Ç, ç (c-cedilla) is a Latin script letter, used in the Albanian, Azerbaijani, French, Ligurian, Portuguese, Tatar, Turkish, Turkmen, Kurdish and Zazaki alphabets. Romance languages that use this letter include Catalan, French, Friulian, Occitan and Portuguese as a variant of the letter C. It is also occasionally used in Crimean Tatar and Manx. It is often retained in the spelling of loanwords from any of these languages in English, Dutch, Spanish, Basque and other Latin script spelled languages.
It was first used for the sound of the voiceless alveolar affricate /t͡s/ in Old Spanish and stems from the Visigothic form of the letter z (Ꝣ). This phoneme originated in Vulgar Latin from the palatalization of the plosives /t/ and /k/ in some conditions. Later, /t͡s/ changed into /s/ in many Romance languages and dialects. Spanish has not used this symbol since an orthographic reform in the 18th century (which replaced ç with the now-devoiced z), but it was adopted for writing other languages.
Usage as a letter variant in various languages
It represents the "soft" sound /s/ where a c would normally represent the "hard" sound /k/ (before a, o, u, or at the end of a word), in the following languages:
- Catalan. Known as ce trencada (that is, "broken C") in this language, where it can be used before a, o, u, or at the end of a word. Some examples of words with ç are: amenaça "menace", torçat "twisted", xoriço "chorizo", forçut "strong", dolç "sweet", caça "hunting". A well-known word with this character is Barça, a common Catalan diminutive for FC Barcelona, also used across the world, including the Spanish-language media.
- French (cé cédille). Examples: français "French", garçon "boy", façade "frontage", grinçant "squeaking", leçon "lesson", reçu "received" (past participle). French uses this character at the beginning of a word (ça "that") or in the middle of a word, but never at the end.
- Friulian (c cun cedilie). It represents the voiceless postalveolar affricate /t͡ʃ/ before a, o, u or at the end of a word.
- Occitan (ce cedilha). Examples: torçut "twisted", çò "this", ça que la "nevertheless", braç "arm", brèç "cradle", voraç "voracious".
- Portuguese (cê cedilhado or cê-cedilha). Denotes unvoiced /s/ before a, o, or u. Examples: taça "cup", braço "arm", açúcar "sugar", coração "heart", pinça "pincers", maçã "apple", abraço "hug". Modern Portuguese never uses this character at the beginning or at the end of a word (e.g. the nickname for Conceição is São, not Ção), nor before e or i (in this case, c denotes the unvoiced /s/). Handwritten Portuguese texts most often feature cedillas as comma-like or 90° rotated tildes.
- In Manx, it is used in the digraph çh, pronounced [t͡ʃ], to differentiate it from normal ch, pronounced [x].
In loanwords only
- In English and Basque, ç (known as ze hautsia in Basque) is used in loanwords such as façade and limaçon (although normally the cedilla mark is dropped in English, e.g. facade). In Spanish it can also appear in loanwords, especially in Catalan names and toponymy.
- In Dutch, it can be found in some words from French and Portuguese, such as façade, reçu, Provençaals and Curaçao. Original Dutch words with this character[examples needed] have a very low occurrence rate.
Usage as a separate letter in various languages
It represents the voiceless postalveolar affricate /t͡ʃ/ in the following languages:
- the 4th letter of the Albanian alphabet.
- the 4th letter of the Azerbaijani alphabet.
- the 5th letter of the Tatar alphabet (based on Zamanälif).
- the 4th letter of the Turkish alphabet.
- the 3rd letter of the Turkmen alphabet.
- the 4th letter of the Zazaki alphabet.
|Charset||Unicode||ISO 8859-1, 2,
3, 9, 14, 15, 16
On Albanian, French, Portuguese, Spanish, Turkish and Italian keyboards, Ç is directly available as a separate key; however, on most other keyboards, including the US/British keyboard, a combination of keys must be used:
- In Mac OS, these are ⌥ Opt+C and ⌥ Opt+⇧ Shift+C for lower and upper case, respectively.
- In the X Window System and many Unix consoles, one presses sequentially Compose, , and either C or ⇧ Shift+C. Alternatively, one may press AltGr+= and then either C or ⇧ Shift+C.
- In Microsoft Windows, these are Alt+0231 or Alt+135 for lower case and Alt+0199 or Alt+128 for upper case.
- In Microsoft Word, these are Ctrl+, and then either C or ⇧ Shift+C.
- The HTML character entity references are
Çfor lower and upper case, respectively.
- In TeX and LaTeX,
\cis used for adding the cedilla accent to a letter, so
|Look up Ç or ç in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|