École nationale de l'aviation civile

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École nationale de l'aviation civile
Logo-enac.jpg
Other name
ENAC
MottoLa référence aéronautique
Motto in English
The aeronautical standard
TypeGrande école
Established1949 (1949)
Academic affiliations
3AF,[1] Aerospace Valley, CDEFI, CESAER,[2] CGE,[3] CTI,[4] Elles Bougent, Erasmus, EUR-ACE,[5] France AEROTECH,[6] GEA, IAAPS,[7] ICAO, ISSAT, PEGASUS, Toulouse Tech, University of Toulouse
General DirectorOlivier Chansou
Administrative staff
910
Students3,000 (in 2017)
80
Location,
France

Coordinates: 43°33′55″N 1°28′52″E / 43.56528°N 1.48111°E / 43.56528; 1.48111
CampusBiscarrosse - Parentis Airport, Carcassonne Airport, Castelnaudary - Villeneuve Airport, Château-Arnoux-Saint-Auban Airport, Grenoble-Isère Airport, Melun Villaroche Aerodrome, Montpellier – Méditerranée Airport, Muret - Lherm Aerodrome, Saint-Yan Airport and Toulouse
ColoursBlue and grey
Websitewww.enac.fr

École nationale de l'aviation civile (ENAC) (National School of Civil Aviation) is one of 205 colleges (as of September 2018) accredited to award engineering degrees in France. ENAC is designated as a grande école by the Conférence des Grandes écoles (CGE), a non-profit organisation which certifies and monitors grandes écoles (including engineering colleges). ENAC was founded on 28 August 1949 to provide initial and continuing education in the field of civil aviation. The school is an établissement public à caractère scientifique, culturel et professionnel (a public scientific, cultural or professional establishment), and operates under the oversight of the Ministry of Ecological Transition.[8] Affiliated with the University of Toulouse and Aerospace Valley, it is one of the five founders of France AEROTECH.[9]

ENAC offers 30 engineering and technical programs in civil aviation and aeronautics.[10] Programs include aerospace engineering, aircraft maintenance, commercial airline piloting, air traffic control, and flight instructor. The college also offers three Master of Science programs and 12 Advanced Master programs for students with relevant experience.[11]

History[edit]

Origins[edit]

Max Hymans, seated in his office
Max Hymans was secretary general of civil and commercial aviation between 1945 and 1948.

In 1945, immediately after World War II, the French air-transport industry experienced rapid growth. To ensure safety and compliance with regulations, demand for qualified staff was high; there was a need to harmonise communications among sectors of the aviation industry. ENAC was founded to address this issue.[12] Among its founders was Max Hymans, the secretary general of civil and commercial aviation.

During the postwar years, there was a lack of unity in the civil-aviation industry due to the hasty recruitment of large numbers of people from different backgrounds. To standardize personnel, a number of training centers were created. Airfield commanders were trained in Orly, and navigation staff were trained in Le Bourget. Wireless operators and radiotelegraph technicians were also trained in Orly by the Department of Telecommunications and Signaling. Technical managers were primarily trained in engineering schools, including Arts et Métiers and the National School of Meteorology (École nationale de la météorologie). Designers were trained by the École spéciale des travaux aéronautiques, and aircrew were trained by other public or private institutions.[13] ENAC's mission was to coordinate the training of aviation personnel.

In Decree No. 49-970 (7 June 1948), the rules of French public administration were codified. The regulations applying to civil-aviation officials were overhauled, affecting the technical staff in particular. Several new groups of civil servants were established: air traffic engineers, air navigation operation engineers, aerial telecommunication civil engineers, air traffic controllers, telecommunication controllers and air navigation agents. The creation of these groups was followed by a ministerial decision on 12 August 1948 which paved the way for the first recruitment by competitive examination, which was held in October 1948. On 14 April 1948, the International Civil Aviation Organization established requirements for aircrew licensing, including a minimum number of flight hours for each category of pilot.[14]

Before adopting the name ENAC, the school was called a "service of education and internships" (service des écoles et des stages) and was funded by the general secretariat for civil and commercial aviation. This contrasted with the tradition of French civil-service personnel being trained in grandes écoles. Jules Moch, the Minister of Works, Transport and Tourism, unsuccessfully proposed the name "École nationale de l'aviation marchande".[15]

