École Polytechnique massacre
|École Polytechnique massacre|
Plaque at École Polytechnique commemorating victims of the massacre
|Location||Montreal, Quebec, Canada|
|Date||December 6, 1989 |
|Target||Female students at École Polytechnique de Montréal|
|School shooting, mass murder, murder-suicide, hate crime|
|Deaths||15 (including the perpetrator)|
The École Polytechnique massacre (French: tuerie de l'École polytechnique), also known as the Montreal massacre, was a mass shooting in Montreal at an engineering school affiliated with the Université de Montréal. Fourteen women were murdered and a further fourteen people were injured: ten women and four men.
On December 6, 1989, Marc Lépine entered a mechanical engineering class at the École Polytechnique and ordered the women and men to opposite sides of the classroom. He separated nine women, instructing the men to leave. He stated that he was "fighting feminism" and opened fire. He shot at all nine women in the room, killing six.
Lépine then moved through corridors, the cafeteria, and another classroom, targeting women for just under 20 minutes before turning the gun on himself. It is the deadliest mass shooting in Canadian history.
In a search for a rationale since the attack there have been debates over various interpretations of the events, their significance, and Lépine's motives. Many characterize the massacre as an anti-feminist attack representative of wider societal violence against women. The anniversary of the massacre has been commemorated as the National Day of Remembrance and Action on Violence Against Women. Other interpretations emphasize the effect of Lépine's history of abuse as a child, suggest that the massacre was simply the isolated act of a madman unrelated to larger social issues. Others have blamed violence in the media, as well as social issues such as poverty, isolation, and alienation in society and particularly in immigrant communities.
The incident led to more stringent gun control laws in Canada. It also introduced changes in the tactical response of police to shootings, changes which were later credited with minimizing casualties at the 2006 Dawson College shootings.
- 1 Timeline of December 6, 1989
- 2 Perpetrator
- 3 Search for a rationale
- 4 Effects and controversy
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 Bibliography
- 8 External links
Timeline of December 6, 1989
Sometime after 4 p.m. on December 6, 1989, Marc Lépine arrived at the building housing the École Polytechnique, an engineering school affiliated with the Université de Montréal, armed with a semi-automatic rifle and a hunting knife. Lépine purchased a rifle on November 21, 1989, in a Checkmate Sports store in Montreal. He had told the clerk that he was going to use it to hunt small game. Lépine had been in and around the École Polytechnique building at least seven times in the weeks leading up to December 6.
Lépine first sat in the office of the registrar on the second floor for a while. While there, he was seen rummaging through a plastic bag. He did not speak to anyone, even when a staff member asked if she could help him. Lépine left the office and was subsequently seen in other parts of the building before entering a second-floor mechanical engineering class of about sixty students at about 5:10 p.m. After approaching the student giving a presentation, he asked everyone to stop everything and ordered the women and men to opposite sides of the classroom. No one moved at first, believing it to be a joke until he fired a shot into the ceiling.
Lépine then separated the nine women from the approximately fifty men and ordered the men to leave. He asked the remaining women whether they knew why they were there, and when one student replied "no," he answered: "I am fighting feminism." One of the students, Nathalie Provost, said, "Look, we are just women studying engineering, not necessarily feminists ready to march on the streets to shout we are against men, just students intent on leading a normal life." Lépine responded, "You're women, you're going to be engineers. You're all a bunch of feminists. I hate feminists." He then opened fire on the students from left to right, killing six, and wounding three others, including Provost. Before leaving the room, he wrote the word shit twice on a student project.
Lépine continued into the second-floor corridor and wounded three students before entering another room where he twice attempted to shoot a female student. When his weapon failed to fire, he entered the emergency staircase where he was seen reloading his gun. He returned to the room he had just left, but the students had locked the door; Lépine failed to unlock it with three shots fired into the door. Moving along the corridor, he shot at others, wounding one, before moving towards the financial services office where he shot and killed a woman through the window of the door she had just locked.
He next went down to the first-floor cafeteria, in which about a hundred people were gathered. The crowd scattered after he shot a woman standing near the kitchens and wounded another student. Entering an unlocked storage area at the end of the cafeteria, Lépine shot and killed two more women hiding there. He told a male and female student to come out from under a table; they complied and were not shot.
