Çankırı

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For other uses, see Changra (disambiguation).
Çankırı
Municipality
Çankırı is located in Turkey
Çankırı
Çankırı
Coordinates: 40°36′00″N 33°37′00″E / 40.60000°N 33.61667°E / 40.60000; 33.61667Coordinates: 40°36′00″N 33°37′00″E / 40.60000°N 33.61667°E / 40.60000; 33.61667
Country Turkey
Province Çankırı
Government
 • Mayor İrfan Dinç (AKP)
Area[1]
 • District 1,347.05 km2 (520.10 sq mi)
Population (2012)[2]
 • Urban 74,192
 • District 84,225
 • District density 63/km2 (160/sq mi)
Website www.cankiri.bel.tr
Çankırı (Kaleden).jpg

Çankırı is the capital city of Çankırı Province, in Turkey, about 140 km (87 mi) northeast of Ankara. It is situated about 800 m (2500 ft) above sea level.

History[edit]

Çankırı was known in antiquity as Gangra, and later Germanicopolis (Greek: Γερμανικόπολις. In the writings of the Greco-Roman writer Ptolemy, the city is referred to as Germanopolis (Greek: Γερμανόπολις),[3] then Changra, Kandari or Kanghari.

Over the centuries the settlement witnessed the hegemony of many cultures and races, such as Hittites, Persians, Ancient Greeks, Parthians, Pontic Greeks, Galatians, Romans and Byzantine Greeks, up to Seljuks and finally the Ottoman Turks. Traces from its long past are still visible throughout the city.

Gangra, the capital of the Paphlagonian kingdom of Deiotarus Philadelphus, son of Castor, was absorbed into the Roman province of Galatia upon his death in 65 BC. The earlier town, the name of which signified "she-goat", was built on the hill behind the modern city, on which are the ruins of a late fortress; while the Roman city occupied the site of the modern city. It was named Germanicopolis, after Germanicus or possibly the emperor Claudius, until the time of Caracalla.

In Christian times, Gangra was the metropolitan see of Paphlagonia. Hypatios was considered a saint in the Orthodox tradition, and was a bishop at Gangra. He was killed by Arians on his return from the Council of Nicaea (325 BC), in which he took part.

In the 4th century, the town was the scene of an important ecclesiastical synod, the Synod of Gangra. There is disagreement around the date of the synod with dates varying from 341 BC to 376 BC. The synodal letter states that twenty-one bishops assembled to take action concerning Eustathius of Sebaste[4] and his followers, who condemned marriage, disparaged the Offices of the Church, held conventicles of their own, wore a peculiar dress, denounced riches, and affected special sanctity. The synod condemned the Eustathian practices, declaring, however, with remarkable moderation, that it was not virginity that was condemned, but the dishonoring of marriage. Not poverty, but the disparagement of honest and benevolent wealth, not asceticism, but spiritual pride. Not individual piety, but dishonoring the House of God. The twenty canons of Gangra were declared ecumenical by the Council of Chalcedon in 451 BC.

Climate[edit]

Çankırı has a dry summer continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dsa and Dsb) with humid continental climate (Dfa and Dfb) characteristics, since the wettest part of the year is spring and early summer. The province displays all four of these continental climate subtypes depending on location and elevation. The city is located in a transitional region of the province. Summers are usually hot and dry and winters are cold and snowy.

Climate data for Çankırı
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 15.4
(59.7)
19.2
(66.6)
27.8
(82)
30.6
(87.1)
34.8
(94.6)
39.6
(103.3)
42.4
(108.3)
41.2
(106.2)
37.8
(100)
34.2
(93.6)
24.4
(75.9)
17.6
(63.7)
42.4
(108.3)
Average high °C (°F) 3.4
(38.1)
5.8
(42.4)
11.9
(53.4)
17.7
(63.9)
22.7
(72.9)
27.1
(80.8)
30.9
(87.6)
30.9
(87.6)
26.6
(79.9)
20.1
(68.2)
12.0
(53.6)
5.6
(42.1)
17.89
(64.21)
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.6
(30.9)
0.9
(33.6)
5.6
(42.1)
11.0
(51.8)
15.7
(60.3)
19.8
(67.6)
23.0
(73.4)
22.4
(72.3)
17.6
(63.7)
11.9
(53.4)
5.6
(42.1)
1.6
(34.9)
11.21
(52.17)
Average low °C (°F) −4.2
(24.4)
−3.3
(26.1)
−0.2
(31.6)
4.5
(40.1)
8.4
(47.1)
11.7
(53.1)
14.1
(57.4)
13.7
(56.7)
9.4
(48.9)
5.2
(41.4)
0.6
(33.1)
−1.9
(28.6)
4.83
(40.71)
Record low °C (°F) −24.0
(−11.2)
−23.9
(−11)
−20.5
(−4.9)
−8.9
(16)
−3.0
(26.6)
1.6
(34.9)
4.3
(39.7)
4.6
(40.3)
−1.0
(30.2)
−6.3
(20.7)
−11.6
(11.1)
−18.8
(−1.8)
−24
(−11.2)
Precipitation mm (inches) 42.3
(1.665)
34
(1.34)
36.8
(1.449)
46.4
(1.827)
54.4
(2.142)
38.7
(1.524)
18.2
(0.717)
17.6
(0.693)
16.5
(0.65)
27.7
(1.091)
26.8
(1.055)
47.9
(1.886)
407.3
(16.039)
Avg. rainy days 11.2 9.4 8.9 12.0 13.1 10.0 5.0 4.0 4.6 7.2 8.1 10.5 104
Mean monthly sunshine hours 62 92.4 158.1 177 241.8 282 322.4 306.9 252 182.9 108 52.7 2,238.2
Source: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü [5]

Economy[edit]

Agriculture[edit]

Various produce like wheat, corn, beans, and apples are grown in the farms and fields.

Industry[edit]

Most industry is concentrated near the Çankırı city center and the town of Korgun. Other towns included in the larger industrial area of the city are Şabanözü, Çerkeş, Ilgaz, Kurşunlu, and Yapraklı.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05. 
  2. ^ "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27. 
  3. ^ Ptol., v. 4. § 5
  4. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg "Eustathius of Sebaste". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. 
  5. ^ http://www.dmi.gov.tr/veridegerlendirme/il-ve-ilceler-istatistik.aspx?m=CANKIRI

Further reading[edit]

  • Boğaç A. Ergene: Local Court, Provincial Society and Justice in the Ottoman Empire, Legal Practice and Dispute Resolution in Çankırı and Kastamonu (1652-1744). Studies in Islamic Law and Society, volume 17, Brill, Leiden, 2003. ISBN 90-04-12609-0.