Aviation-safety university in Paris[edit]

A bespectacled Jules Moch in profile
Jules Moch in 1957

ENAC was created on 28 August 1949 (Decree 49–1205) in Paris at the initiative of Secretary General of Civil Aviation Max Hymans and Jules Moch[15] to train professionals in civil aeronautics and coordinate all air-transport stakeholders, including aircrew, technicians, and civil servants. The university is in Orly, south of Paris; ENAC's buildings at Orly were an examination center until the early 1990s. René Lemaire considers ENAC "a university of aviation safety".[16] Aviation safety is synonymous with ENAC, since it was the rationale for the training of technicians and airmen at a single school.

As noted in a report of the inspection générale de l'aviation civile, "It was in the minds of the creators of the university to develop between the aircrew and the ground staff a community of ideas, reciprocal knowledge, and esteem, that are essential for the teamwork required by air transport." However, it is doubtful that the report's "community of ideas" could be only expressed by courses at the same university. Other factors were different lengths of training;[17] air navigation civil engineers in the telecommunications branch study for 30 months at the university; operations students are trained in 27 months; air-navigation engineers in two years, and air traffic controllers in nine months.[17] A consistent education was provided to students in different cycles, integrating programs.[18]

First partners[edit]

Twin-engine plane next to a single-engine plane
ENAC's F-HCTA at Le Touquet. The aircraft is based at Muret-Lherm

On 13 October 1959, the first major partner of the university was recognised; this enabled the recruitment of pilots with no previous flight experience. The previous year, the university held training sessions on an experimental basis and was responsible for teaching theory for the airline transport pilot licence. Flight training was provided at the Service d'exploitation de la formation aéronautique (SEFA) center at Saint-Yan Airport (opened in 1949) until students received a commercial pilot licence; advanced training was provided at the Air France school. ENAC also provided theoretical training for pilots of a number of airlines, and the question of cost arose.[19] The expensive training, not paid by France, was eventually borne by private airlines.[19]

Buildings and a small plane, seen across a runway
ENAC buildings and aircraft at Saint-Yan Airport

To give its students a thorough understanding of the air-transport environment, ENAC sought to cooperate with the École nationale de la météorologie; a 29 May 1950 report noted the influence of meteorology on air traffic control and advocated meteorological training for air-traffic controllers.[20] Close links also traditionally existed between civil aviation and the Air Force. After World War II, as civil aviation was developing, members of the armed forces participated in its expansion. Pilots, radio operators, navigators and mechanics came from the military to the airlines, and ENAC sought to convert military aircrews.[20] On 9 June 1951, a memorandum specifying the school's responsibilities in the training of military pilots for civil aviation was signed. The university was the general contractor of operations, and provided theoretical training. In accordance with a of 31 March 1951 decree, the Service de l'aviation légère et sportive (SALS) provided free flight training for pilot candidates coming from the army.[21]

From 1949 to 1959, the number of courses increased from six to 64 and the number of students from 49 to 800.[22] ENAC benefited from the postwar development of aviation, and a number of students came from foreign countries or (in particular) overseas territories which later became independent.[23] During the early 1960s, the university began to accept its first students from foreign civil-aviation authorities.[24] Along with enrollment growth, courses were created to keep pace with new ratings. The navigation-instructor rating was introduced in 1956, and corresponding training began. Courses were sometimes introduced to meet a need, such as a speaking-technique course for instructors that year. The first civilian engineering students were also admitted in 1956. In 1958, the airline-pilot theoretical training course began.[23] Students took an annual trip from ENAC Orly, and were received (in full uniform) by local authorities on their arrival.[25]

Transition[edit]

The university underwent significant changes between 1960 and 1975. It moved to Toulouse in 1968,[26] where the main campus is still located. In 1970, the status of the university was changed from a department of the DGAC to a public institution.[27]

The school was originally located on the outskirts of Paris-Orly Airport, France's largest. Its location offered easy access to planes for navigation flights, promotional trips and other activities; leaders of nearby airlines, aircraft manufacturers and other aviation-related businesses could come to the university for lectures and conferences.