Lépine then walked up an escalator to the third floor where he shot and wounded one female and two male students in the corridor. He entered another classroom and told the three students giving a presentation to "get out," shooting and wounding Maryse Leclair, who was standing on the low platform at the front of the classroom. He fired on students in the front row and then killed two women who were trying to escape the room, while other students dove under their desks. Lépine moved towards some of the female students, wounding three of them and killing another. He changed the magazine in his weapon and moved to the front of the class, shooting in all directions. At this point, the wounded Leclair asked for help; Lépine unsheathed his hunting knife and stabbed her three times, killing her. He took off his cap, wrapped his coat around his rifle, exclaimed, "Ah shit," and then committed suicide by shooting himself in the head, twenty minutes after having begun his attack. About sixty unfired cartridges remained in the boxes he carried with him. He had killed fourteen women in total (twelve engineering students, one nursing student and one employee of the university) and injured fourteen others, ten women and four men.
The Quebec and Montreal governments declared three days of mourning. A joint funeral for nine of the women was held at Notre-Dame Basilica on December 11, 1989, and was attended by Governor General Jeanne Sauvé, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, Quebec premier Robert Bourassa, and Montreal mayor Jean Doré, along with thousands of other mourners.
Marc Lépine's inside jacket pocket contained a suicide letter and two letters to friends, all dated the day of the massacre. Some details from the suicide letter were revealed by the police two days after the event but the full text was not disclosed. The media brought an unsuccessful access to information case to compel the police to release the suicide letter. A year after the attacks, Lépine's three-page statement was leaked to journalist and feminist Francine Pelletier. It contained a list of nineteen Quebec women whom Lépine apparently wished to kill because he considered them feminists. The list included Pelletier herself, as well as a union leader, a politician, a TV personality, and six police officers who had come to Lépine's attention as they were on the same volleyball team. The letter (without the list of women) was subsequently published in the newspaper La Presse, where Pelletier was a columnist. Lépine wrote that he considered himself rational and that he blamed feminists for ruining his life. He outlined his reasons for the attack including his anger towards feminists for seeking social changes that "retain the advantages of being women [...] while trying to grab those of the men." He also mentioned Denis Lortie, a Canadian Armed Forces corporal who killed three government employees and wounded thirteen others in an armed attack on the National Assembly of Quebec on May 7, 1984. The text of the original letter in French is available, as well as an English translation.
- Geneviève Bergeron (born 1968), civil engineering student
- Hélène Colgan (born 1966), mechanical engineering student
- Nathalie Croteau (born 1966), mechanical engineering student
- Barbara Daigneault (born 1967), mechanical engineering student
- Anne-Marie Edward (born 1968), chemical engineering student
- Maud Haviernick (born 1960), materials engineering student
- Maryse Laganière (born 1964), budget clerk in the École Polytechnique's finance department
- Maryse Leclair (born 1966), materials engineering student
- Anne-Marie Lemay (born 1967), mechanical engineering student
- Sonia Pelletier (born 1961), mechanical engineering student
- Michèle Richard (born 1968), materials engineering student
- Annie St-Arneault (born 1966), mechanical engineering student
- Annie Turcotte (born 1969), materials engineering student
- Barbara Klucznik-Widajewicz (born 1958), nursing student
In addition, suicides were later reported among students who had been present at the time of the massacre. At least two students left notes confirming that they committed suicide due to distress caused by the massacre.
The shooter, Marc Lépine, initially named Gamil Gharbi, was born to a French-Canadian mother and an Algerian. His father, a mutual funds salesman, did not consider women to be the equal of men. He was physically and verbally abusive to his wife and son, discouraging tenderness between mother and child. When Gamil was seven, his parents separated; his father ceased contact with his children soon after. His mother returned to nursing to support the family, and because of her schedule, the children lived with other families during the week. At 14, Gamil changed his name to "Marc Lépine", citing his hatred of his father as the reason for taking his mother's surname. Lépine attempted to join the Canadian Army during the winter of 1980–1981 but, according to his suicide letter, was rejected because he was "anti-social". The brief biography of Marc Lépine that police released the day after the killings described him as intelligent but troubled. He disliked feminists, career women and women in traditionally male occupations, such as the police force. He began a pre-university CEGEP (college) program in pure sciences in 1982 but switched to a three-year vocational program in electronics technology after his first year. He abandoned this program in his final semester without explanation. Lépine applied to the École Polytechnique in 1986 and in 1989 but lacked two CEGEP courses required for admission. He completed one of them in the winter of 1989.
