École nationale d'administration
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The École nationale d'administration (ENA; French pronunciation: [ekɔl nasjɔnal dadministʁasjɔ̃]; English: National School of Administration), one of the French graduate schools (Grandes écoles), was created in 1945 by Charles de Gaulle to democratise access to the senior civil service. It is now entrusted with the selection and initial training of senior French officials. It is the most prestigious and elitist French school, not only for its acceptance rates (1/16 for the "concours externe") but especially because a large majority of the candidates already graduated from the best "Grandes écoles" of the country.
The ENA is one of the symbols of the Republican meritocracy, along with École normale supérieure and Ecole polytechnique ("X"), offering its alumni access to high positions within the state. It has now been almost completely relocated to Strasbourg to emphasise its European character.
The ENA is often compared at the EU level to the College of Europe in Belgium, with which it shares several traditions. In 2002 the Institut international d'administration publique (IIAP) which educated foreign civil servants under a common structure with ENA was fused with it.
ENA and politics
The main reason for entering ENA is that it has a legal quasi-monopoly over access to some of the most prestigious positions in the French civil service, just as the École polytechnique fulfills this role for other prestigious and technical positions, while some schools like the École nationale des impôts allow access to very specific positions. ENA was created to make recruitment for various high administrative bodies more rational and democratic. According to this approach, a system solely based on academic proficiency and competitive examinations, renders recruitment to top positions more transparent without suspicion of political or personal preference.
French law makes it relatively easy for civil servants to enter politics: civil servants who are elected or appointed to a political position do not have to resign their position in the civil service; instead, they are put in a situation of "temporary leave" known as disponibilité. If they are not re-elected or reappointed, they may ask for their reintegration into their service (see Lionel Jospin and Philippe Séguin for examples). In addition, ENA graduates are often recruited as aides by government ministers and other politicians; this makes it easier for some of them to enter a political career. As an example, Dominique de Villepin entered politics as an appointed official, after serving as an aide to Jacques Chirac, without ever having held an elected position.
The énarques were criticised as early as the 1960s for their technocratic and arrogant ways. Young énarque Jacques Chirac was, for instance, lampooned in an album of the Asterix series. Such criticism has continued up to present times, with the énarques being accused of monopolizing positions in higher administration and politics without having to show real competence. It has become a recurrent theme for many French politicians to criticise ENA, even when they themselves are alumni of the school.
John Kenneth Galbraith and Pierre Bourdieu have studied the way this school shapes French industry and politics. The key point is that these "énarques" benefit from two main privileges: a monopoly of the top administrative positions within the civil service, and entry into politics and industry without risk.
However, only a small proportion of "énarques" (around 1%) actually get involved in politics. Most ENA alumni hold apolitical, technical positions in the French civil service.
ENA also participates in international Technical Assistance programmes, funded by the EU or other donors.
Recruitment and exit procedures
Admission to ENA is granted based a competitive examination at the beginning of September, which people generally take after completing studies at the Institut d'études politiques de Paris (more widely known as Sciences Po) or any prép'ena ( preparatory classes for the ENA examination in universities or others grandes écoles). The "concours externe" exam is in two parts :
- The written part includes
- - an essay on public law
- - an essay on the economy
- - an essay on "general knowledge" (culture générale, extremely common in French competitive exams),
- - a note de synthèse (summarizing 40 to 70 pages of documents) in either (at the candidate's choice) European Law and Policies (Questions Européennes) or Social Law and Policies (Questions Sociales)
- - a cinquième épreuve chosen by the candidate among many different subjects ranging from mathematics to "administrative sciences" or language.
- The oral exam, taken only by those with the highest marks in the written exam, consists of
- - An oral examination on Public Finances
- - An oral examination on International Politics (Questions Internationales)
- - An oral examination either on Questions Européennes or on Questions Sociales (whichever subject the candidate did not choose on the written test)
- - An oral examination to test the skill of the candidate in a foreign language.
- - A physical test
- - the famous 45-minute long Grand Oral during which any question can be asked, from general knowledge to very personal questions.
Results of this exam process are published by the end of December.
Other exam processes govern admission for career civil servants (concours interne) and for all other people, already active in business, political or union activities (troisième concours).