A woman sitting at a desk, with a man standing next to her
Students and air-traffic controllers in the Nantes Atlantique Airport control tower

However, the rapid growth of traffic at Paris-Orly before the construction of Charles de Gaulle Airport brought new challenges. Requirements for ENAC's aircraft became more stringent, and Aéroports de Paris became increasingly reluctant to renew the university's lease.[27] During the early 1960s, the future of the Orly facilities was uncertain.[28]

Earlier, in the mid-1950s, the possibility of moving ENAC to a new location was considered. Potential locations were cities near Paris airports; between 1954 and 1957, Thiais, Rungis, Issy-les-Moulineaux, Les Mureaux and Le Bourget were considered.[29] Regional decentralization became a priority, even before the publication of Jean-François Gravier's Paris et le désert français (Paris and the French Desert). Plans to keep ENAC near Paris seemed increasingly doubtful, and more-distant locations began to be considered. Within a 150-kilometre-mile (93 mi) radius of the capital, cities under consideration included Melun, Pontoise, Coulommiers, Étampes, Reims, Évreux, Chartres and Orléans. A 20 May 1959 report listed the disadvantages of a location too distant from Paris, however, such as the difficulty of transporting personnel, the possible extension of courses, and increased operating costs.[30]

René Lemaire proposed moving the school to Toulouse in a 14 June 1960 report.[31] The city's aeronautical infrastructure and long history as a university town made it an attractive location: the (University of Toulouse, founded in 1229, is one of France's oldest universities. École nationale supérieure d'ingénieurs de constructions aéronautiques (ENSICA) settled in Toulouse in 1961, and École nationale supérieure de l'aéronautique et de l'espace (SUPAERO)[32] was going to move from Paris to the city. ENAC's transfer to Toulouse was approved by Prime Minister Michel Debré on 15 June 1961[33] and confirmed by his successor, Georges Pompidou, in a 23 July 1963 letter.[34]

Building construction on the Rangueil campus began in April 1966,[35] and was completed on 19 August 1968. The academic year began on 16 September of that year. Five hundred students were expected, including 325 who were beginning their training. The new students consisted of 15 air-navigation engineering students drawn largely from École Polytechnique, 70 engineering students in air navigation from classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles, 60 airline-pilot students, 100 air-traffic controller students, 40 electronics students, 20 commercial-pilot students and 20 flight dispatcher students.[36]

Public administrative institution[edit]

Large plaque
Plaque commemorating the 1969 opening of the Toulouse campus

The Commission permanente began to examine the university's ambiguous legal status, a problem since it was founded. ENAC was closely monitored by its supervisory authority. Inspection reports (published once every two years or less)[37] were frequently critical of the school, with those published in the mid-1950s beginning to question its existence. The confidential 12 March 1952 Brancourt Controller said that the university had "a lack of curriculum", "there is ... tension with the training center of Air France", and "ENAC is a mistake".[full citation needed]

These difficulties were largely due to incompatibility between ENAC and the civil-aviation industry, which required it to provide courses for students and trainees who were not necessarily officials of the Direction générale de l'aviation civile (DGAC, its supervisory authority) and to use a varied teaching staff.[38] The university budget also presented a challenges after other types of income, such as non-public resources, were reduced (particularly between 1958 and 1964). In 1962, ENAC considered raising tuition, course prices and fees for non-DGAC students. The school's status required a complex approval process, however, and a status of public administrative institution seemed more appropriate.[39] The decision was made in the 13 April 1970 Decree No. 70-347, which took effect on 1 January 1971. ENAC established a board of directors, with René Lemaire its first president.[40]

New missions[edit]

Low, modern building
ENAC Toulouse entrance

In 1975, the number of non-civil-service engineering students began to increase. ENAC is becoming important in training civilian aerospace personnel; its primary purpose had been to train civil servants. Civilian students are not new; the first were admitted in 1956.[41][42] ENAC's engineering program, focused on electronics and information technology, has made the university a de facto engineering grande école.