Search for a rationale
A public inquiry was not held, and Marc Lépine's suicide letter was not officially released as government and criminal justice officials feared that extensive public discussion about the massacre would cause pain to the families and lead to antifeminist violence. In addition, although an extensive police investigation into Marc Lépine and the killings took place, the resulting report was not made public, though a copy was used by the coroner as a source in her investigation. The media, academics, women's organizations, and family members of the victims protested the lack of a public inquiry and paucity of information released.
The gender of Marc Lépine's victims, as well as his oral statements during the massacre and suicide note, quickly led to the event's being seen as an antifeminist attack and as an example of the wider issue of violence against women. Feminist scholars consider Lépine's actions to spring from a widespread societal misogyny, including toleration of violence against women. Scholars have categorized it as a "pseudo-community" type of "pseudo-commando" murder-suicide, in which the perpetrator targets a specific group, often in a public place, and intends to die in "a blaze of glory". Criminologists regard the massacre as an example of a hate or bias crime against women, as the victims were selected solely because of their membership in the category of women, and those targeted were interchangeable with others from the same group. Lépine's mother later wondered if the attack was not directed at her, as some would have considered her a feminist since she was a single, working mother. Others, including television journalist Barbara Frum, pleaded that the massacre not be seen as an antifeminist attack or violence against women, and questioned why people insisted on "diminishing" the tragedy by "suggesting that it was an act against just one group?"
As predicted by Marc Lépine in his suicide letter, some saw the event as the isolated act of a madman. A psychiatrist interviewed Lépine's family and friends and examined his writings as part of the police investigation. He noted that Marc Lépine defined suicide as his primary motivation, and that he chose a specific suicide method, namely killing oneself after killing others (multiple homicide/suicide strategy), which is considered a sign of a serious personality disorder. Other psychiatrists emphasized the traumatic events of his childhood, suggesting that the blows he had received may have caused brain damage, or that Lépine was psychotic, having lost touch with reality as he tried to erase the memories of a brutal (yet largely absent) father while unconsciously identifying with a violent masculinity that dominated women. A different theory was that Lépine's childhood experiences of abuse led him to feel victimized as he faced losses and rejections in his later life. His mother wondered whether Lépine might have suffered from attachment disorder, due to the abuse and sense of abandonment he had experienced in his childhood.
Others expressed a broader analysis, framing Lépine's actions as the result of societal changes that had led to increased poverty, powerlessness, individual isolation, and polarization between men and women. Noting Lépine's interest in violent action films, some suggested that violence in the media and in society may have influenced his actions.
Effects and controversy
The injured and witnesses among university staff and students suffered a variety of physical, social, existential, financial, and psychological consequences, including post-traumatic stress disorder. A number of students committed suicide. In the suicide letters of at least two of them, the anguish they suffered following the massacre was cited as the reason for killing themselves. Nine years after the event, survivors reported still being affected by their experiences, though with time some of the effects had lessened.
Failure to intervene
Male survivors of the massacre have been subjected to criticism for not intervening to stop Lépine. In an interview immediately after the event, a reporter asked one of the men why they "abandoned" the women when it was clear that Lépine's targets were women. René Jalbert, the sergeant-at-arms who persuaded Denis Lortie to surrender during his 1984 attack, said that someone should have intervened at least to distract Lépine, but acknowledged that "ordinary citizens cannot be expected to react heroically in the midst of terror." Right-wing newspaper columnist Mark Steyn suggested that male inaction during the massacre illustrated a "culture of passivity" prevalent among men in Canada, which enabled Lépine's shooting spree: "Yet the defining image of contemporary Canadian maleness is not M Lepine/Gharbi but the professors and the men in that classroom, who, ordered to leave by the lone gunman, meekly did so, and abandoned their female classmates to their fate—an act of abdication that would have been unthinkable in almost any other culture throughout human history."
Male students and staff expressed feelings of remorse for not having attempted to prevent the shootings, but Nathalie Provost, one of the survivors, said that she felt that nothing could have been done to prevent the tragedy, and that her fellow students should not feel guilty.
