattsik'i, and is reached by several ancient Pueblo roads and trails.

Coming of age, or rite of passage, is celebrated differently by boys and girls. A girl who is ready to declare herself as a maiden will go to the home of her father's mother early in the morning and grind corn all day long. Corn is a sacred food and a staple in the diet of the Zuni. The girl is declaring that she is ready to play a role in the welfare of her people.

When it is time for a boy to become a man, he will be taken under the wing of a spiritual 'father', selected by the parents. This one will instruct the boy through the ceremony to follow. The boy will go through certain initiation rites to enter one of the men's societies. He will learn how to take on either religious, secular or political duties within that order.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Zuni Pueblo." Arizona Native Net. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
  2. ^ "Welcome", Pueblo of Zuni, (retrieved 13 Feb 2011)
  3. ^ "Census Bureau Homepage". Census.gov. 2012-04-20. Retrieved 2012-04-27. 
  4. ^ Damp, Jonathan E. (2008). "The Economic Origins of Zuni". Archaeology Southwest 22 (2): 8. Archived from the original on 26 June 2014. ; see also Damp, Jonathan E. (2010). "Zuni emergent agriculture: economic strategies and the origins of Zuni". In Gregory, David A. and Wilcox, David R. Zuni Origins: Toward a new synthesis of Southwestern archaeology. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona Press. pp. 118–132. ISBN 978-0-8165-2893-6. 
  5. ^ Kintigh, Keith (2008). "Zuni Settlement Patterns: A.D. 950-1680". Archaeology Southwest 22 (2): 15–16. Archived from the original on 26 June 2014. ; see also Kintigh, Keith (2010). "Late prehistoric and late prehistoric settlement systems in the Zuni area". In Gregory, David A. and Wilcox, David R. Zuni Origins: Toward a new synthesis of Southwestern archaeology. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona Press. pp. 361–376. ISBN 978-0-8165-2893-6. 
  6. ^ a b c d Pritzker 109
  7. ^ David Roberts, The Pueblo Revolt, 56 (Simon and Schuster, 2004). ASIN B000MC1CHQ. Reprint, 2005, ISBN 0-7432-5517-8
  8. ^ Flint, Richard and Shirley Cushing Flint "Dowa Yalanne, or Corn Mountain." New Mexico Office of the State Historian. 21 April 2012.
  9. ^ Frank Hamilton Cushing, Zuni (University of Nebraska, 1979).
  10. ^ Neary, Ben. "Mining Plan Pits Tribe Against Power Industry", Los Angeles Times, 2001-02-18. Retrieved on 2009-05-26.
  11. ^ Neary, Ben. "Utility Drops Plans for Coal Mine", Santa Fe New Mexican, 2003-08-05. Retrieved on 2009-05-26.
  12. ^ Hill, Jane H. "Zunian as a Language Isolate." American Southwest Vol. 22, No. 2, Spring 2008, p. 3
  13. ^ Morrell, Virginia. "The Zuni Way ." Smithsonian Magazine. April 2007 (retrieved 13 Feb 2011)
  14. ^ Jesse Green, ed. Zuni: Selected Writings of Frank Hamilton Cushing. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1979. ISBN 0-8032-7007-0
  15. ^ Wade 182-183
  16. ^ Adair 122
  17. ^ Adair 14
  18. ^ "Zuni - Religion and Expressive Culture." Countries and Their Cultures. (retrieved 30 Oct 2011)

References[edit]

  • Adair, John. The Navajo and Pueblo Silversmiths. Norman: University Oklahoma Press, 1989. ISBN 978-0-8061-2215-1.
  • Cushing, Frank Hamilton. Jesse Green, ed. Zuni: Selected Writings of Frank Hamilton Cushing. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1978. ISBN 0-8032-2100-2.
  • Wade, Edwin L. "The Ethnic Art Market in the American Southwest, 1880-1980." George, W. Stocking, Jr., ed. Objects and Others: Essays on Museums and Material Culture (History of Anthropology). Vol. 3. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1988. ISBN 0-299-10324-2.
  • Pritzker, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History, Culture, and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1.

Further reading[edit]

  • Benedict, Ruth. Zuni Mythology. 2 vols. Columbia University Contributions to Anthropology, no. 21. New York: Columbia University Press, 1935. AMS Press reprint, 1969.
  • Bunzel, Ruth L. "Introduction to Zuni Ceremonialism". (1932a); "Zuni Origin Myths". (1932b); "Zuni Ritual Poetry". (1932c). In Forty-Seventh Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology. Pp. 467–835. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1932. Reprint, Zuni Ceremonialism: Three Studies. Introduction by Nancy Pareto. University of New Mexico Press, 1992.
  • Bunzel, Ruth L. Zuni Texts. Publications of the American Ethnological Society, 15. New York: G.E. Steckert & Co., 1933
  • Cushing, Frank Hamilton, Barton Wright, The Mythic World of the Zuni, University of New Mexico Press, 1992, hardcover, ISBN 0-8263-1036-2
  • Davis, Nancy Yaw. (2000). The Zuni enigma. Norton. ISBN 0-393-04788-1
  • Eggan, Fred and T.N. Pandey. "Zuni History, 1855–1970". Handbook of North American Indians, Southwest. Vol.9. Ed. By Alfonso Ortiz. Pp. 474–481. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1979.
  • Hart, E. Richard, 2000. “Zuni Claims: An Expert Witness’ Reflections,” American Indian Culture and Research Journal, 24(1): 163–171.
  • Hart, E. Richard, ed. Zuni and the Courts: A Struggle for Sovereign Land Rights. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1995. ISBN 978-0-7006-0705-1.
  • Kroeber, Alfred L. (1984). Zuni kin and clan. AMS Press. ISBN 0-404-15618-5
  • Newman, Stanley S. Zuni Dictionary. Indiana University Research Center, Publication Six. Bloomington: Indiana University, 1967. ASIN B0007F3L0Y.
  • Roberts, John. "The Zuni". In Variations in Value Orientations. Ed. by F.R. Kluckhorn and F.L. Strodbeck. Pp. 285–316. Evanston, IL and Elmsford, NY: Row, Peterson, 1961.
  • Smith, Watson and John Roberts. Zuni Law: A Field of Values. Papers of the Peabody Museum of the American Archaeology and Ethnology, Vol. 43. Cambridge, MA: Peabody Museum, 1954.
  • Tedlock, Barbara. The Beautiful and the Dangerous: Dialogues with the Zuni Indians, New York: Penguin Books, 1992.

External links[edit]