Industry-oriented university research appeared in 1984, in accordance with the higher-education law which mandates that "engineering education [...] has a research activity, basic or applied",[43] organized around four areas: electronics, automation, computers and aviation economics. The university instructs future engineers in research methods; deductive reasoning, long favored by teachers in the classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles and grandes écoles, has been inferior to the inductive reasoning characteristic of engineering research.[43] The growing interest in research includes air navigation.[44]

Mastère spécialisé programs emerged during the mid-1980s for the industrial GIFAS (Groupement des industries françaises aéronautiques et spatiales),[45] training foreign executives in a relatively-short time in addition to French students and professionals. Continuing education diversified at the same time[46] in five main areas: air-traffic control, electronics, computers, aeronautics and languages.[47]

International dimension[edit]

The university's international dimension grew significantly during the 1990s, but was hampered by new training requirements for air-traffic controllers. ENAC participated in European projects such as EATCHIP (European Air Traffic Control Harmonization and Integration Program),[48] and offered student-mobility programs through the Erasmus and Socrates programmes. The university began to welcome a growing number of foreign students,[47] and formed close ties with foreign universities such as the Berlin Institute of Technology and the Technische Universität Darmstadt in Germany and the University of Tampere in Finland. At that time, ENAC created the Groupement des écoles d'aéronautique (GEA France) with the Institut supérieur de l'aéronautique et de l'espace (ISAE) and École nationale supérieure de mécanique et d'aérotechnique (ENSMA).[49][50] The three grandes écoles of this network, in partnership with the DGAC and French companies such as EADS, Airbus, Thales, Eurocopter, and Safran[51]),[52] founded the Institut sino-européen d'ingénierie de l'aviation (Chinese-European Aviation Engineering Institute) in Tianjin in 2007, with master's and mastère spécialisé programs for Chinese students.[53] During the 2000s, courses in English and activities focused on air navigation were developed.[54] In 2009, the university and its alumni association organized the first aeronautical literary festival in Toulouse.[55] ENAC became an ICAO center for training in aviation security in December 2010.[56]

The university established new teaching facilities: the CAUTRA air traffic control simulator, the AERSIM aerodrome control simulator, an Airbus A320 flight management system simulator, a static model of the CFM 56-5B engine for the A321, and a telecom-network laboratory.[57] ENAC became Europe's largest aviation university on 1 January 2011, when it merged with SEFA.[58] In 2013, the university and DGAC introduced the groupement d'intérêt économique DSNA Services (later France Aviation Civile Services).[59]

Directors[edit]

The current director of the university is Olivier Chansou, who succeeded former SEFA director Marc Houalla.[60][61] Chansou, the school's eighth director, was elected on 27 November 2017.[62]

ENAC directors[63]
Name Term Occupation
Guy du Merle (1908–1993) 1948–1951 Aerospace engineer, test pilot, writer[64]
Gilbert Manuel (1913–2010) 1951–1967 Telecommunications engineer[65][66]
Louis Pailhas (born 1926) 1967–1982 Aerospace engineer[67][68][69]
André Sarreméjean 1982–1990 Aerospace engineer
Alain Soucheleau 1990–1999 Aerospace engineer[70]
Gérard Rozenknop (born 1950) 1999–2008 Aerospace engineer[71][72]
Marc Houalla (born 1961) 2008–2017 Aerospace engineer, manager[73][74]
Olivier Chansou (born 1965) 2017–present Aerospace engineer

Administration[edit]

The university is managed by an elected president,[75] who oversees three councils; training and research, flight training, and international relations and development.

Budget[edit]

ENAC had a 2011 budget of €126 million, a 61-percent increase over the 2010 budget.[76] This was due to the school's merger with SEFA, and included a €102 million EU subsidy.