The feminist movement is periodically criticized for appropriating the massacre as a symbol of male violence against women. For example, Charles Rackoff, a University of Toronto computer science professor, compared the Ku Klux Klan with those organizing vigils marking the event, writing that "[t]he point is to use the death of these people as an excuse to promote the feminist/extreme left-wing agenda," and adding that it is "no more justified" than the KKK using the "murder of a white person by a black person as an excuse to promote their agenda." Other critics say that Lépine was a "lone gunman" who does not represent men, and that violence against women is neither condoned nor encouraged officially or unofficially in western culture. In this perspective, feminist memorializing is considered socially divisive on the basis of gender and therefore harmful by bestowing guilt on all men, irrespective of individual propensity to violence against women. Some men's rights and anti-feminist commentators state that feminism has provoked violence against women, and without condoning the shootings, view the massacre as an extreme expression of men's frustrations. A few anti-feminists view Lépine as a hero, and glorify his actions.
The massacre was a major spur for the Canadian gun control movement. Heidi Rathjen, a student who was in one of the classrooms Lépine did not enter during the shooting, organized the Coalition for Gun Control with Wendy Cukier. Suzanne Laplante-Edward and Jim Edward, the parents of one of the victims, were also deeply involved. Their activities, along with others, led to the passage of Bill C-68, or the Firearms Act, in 1995, ushering in stricter gun control regulations. These new regulations included requirements on the training of gun owners, screening of firearm applicants, rules concerning gun and ammunition storage and the registration of all firearms. Between 2009 and 2012, survivors of the massacre and their families publicly opposed legislative actions by Stephen Harper's Conservative government aimed at ending the requirement to register non-restricted firearms (commonly referred to as the "long-gun registry"). A bill was narrowly defeated in September 2010, but following their 2011 majority election win, the long-gun registry was abolished by the Harper government in April 2012. The Quebec government subsequently won a temporary injunction, preventing the destruction of the province's gun registry data, and ordering the continued registration of long guns in Quebec. In March 2015, The Supreme Court of Canada ruled against Quebec, clearing the way for the destruction of all registry data.
Police response to the shootings was heavily criticized. The first police officers to arrive at the scene established a perimeter around the building and waited before entering the building, During this period, several women were killed. Subsequent changes to emergency response protocols led to praise of emergency responders' handling of the Dawson College shooting in 2006 in which one woman was killed by a shooter. In that incident, coordination amongst emergency response agencies and prompt intervention were credited with minimizing the loss of life.
Violence against women
In response to the killings, a House of Commons Sub-Committee on the Status of Women was created. It released a report "The War against Women" in June 1991, which was not endorsed by the full standing committee. However, following its recommendations, the federal government established the Canadian Panel on Violence Against Women in August 1991. The panel issued a final report, "Changing the Landscape: Ending Violence – Achieving Equality", in June 1993. The panel proposed a two-pronged "National Action Plan" consisting of an "Equality Action Plan" and a "Zero Tolerance Policy" designed to increase women's equality and reduce violence against women through government policy. Critics of the panel said that the plan failed to provide a workable timeline and strategy for implementation and that with over four hundred recommendations, the final report failed to make an impact.
The Canadian women's movement sees the massacre as a symbol of violence against women. "The death of those young women would not be in vain, we promised", Canadian feminist Judy Rebick recalled. "We would turn our mourning into organizing to put an end to male violence against women."
Since 1991, the anniversary of the massacre has been designated the National Day of Remembrance and Action on Violence Against Women, intended as a call to action against discrimination against women. A White Ribbon Campaign was launched in 1991 by a group of men in London, Ontario, in the wake of the massacre, for the purpose of raising awareness about the prevalence of male violence against women, with the ribbon symbolizing "the idea of men giving up their arms." Commemorative demonstrations are held across the country each year on December 6 in memory of the slain women and numerous memorials have been built.
The Place du 6-Décembre-1989 in the Côte-des-Neiges/Notre-Dame-de-Grâce borough of Montreal was created as a memorial to the victims of the massacre. Located at the corner of Decelles Avenue and Queen Mary Road, a short distance from the university, it includes the art installation Nef pour quatorze reines (Nave for Fourteen Queens) by Rose-Marie Goulet. It is the site of annual commemorations on December 6.
