Zvornik

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Zvornik
Зворник
Downtown Zvornik and Drina River
Downtown Zvornik and Drina River
Coat of arms of Zvornik
Coat of arms
Location of Zvornik within Bosnia and Hercegovina
Location of Zvornik within Bosnia and Hercegovina
Coordinates: 44°39′N 19°10′E / 44.650°N 19.167°E / 44.650; 19.167
Country Bosnia and Herzegovina
Entity Republika Srpska
Government
 • Mayor Zoran Stevanović (SPRS) (Alliance of Independent Social Democrats)
Area
 • Urban 376,14 km2 (14,523 sq mi)
Elevation 146 m (479 ft)
Population (2013 census)
 • City 12,674
 • Density 169,3/km2 (4,380/sq mi)
 • Urban 63,686
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Area code(s) 56
Website www.opstina-zvornik.org

Zvornik (Cyrillic: Зворник, pronounced [zʋɔ̌rniːk]) is a city on the Drina river in northeastern, Bosnia and Herzegovina, situated in the Republika Srpska entity. Zvornik is located south of Bijeljina. The town Mali Zvornik ("little Zvornik") lies directly across the river in Serbia, and not far north is Loznica.

History[edit]

Zvornik is first mentioned in 1410, although it was known as Zvonik ("bell tower") at that time. The town's geographic location has made it an important trade link between Bosnia and the east. For instance, the main road connecting Sarajevo and Belgrade runs through the city. Zvornik has also the distinction of being the only city in Bosnia that directly lies on the border to Serbia.

The medieval fort known as Kula grad was built in the c. 12th century and still stands on the Mlađevac mountainous range overlooking the Drina Valley.

Ottoman rule[edit]

During the Ottoman period, Zvornik was the capital of the Sanjak of Zvornik (an administrative region) within the Eyalet of Bosnia. This was primarily the case because of the city's crucial role in the economy and the strategic importance of the city's location. The Sanjak of Zvornik was one of six Ottoman sanjaks with most developed shipbuilding (besides sanjaks of Vidin, Nicopolis, Požega, Smederevo and Mohač).[1] In the year 1806 the city of Zvornik was home to the famous Bosniak, kapetan Mehmed-beg Kulenović.

Bosnian war[edit]

Main article: Zvornik massacre

During the Bosnian War (1992-1995) Zvornik's Bosniak population was expelled. The military attack of paramilitary groups that came from Serbia on Zvornik Bosniaks commenced on 8 April 1992.[2] During April 1992, many European news stations daily reported Serb armed attacks and mass killings of the Bosniak population of Zvornik and the surrounding villages.[3]

On 19 May 1992, combined JNA, Serb paramilitary and Arkan's Tigers occupied Zvornik and Mali Zvornik.[2] It is known that the suburbs of Karakaj and Čelopek were places of prisons where hundreds of Zvornik's Bosniaks were killed. The remaining Bosniaks and non-Serbs were relegated to concentration camps and detention facilities throughout the area.[2] During the war Serb forces destroyed mosques in and around the city.

Vojin Vučković, commander of the Yellow Wasps, and his brother Duško were convicted in 1996 for killing of 17 civilians in Čelopek, a suburb of the town of Zvornik, during the ethnic cleansing of the Bosniak population of the Drina valley in 1992.[4][5][6]

Demographics[edit]

According to the 1991 census, the municipality of Zvornik was home to a total of 81,295 inhabitants. They were divided into the following ethnicities:

The town of Zvornik proper had a total of 14,584 inhabitants, of which:

  • Bosniaks - 8,854 (60.71%)
  • Serbs - 4,235 (29.03%)
  • Yugoslavs - 944 (6.47%)
  • Croats - 76 (0.52%)
  • Others and unknown - 475 (3.25%)

However, the city's demographic situation has changed drastically during the Bosnian War that followed.[7]

Climate[edit]

Just like most of Bosnia, Zvornik has very hot summers and cold winters. Except for the area near the river Drina, the city is surrounded by mountains with preserved forests, which creates a beautiful scenery with the town's location at the bottom of a valley.

Main attractions[edit]

Cultural Summer of Zvornik 2007
River Drina

Kula Grad, a village that is part of Zvornik municipality, is home to a Middle Age fort, Zvornik fortress, built in the 12th century. Zvornik also has a museum.

Culture[edit]

The manifestation called the Cultural Summer of Zvornik usually takes place in August, and its main objective is to become a traditional cultural event which will open the doors of Zvornik for the recognized cultural values.

Sport[edit]

The local football club, FK Drina Zvornik, plays in the Premier League of Bosnia and Herzegovina.There is also a basketball club called KK Drina Zvornik.

Notable residents[edit]

Settlements[edit]

AndrovićiBaljkovicaBaljkovica DonjaBoškovićiBuložaniČelopekDivičDonja PilicaDonji LokanjDrinjačaDugi DioĐevanjeĐulićiGlodiGluminaGodušGornja PilicaGornji LokanjGrbavci DonjiGrbavci GornjiGušteriJardanJasenicaJusićiKamenica DonjaKamenica GornjaKiseljakKitovniceKlisaKostijerevoKozlukKraljevićiKriževićiKučić KulaKula GradLiješanjMalešićiMarčićiMeđeđaMehmedićiNezukNovo SeloPađinePaljevićiPetkovciPotočaniRastošnicaRoćevićRožanjSapnaSkočićSnagovoSnagovo DonjeSnagovo GornjeSopotnikŠepak DonjiŠepak GornjiŠetićiTabanciTrnovicaTršićUgljariVitinicaVrelaZaseokZelinje

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Official results from the book: Ethnic composition of Bosnia-Herzegovina population, by municipalities and settlements, 1991. census, Zavod za statistiku Bosne i Hercegovine - Bilten no.234, Sarajevo 1991.
  1. ^ Godis̆njak grada Beograda. Beogradske novine. 1979. p. 35. Retrieved 7 September 2013. Ипак градња бродова се посебно везивала за шест санџака: никопољски, видински, смедеревски, зворнички, пожешки и мохачки. 
  2. ^ a b c UN report on Zvornik
  3. ^ ""One of the biggest" mass graves found in Bosnia". BBC News. 1998-10-08. Retrieved 2010-01-01. 
  4. ^ http://www.haverford.edu/relg/sells/zvornik/zvornikrep2b.html
  5. ^ "NIN, Belgrade, article, "St. Vitus Day Massacre"". 12 July 2001. Retrieved 2 May 2010. 
  6. ^ ICTY Krajsinik Trial Chamber Judgment, Note 1750
  7. ^ "‘Ethnic Cleansing Operations’ in the northeast-Bosnian City of Zvornik from April through June 1992". Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 44°23′N 19°06′E / 44.383°N 19.100°E / 44.383; 19.100