ENAC Foundation[edit]

After several months of consideration,[77] the ENAC Foundation was established in September 2011. It aims to guide the training and research council in reforming the school's engineering program and fostering corporate partnerships. The foundation consists of technical and human resources managers from aerospace companies such as Air France, Airbus, Aéroport de Paris, Rockwell Collins, Thalès and Aéroconseil.[78]

Campuses[edit]

École nationale de l'aviation civile is located in France
Biscarrosse
Biscarrosse
Carcassonne
Carcassonne
Castelnaudary
Castelnaudary
Grenoble
Grenoble
Melun
Melun
Montpellier
Montpellier
Muret
Muret
Château-Arnoux-Saint-Auban
Château-Arnoux-Saint-Auban
Saint-Yan
Saint-Yan
Toulouse
Toulouse
ENAC campuses
Building seen through trees
Hélène Boucher Building at ENAC Toulouse

ENAC has 10 campuses; the main campus is in Rangueil, 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) from Toulouse.[79] The other campuses are:

The main campus can provide student accommodation.[91] It has a cafeteria, library, computer rooms, a fitness room, a rugby field, five tennis courts, beach volleyball, and a driving range.

Aircraft and simulators[edit]

ENAC has a fleet of 130 aircraft:[92][93]

The Toulouse campus has a number of fixed and full flight simulators[94] (Robin DR400, Socata TB-20, Airbus A320 and Airbus A340). The air navigation department has control-tower simulators[95] (at 120 or 360 degrees), a ground-controlled approach and an area control center simulator.[96]

Teaching and research[edit]

Programs[edit]

Each university program has its own recruitment process, primarily by competitive examination.[97] ENAC has four bachelor's degree programs to train airline pilots and civil-aviation technicians. The school provides theoretical training for airline-pilot students (EPL) in eight months at its Toulouse campus; sixteen months of practical training is provided at the Montpellier, Carcassonne, Saint-Yan and Muret campuses. Since 1992, graduates of this training have been represented by the alumni association AGEPAC.[98] The university has proposed preparation for the airline transport pilot licence which would enable high-school students from low-income families to become airline pilots after receiving their baccalauréat. Students can then prepare for commercial pilot licence or aeronautical operations technician training. The technicien supérieur de l'aviation (TSA) certification can lead to the civil-service technicien supérieur des études et de l'exploitation de l'aviation civile (TSEEAC) or Advanced Technician in Aviation non civil servant positions. The university has seven master's-degree programs to train students for the aerospace industry and the DGAC.

DGAC air-traffic controller and air traffic safety electronics personnel (IESSA) training is provided by the university. The Ingénieur ENAC (IENAC) course trains aerospace engineers in three sectors: electronics and aeronautical telecommunications (L), computer systems and air traffic (S), and aeronautical engineering] (T). Ten percent of its students[99] are civil-service engineering students, who become ingénieurs des études et de l'exploitation de l'aviation civile (civil-aviation operations engineers) after graduation. ENAC is a specialized university for École Polytechnique graduates.

Since the 16 April 2002 merger of the corps des ingénieurs de l'aviation civile (IAC) (civil-aviation engineering department) and its geography and meteorology branches into the Corps of Bridges, Waters and Forests,[100] the training of DGAC managers has changed. Corps of Bridges, Waters and Forests officials are trained at the École des ponts ParisTech; about 300 course hours are organized in cooperation with ENAC for students desiring to join the DGAC. The university created a master's-degree program in International Air Transport Opération Management (IATOM) in 2007, in 2011 a master's-degree program (supported by the European Commission)[101] · [102] in satellite navigation,[103] and a master's-degree program in air traffic management (in partnership with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology) in 2012.[104] The master's-degree program in human–computer interaction (IHM) is in cooperation with Paul Sabatier University.[105]

ENAC provides Mastère spécialisé programs[106] in airport management, air-transport management (in partnership with Toulouse Business School), communication, navigation and surveillance and satellite applications for aviation (CNSSAA), aviation safety aircraft airworthiness (ASAA, in partnership with the Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace and the École de l'Air),[107] air-ground collaborative systems engineering (AGCSE), aviation and air traffic management[108] (AATM) and aerospace project management (APM, in partnership with the Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace[109] and the École de l'air).[110]

Alumni of the three master's programs (the Ingénieur ENAC program, Corps of Bridges, Waters and Forests officials, and the Mastère spécialisé programs) were represented by IngENAC, an association founded in 1987 in Toulouse which was a member of the Conseil national des ingénieurs et scientifiques de France.[111] On 16 March 2012, IngENAC decided to represent all the alumni of the university and changed its name to ENAC Alumni.[112]

Continuing education[edit]

Hosting over 7,500 students in more than 600 courses annually, with revenue of €15 million, ENAC is Europe's largest organization for aeronautical continuing education. Courses are in air traffic, electronics, computer science, aeronautical engineering, and aircraft control (flight instructor), for French and foreign businesses and CGAC personnel.