A memorial erected in Vancouver sparked controversy because it was dedicated to "all women murdered by men", which critics say implies all men are potential murderers. As a result, women involved in the project received death threats and the Vancouver Park Board subsequently banned any future memorials that might "antagonize" other groups.
The event has also been commemorated through references in television, theatre, and popular music. A play about the shootings by Adam Kelly called The Anorak was named as one of the best plays of 2004 by the Montreal Gazette. Colleen Murphy's play "December Man" was first staged in Calgary in 2007 The movie Polytechnique, directed by Denis Villeneuve was released in 2009, and sparked controversy over the desirability of reliving the tragedy in a commercial film. Several songs have been written about the events, including "This Memory" by the folk duo the Wyrd Sisters, and "6 December 1989" by the Australian singer Judy Small.
For the commemorative ceremony on the 25th anniversary of the massacre in 2014, fourteen searchlights representing the 14 victims of the massacre were installed on the summit of Mount Royal and turned skyward at the exact time when the attack had started 25 years earlier. Also in 2014, the Order of the White Rose was established, a $30,000 national scholarship for female engineering graduate students. The selection committee was made up of presidents, principals and deans of engineering from several prestigious Canadian universities and chaired by Michèle Thibodeau-DeGuire, the first female graduate of École Polytechnique.
- 2014 Isla Vista killings, a killing spree in the United States in which misogyny was cited as one of the killer's motives
- Toronto van attack, worst mass killing in Canada since this one, killer also alleged to be motivated by misogyny.
- List of massacres in Canada
- Port Arthur massacre, a 1996 shooting in Australia that similarly changed opinion on gun control
- Enclave: The Ottawa Women's Monument, a monument in Canada to women killed by men
- Sourour, Teresa K., (1991) Report of Coroner's Investigation (PDF). Retrieved on December 28, 2006
- Weston, Greg (September 14, 2006). "Why? We may never know". Toronto Sun.
- "Gunman massacres 14 women". Archives. CBC. December 6, 1989. Archived from the original (video stream) on June 4, 2011. Retrieved December 29, 2006.
- Cernea, Adrian (1999). Poly 1989: Témoin de l'horreur. Éditions Lescop. ISBN 2-9804832-8-1.
- Chun, Wendy Hui Kyong (1999). "Unbearable Witness: towards a Politics of Listening". Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies. 11 (1): 112–149.
- Buchignani, Walter (December 8, 1989). "Amid the tragedy, miracles of survival". The Gazette. Montreal. p. A3.
- Came, Barry; Burke, D; Ferzoco, G.; O'Farreli, B; Wallace, B (December 18, 1989). "Montreal Massacre: Railing Against Feminists". Maclean's Magazine. Archived from the original on June 23, 2013. Retrieved December 5, 2011.
- Mennie, James; Bauch, Hubert (December 12, 1989). "A quiet goodbye for slain women". The Gazette. Montreal. p. A1.
- Malarek, Victor (December 12, 1989). "More Massacre Details to be Released by Police, but an Inquiry Ruled Out". Globe and Mail. p. A6.
- Malarek, Victor (December 8, 1989). "Killer's letter blames feminists". Globe and Mail. p. A7.
- McIntosh, Andrew (August 22, 1990). "Marc Lepine's suicide note to stay sealed; Commission says it can't order police to reveal mass murderer's letter". The Gazette. p. A3.
- "A Difficult Story to Tell". The Story of the Fifth Estate. CBC News. Retrieved December 28, 2006.
- Fitterman, Lisa (March 10, 1999). "Cops on Lepine's list: Names of six female officers found on Polytechnique killer". The Gazette. p. A3.
- Pelchat, Martin (November 24, 1990). "Lépine avait des motifs "politiques"". La Presse (in French). p. A1.
- "CityNews Rewind: The Montreal Massacre". City News. December 6, 2006. Retrieved December 28, 2006.
- Eglin & Hester 2003, p. 58
- Parent, G; Cousineau, M (2003). "Conséquences à long terme d'un mass murder: le cas de Polytechnique, neuf ans plus tard". The International Journal of Victimology. 1 (3). Archived from the original on February 12, 2009. Retrieved December 29, 2006.
- Weston, Greg; Aubry, Jack (February 7, 1990). "The making of a massacre: The Marc Lepine story Part I". The Ottawa Citizen.
