|Country||Bosnia and Herzegovina|
|• Mayor||Zoran Stevanović (SPRS) (Alliance of Independent Social Democrats)|
|• Total||387 km2 (149 sq mi)|
|Elevation||146 m (479 ft)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
Zvornik (Serbian Cyrillic: Зворник, pronounced [zʋɔ̌rniːk]) is a city on the Drina river in northeastern, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and it part of the Republika Srpska entity. Zvornik is located south of Bijeljina. The town Mali Zvornik ("little Zvornik") lies directly across the river in Serbia, and not far north is Loznica.
Zvornik is first mentioned in 1410, although it was known as Zvonik ("bell tower") at that time. The town's geographic location has made it an important trade link between Bosnia and the east. For instance, the main road connecting Sarajevo and Belgrade runs through the city. Zvornik has also the distinction of being the only city in Bosnia that directly lies on the border to Serbia.
During the Ottoman period, Zvornik was the capital of the Zvornik sanjak (an administrative region). This was primarily the case because of the city's crucial role in the economy and the strategic importance of the city's location. The Sanjak of Zvornik was one of six Ottoman sanjaks with most developed shipbuilding (besides sanjaks of Vidin, Nicopolis, Požega, Smederevo and Mohač). In the year 1806 the city of Zvornik was home to the famous Bosniak, kapetan Mehmed-beg Kulenović.
During the Bosnian War (1992-1995) Zvornik's Bosniak population was expelled. The military attack of paramilitary groups that came from Serbia on Zvornik Bosniaks commenced on 8 April 1992. During April 1992, many European news stations daily reported Serb armed attacks and mass killings of the Bosniak population of Zvornik and the surrounding villages.
On 19 May 1992, combined JNA, Serb paramilitary and Arkan's Tigers occupied Zvornik and Mali Zvornik. It is known that the suburbs of Karakaj and Čelopek were places of prisons where hundreds of Zvornik's Bosniaks were killed. The remaining Bosniaks and non-Serbs were relegated to concentration camps and detention facilities throughout the area. During the war Serb forces destroyed mosques in and around the city.
Vojin Vučković, commander of the Yellow Wasps, and his brother Duško were convicted in 1996 for killing of 17 civilians in Čelopek, a suburb of the town of Zvornik, during the ethnic cleansing of the Bosniak population of the Drina valley in 1992.
According to the 1991 census, the municipality of Zvornik was home to a total of 81,295 inhabitants. They were divided into the following ethnicities:
- Bosniaks - 48,102 (59.16%)
- Serbs - 30,863 (37.96%)
- Yugoslavs - 1,248 (1.53%)
- Croats - 122 (0.15%)
- Others and unknown - 960 (1.18%)
The town of Zvornik proper had a total of 14,584 inhabitants, of which:
- Bosniaks - 8,854 (60.71%)
- Serbs - 4,235 (29.03%)
- Yugoslavs - 944 (6.47%)
- Croats - 76 (0.52%)
- Others and unknown - 475 (3.25%)
However, the city's demographic situation has changed drastically during the Bosnian War that followed.
Just like most of Bosnia, Zvornik has very hot summers and cold winters. Except for the area near the river Drina, the city is surrounded by mountains with preserved forests, which creates a beautiful scenery with the town's location at the bottom of a valley.
Monuments in the town include:
- Zvornik fortress
- Museum collection
- Villa Andr Zvornik
Kula Grad, a village that is part of Zvornik municipality, is home to a Middle Age fort, built by Serbian despot Đurađ Branković.
The manifestation called the Cultural Summer of Zvornik usually takes part between August 2 and 8, and its main objective is to become a traditional cultural event which will open the doors of Zvornik for the recognized cultural values.
On 10 October 2010, a memorial ceremony took place at the theatre, to honour Serbian actress Kapitalina Eric, the theatre has been titled after her name. Since that day, the official name of the theatre is "The Kapitalina Eric Zvornik Theather". Members of her family, who arrived from London, made this occasion very special. Also Jovan Ćirilov – Serbian theatre expert, Serbian actress Jelena Žigon, Professor Lidija Pažin, Professor Zoran Ivanović and many others. Kapitalina Erić spent her childhood in the small village near Zvornik. When she was 13 she began her acting studies in Belgrade, and became the actress of the National Theatre in Belgrade.
- Samir Muratović (born 1976), football player
- Seka Aleksić (born 1981), singer
- Rade Djokić (born 1983), football player
- Sejad Salihović (born 1984), football player
- Mersudin Jukić (born 1984), football player
- Veroljub Salatić (born 1985), football player
- Denis Omerbegović (born 1986), football player
- Zlatko Junuzović (born 1987), football player
- Said Husejinović (born 1988), football player
- Vahid Hamzabegović (born 1981), successful manager
- Ermin Bičakčić (born 1990), football player for Eintracht Braunschweig
- Miralem Pjanić (born 1990), football player for A.S. Roma
Androvići • Baljkovica • Baljkovica Donja • Boškovići • Buložani • Čelopek • Divič • Donja Pilica • Donji Lokanj • Drinjača • Dugi Dio • Đevanje • Đulići • Glodi • Glumina • Goduš • Gornja Pilica • Gornji Lokanj • Grbavci Donji • Grbavci Gornji • Gušteri • Jardan • Jasenica • Jusići • Kamenica Donja • Kamenica Gornja • Kiseljak • Kitovnice • Klisa • Kostijerevo • Kozluk • Kraljevići • Križevići • Kučić Kula • Kula Grad • Liješanj • Malešići • Marčići • Međeđa • Mehmedići • Nezuk • Novo Selo • Pađine • Paljevići • Petkovci • Potočani • Rastošnica • Roćević • Rožanj • Sapna • Skočić • Snagovo • Snagovo Donje • Snagovo Gornje • Sopotnik • Šepak Donji • Šepak Gornji • Šetići • Tabanci • Trnovica • Tršić • Ugljari • Vitinica • Vrela • Zaseok • Zelinje
- Official results from the book: Ethnic composition of Bosnia-Herzegovina population, by municipalities and settlements, 1991. census, Zavod za statistiku Bosne i Hercegovine - Bilten no.234, Sarajevo 1991.
- Godis̆njak grada Beograda. Beogradske novine. 1979. p. 35. Retrieved 7 September 2013. "Ипак градња бродова се посебно везивала за шест санџака: никопољски, видински, смедеревски, зворнички, пожешки и мохачки."
- UN report on Zvornik
- ""One of the biggest" mass graves found in Bosnia". BBC News. 1998-10-08. Retrieved 2010-01-01.
- "NIN, Belgrade, article, "St. Vitus Day Massacre"". 12 July 2001. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- ICTY Krajsinik Trial Chamber Judgment, Note 1750
- "‘Ethnic Cleansing Operations’ in the northeast-Bosnian City of Zvornik from April through June 1992". Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights.
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