ENA ranks students according to their academic merit; students are then asked, in order of decreasing merit, the service that they want to join. While the top-ranked join prestigious corps such as the Inspection générale des finances, Conseil d'État or Cour des comptes, other will join e.g. the diplomatic service, ministries, and administrative justice or préfectures. Eventually, some enter national politics, while many end up in high-level administrative positions. To quote ENA's site:
- In fact, although these famous alumni are the most visible, the majority are largely unknown, lead quiet and useful careers in our civil service, and don't recognise themselves in the stereotyped images about our school.
Academic years at ENA are known as promotions, and are named by the students after outstanding French (Vauban, Saint-Exupéry, Rousseau), Foreigners (Mandela), characters (Cyrano de Bergerac), battles (Valmy), concepts (Croix de Lorraine, Droits de l'homme) or values (liberté-égalité-fraternité).
This tradition comes from old French military schools such as the Ecole Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr.
According to an international classification, the École nationale d'administration ranks ninth among higher education institutions in the world, with regard to the performance of their training programmes, based on the number of alumni among the Chief Executive Officers of the 500 leading worldwide companies.
Since its creation 60 years ago, the ENA has trained 5600 French senior officials and 2600 foreigners. Some famous alumni include:
- Head of state: Valéry Giscard d'Estaing (France), Jacques Chirac (France), François Hollande (France), Nicéphore Soglo (Benin), Adly Mansour (Egypt, acting), Paul Biya (Cameroon)
- Head of government: Laurent Fabius (France), Michel Rocard (France), Édouard Balladur (France), Alain Juppé (France), Lionel Jospin (France), Dominique de Villepin (France), Edem Kodjo (Togo), Alfred Sant (Malta), André Milongo (Republic of the Congo), Patrick Leclercq (Monaco), Jean-Paul Proust (Monaco), Brigi Rafini (Niger).
- Current French ministers: Laurent Fabius, Michel Sapin, Emmanuel Macron, Fleur Pellerin (deputy minister) (typically one-third of every French cabinet since the 1960s and one-half of the Cabinet for recent administrations until Sarkozy's are ENA's alumni).
- Other political leaders: Tea Tsulukiani (Minister of Justice of Georgia), Ségolène Royal, who met François Hollande at ENA.
- Industry leaders: Michel Bon (former CEO of Carrefour and France Telecom), Jean-Marie Messier, Ernest-Antoine Seillière, Louis Schweitzer, Gérard Mestrallet, Louis Gallois, Henri de Castries, Baudouin Prot, Frederic Oudéa, Frédéric Lemoine, Pierre-André de Chalendar (CEO of Saint-Gobain), Claire Dorland-Clauzel.
- International organisations presidents: Pascal Lamy (World Trade Organisation), Jean-Claude Trichet (European Central Bank), Michel Camdessus (International Monetary Fund), Jacques de Larosière (International Monetary Fund) (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development), Pierre Moscovici (European Commissioner)
- Intellectuals: Jacques Attali, Françoise Chandernagor, Jean-François Deniau, Gabriel de Broglie.
An agreement was signed in Paris on 16 October 2012 between ENA and the Uzbek Academy of administration which envisages cooperation in modernization of state administration and improving skills of public servants on Uzbekistan. The first cooperation will begin in January 2013.
- École nationale d'administration alumni
- École nationale d'administration publique in Quebec
- École Normale Supérieure
- École polytechnique
- European Institutions in Strasbourg
- Institut national des études territoriales
- Sciences Po
- Labex Refi
- La diplomate Nathalie Loiseau a été nommée mercredi 3 octobre 2012 en Conseil des ministres directrice de l'Ecole nationale d'administration (ENA), devenant ainsi la deuxième femme à diriger la prestigieuse école qui forme les hauts fonctionnaires
- "Accueil - ENA, Ecole nationale d'administration" (in French). Ena.fr. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- PDF (286 KB), September 2007
- "The rise of the lawyers". The Economist. 2007-07-05. Retrieved 2007-07-11.
- "France to Assist the Uzbek Academy of Administration". The Gazette of Central Asia (Satrapia). 1 November 2012.
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