- CTV.ca News Staff (September 18, 2006). "Mother of Marc Lepine finally breaks her silence". CTV. Archived from the original on March 18, 2007. Retrieved January 1, 2007.
- Malarek, Victor (December 9, 1989). "Killer Fraternized with Men in Army Fatigues". Globe and Mail. Canada. Retrieved January 2, 2007. Quoted in "The Montreal Massacre: A Story of Membership Categorization Analysis", eds., P. Eglin and S. Hester (2003).
- McDonnell, Rod; Thompson, Elizabeth; McIntosh, Andrew; Marsden, William (December 12, 1989). "Killer's father beat him as a child; A brutal man who didn't seem to have any control of his emotions". The Gazette. Montreal. p. A1.
- Weston, Greg; Aubry, Jack (February 8, 1990). "The making of a massacre: The Marc Lepine story Part II". The Ottawa Citizen. p. A1.
- Colpron, Suzanne (December 9, 1989). "Marc Lépine était un premier de classe". La Presse.
- Lépine & Gagné 2008, pp. 170–71
- Rathjen, Heidi; Charles Montpetit (1999). December 6: From the Montreal Massacre to Gun Control. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart. ISBN 0-7710-6125-0.
- Malarek, Victor (December 12, 1989). "More Massacre Details to be Released by Police, but an Inquiry Ruled Out". Globe and Mail. Canada. p. A14.
- Canadian Press (January 12, 1990). "Police scour the life of mass killer". Edmonton Journal. p. B9.
- Poirier, Patricia (March 1, 1990). "Police can't find cause for Lepine's rampage on Montreal campus". Globe and Mail. Canada. p. A17.
- Canadian Press (May 30, 1990). "Parents fear coverup over murdered 14". Toronto Star. p. A15.
- Fox, James Alan; Levin, Jack (January 2003). "Mass Murder: An Analysis of Extreme Violence". Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies. 5 (1): 47–64. doi:10.1023/A:1021051002020.
- Young, Katherine K.; Nathanson, Paul (2006). Legalizing Misandry: From Public Shame to Systematic Discrimination Against Men. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. pp. 59–61. ISBN 0-7735-2862-8.
- Conway, John Frederick (2003). The Canadian Family in crisis. James Lorimer and Company. pp. 163–64. ISBN 978-1-55028-798-1.
- Fitzpatrick, Meagan (December 6, 2006). "National day of remembrance pays tribute to victims of Montreal massacre". CanWest News Service. Archived from the original on December 9, 2007. Retrieved December 27, 2006.
- Eglin & Hester 2003, pp. 65–88.
- Mancini Billson, Janet (2005). "After the Montreal massacre: gender and the pervasiveness of violence". In Janet Mancini Billson; Carolyn Fluehr-Lobban (eds.). Female well-being: toward a global theory of social change. Zed Books. pp. 104–05. ISBN 978-1-84277-009-2.
- Brickman, Julie (1996). "Female lives, Feminist deaths". In Curry, Renée R.; Allison, Terry L. (eds.). States of rage: emotional eruption, violence, and social change. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-1530-3.
- Byard, Roger W. (2005). "Murder-Suicide". In Tsokos, Michael (ed.). Forensic Pathology Reviews. 3. Humana Press. p. 343. ISBN 978-1-58829-416-6.
- Gerstenfeld, Phyllis B. (2004). Hate crimes: causes, controls, and controversies. SAGE. pp. 48–49. ISBN 978-0-7619-2814-0.
- Perry, Barbara, ed. (2003). "Gender-bias hate crimes- a review". Hate and Bias Crime: A Reader. Routledge. p. 271. ISBN 978-0-415-94408-3.
- Lawrence, Frederick M. (2002). Punishing Hate: Bias Crimes Under American Law. Harvard University Press. pp. 15–17. ISBN 978-0-674-00972-1.
- Conway, John Frederick (2003). The Canadian family in crisis. James Lorimer and Company. p. 164. ISBN 978-1-55028-798-1.
- Ruddy, Jenny; Elizabeth Curry (December 2004). "Barbara Frum, quoted in Reframing violence against women". The Commonwealth. Saskatchewan New Democrat Party. Archived from the original on February 8, 2007. Retrieved December 29, 2006.
- Eglin & Hester 2003, pp. 54–55.
- Fox, James Alan; Levin, Jack (2005). Extreme killing: Understanding serial and mass murder. Sage Publications. pp. 227–230. ISBN 0-7619-8857-2.
- Lortie, Marie-Claude (December 1, 1990). "Poly un an après : Psychose? Blessures au cerveau? Les spécialistes n'ont pas encore résolu l'énigme Marc Lépine". La Presse. p. B7.
- Lépine & Gagné 2008, pp. 138, 161–62
- Valpy, Michael (December 11, 1989). "Litany of social ills created Marc Lepine". Globe and Mail. Canada. p. A8.
- Young, Katherine K.; Nathanson, Paul (2006). Legalizing misandry: from public shame to systematic discrimination against men. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 62. ISBN 0-7735-2862-8.
- Wong, Jan (September 16, 2006). "Get under the desk". Globe and Mail. Canada.
- Lakeman, Lee. "Women, Violence and the Montreal Massacre". Vancouver Rape Relief and Women's Shelter. Archived from the original on April 19, 2007. Retrieved April 20, 2007.
- Steyn, Mark (April 18, 2007). "A Culture of Passivity". National Review. Retrieved April 25, 2017.
- Kastor, Elizabeth (December 11, 1989). "In Montreal, A Survivor Heals After The Horror; 23-Year-Old Student Tried To Reason With Killer". The Washington Post. p. B1.
- CBC news (December 7, 2000). "Professor criticizes Montreal massacre memorials". CBC. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
- Kay, Barbara (December 6, 2006). "Lone gunman: The Ecole Polytechnique massacre was a freak tragedy. So why is every man made to feel guilty for it?". National Post. Canada. Archived from the original on December 6, 2012. Retrieved March 7, 2007.
- Young, Katherine K.; Nathanson, Paul (2006). Legalizing misandry: from public shame to systematic discrimination against men. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. pp. 61–62. ISBN 0-7735-2862-8.
- Conway, John Frederick (2003). The Canadian family in crisis. James Lorimer and Company. p. 166. ISBN 978-1-55028-798-1.
- Helene Meyers (2001). Femicidal fears: narratives of the female gothic experience. Albany, N.Y: State University of New York Press. pp. 3–4. ISBN 0-7914-5151-8.
- Boissoneault, Lorraine. "The Mass Shooting That Reshaped the Canadian Debate About Guns and Political Identity". Smithsonian. Retrieved April 28, 2018.
- Mélissa Blais (2008). "Marc Lépine: heros ou martyr? Le masculinisme et la tuerie de l'École polytechnique". In Blais, Mélissa and Dupuis-Déri, Francis (eds.). Le mouvement masculiniste au Québec. Les Éditions du remue-ménage. pp. 86–92. ISBN 0-670-06969-8.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
- Nicoud, Anabelle (November 12, 2009). "Des disciples de Marc Lépine font fuir un réalisateur". La Presse. Archived from the original on December 27, 2009. Retrieved March 2, 2014.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
- Hanes, Alison (December 2, 2005). "Man threatens to repeat Montreal massacre". Ottawa Citizen. p. A9.
- Tremblay, Stephane (March 31, 2010). "Anti-feminist blogger calls himself 'masculinist activist'". Toronto Sun.
- Csanady, Ashley (October 15, 2014). "The bizarre love for Marc Lepine among men's rights groups". canada.com. Retrieved April 28, 2018.
- Boyd, Denny (April 20, 1992). "Couple salvages purpose from their daughter's tragic death". Vancouver Sun. p. B1.
- Delacourt, Susan (December 5, 2009). "Long-gun registry politics taint service for the victims". Toronto Star. Retrieved December 6, 2009.
- Fedio, Chloe (September 21, 2010). "A mother's battle to save the long-gun registry". Toronto Star. Retrieved November 6, 2010.
- Peritz, Ingrid (December 6, 2009). "'A slap in the face' for victims". Globe and Mail. Canada. Retrieved December 6, 2009.
- Campion-Smith, Bruce & Whittington, Les (September 22, 2010). "Long-gun registry survives tight Commons vote". Toronto Star. Retrieved November 6, 2010.
- MacCharles, Tonda (November 24, 2011). "Montreal massacre survivor slams plan to scrap long-gun registry". Toronto Star. Retrieved December 5, 2012.
- "Long-gun registry end to be celebrated by Tories as fury mounts in Quebec". National Post. April 5, 2012. Retrieved December 5, 2012.
- Montgomery, Sue (April 21, 2012). "Quebec court backs long-gun registry, sets stage for federal legal battle". National Post. Retrieved December 5, 2012.
- "CanLII – 2015 SCC 14 (CanLII)". Retrieved December 18, 2015.
- Sheppard, Robert (September 15, 2006). "A sea change in police tactics when it comes to gunmen". CBC News. Retrieved December 29, 2006.
- Rakobowchuk, Peter (September 14, 2006). "Lessons learned from 1989 Montreal massacre help save lives at Dawson college". Canadian Press. Archived from the original on January 15, 2013. Retrieved December 28, 2006.
- Vienneau, David (January 19, 1991). "Probe on violence toward women blocked". Toronto Star. p. A4.
- Hooks, Tess; LeClerc, Patrice; Beaujot, Roderic (2005). "Women in Canada: a century of struggle". In Janet Mancini Billson, Carolyn Fluehr-Lobban (ed.). Female well-being: toward a global theory of social change. Zed Books. pp. 102–103. ISBN 978-1-84277-009-2.
- Harder, Sandra. "Violence against women: the Canadian Panel's final report". Government of Canada. Retrieved February 3, 2007.
- Rebick, Judy (December 6, 2000). "Where's the funding for abused women?". CBC. Archived from the original on March 21, 2007. Retrieved March 7, 2007.
- "Men wearing white ribbons". CBC. November 27, 1991. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved March 7, 2007.
- CBC news (December 5, 1999). "Monument to slain women unveiled". CBC. Archived from the original on November 11, 2007. Retrieved January 4, 2007.
- Young, Katherine K.; Nathanson, Paul (2006). Legalizing misandry: from public shame to systematic discrimination against men. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. pp. 69–70. ISBN 0-7735-2862-8.
- Campbell, Charles (November 11, 2004). "Magnets for Memory". The Tyee. Retrieved December 31, 2006.
- Cooper, Rachelle (April 19, 2006). "Book a Monument to Canadian Women Murdered by Men". at Guelph. Retrieved December 31, 2006.
- Ingram, Gordon Brent (February 2, 2000). "Contests over social memory in waterfront Vancouver: Historical editing & obfuscation through public art" (PDF). on the w@terfront. Retrieved December 31, 2006.
- "Stage Productions: The Anorak". Queen's University Faculty of Applied Science. Archived from the original on August 27, 2007. Retrieved March 2, 2014.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
- Posner, Michael (April 10, 2008). "A brutal massacre makes for a delicate art". Globe and Mail. Retrieved April 28, 2018.
- Kelley, Brendan (January 1, 2009). "Polytechnique: open to debate". Montreal Gazette. Archived from the original on April 18, 2009.
- Hamilton, Graeme (January 28, 2009). "Montreal massacre film brings up 'too many memories'". National Post. Canada. Archived from the original on October 23, 2010. Retrieved November 7, 2010.
- Tomm, Winnie (October 30, 2010). Bodied Mindfulness: Women's Spirits, Bodies and Places. Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press. p. 75. ISBN 9781554588022.
- Greenaway, Kathryn (April 23, 2013). "John Abbott College opened horizons for Anne-Marie Edward". Montreal Gazette. Retrieved April 28, 2018.
- "Se souvenir de Polytechnique". Radio-Canada. December 6, 2014..
- "25 years after the tragedy, Polytechnique Montréal launches the Order of the White Rose and the Week of the White Rose". Carrefour de l'Actualité. Polytechnique Montreal. October 31, 2014. Retrieved November 24, 2017.
- "Michèle Thibodeau-DeGuire". Chambre de commerce de Montreal. 2001. Retrieved November 23, 2017.
- Eglin, Peter; Hester, Stephen (2003). The Montreal Massacre: A Story of Membership Categorization Analysis. Wilfrid Laurier University Press. ISBN 0-88920-422-5.
- Lépine, Monique; Gagné, Harold (2008). Aftermath. Viking Canada. ISBN 978-0-670-06969-9.
- O'Donovan, Theresa M (2007). Rage and Resistance: A Theological Reflection on the Montreal Massacre. Wilfrid Laurier University Press. ISBN 978-0-88920-522-2.