International partners[edit]

Single-engine plane on the tarmac
An ENAC Socata TB-20 at Airexpo at Muret – Lherm Aerodrome, 28 May 2011

IENAC students can study at the Institut supérieur de l'aéronautique et de l'espace and the École nationale supérieure de mécanique et d'aérotechnique as part of the groupement des écoles d'aéronautique, at the INPT,[113] and at Audencia Business School.[114] As part of France AEROTECH, an exchange of third-year engineering students has been proposed with Centrale Lyon, Centrale Nantes, ENSEIRB-MATMECA and Arts et Métiers ParisTech.[115]

Students abroad have access to the Erasmus Programme[116] and Pegasus. Eight percents of students in the 2011 Ingénieur ENAC course were foreign students;[117] forty-six percent of all students were foreign students in 2010.[118]

The university has agreements[116] with Embry–Riddle Aeronautical University, Florida Institute of Technology, University of California, University of Washington and École africaine de la météorologie et de l'aviation civile, and trains the staff of the Agence pour la sécurité de la navigation aérienne en Afrique et à Madagascar. ENAC is a founder of the Institut sino-européen d'ingénierie de l'aviation in Tianjin. The university provides mastère spécialisé programs at the Civil Aviation University of China[119][120] for Chinese students in airport management, aviation-safety management (airworthiness), aviation-safety management (flight operations) and aviation-safety management (aeronautical maintenance, the latter two in partnership with the Institut supérieur de l'aéronautique et de l'espace).[121] In December 2011, the university signed an agreement with the École des ponts ParisTech and the Mohammed VI International Academy of Civil Aviation to introduce[122] an MBA program in aviation management for aerospace middle management in March 2012 in Casablanca.[123]

Research[edit]

Landscaped road
Main entrance, inner court, ENAC Toulouse

ENAC conducts research in accordance with the 1984 law on higher education which mandates that "la formation des ingénieurs ... comporte une activité de recherche, fondamentale ou appliquée" ("engineer training ... contains a research activity, pure or applied").[124] Research was originally organized around four areas: electronics, automation, computers, and aviation economics. In mid-2009, research teams were in the following laboratories: automatique – recherche opérationnelle (LARA) (automation – operational research),[125] économie – d'économétrie de l'aérien (LÉÉA) (economy – air econometrics),[126] étude – d'optimisation des architectures des réseaux de télécommunications (LÉOPART) (optimization of telecommunications network architecture),[127][128] électromagnétisme pour les télécommunications aéronautiques (LÉTA) (electromagnetism for aeronautical telecommunications),[129] informatique interactive (LII) (interactive computing),[130] mathématiques appliquées (LMA) (applied mathematics), optimisation du trafic aérien (LOTA) (air-traffic optimization), and traitement du signal pour les télécommunications aéronautiques (LTST) (signal processing for aeronautical telecommunications).[131]

Since 2005, ENAC has had a team specializing in UAVs which maintains and develops Paparazzi, an open-sourcee system for automatic control of UAVs.[132] Infrastructure includes a planetarium and an air-traffic control simulator. ENAC is a founding member of the European Academy for Aviation Safety (EAFAS).[133] During the 2005 Paris Air Show, the university announced a partnership with ONERA[134] in the fields of air traffic management, aviation safety, satellite navigation, sustainable development and aviation economics.[135] At the end of 2011, ENAC established a research organization consisting of six programs (UAVs and air-traffic control, airports, aircraft and air operations, human-computer interaction, air-ground communications and sustainable development) in four laboratories: applied mathematics – optimization – optimal control – control engineering operations research (MAIAA); signal processing – satellite positioning system – electromagnetismnetworks (TELECOM); architecture – modeling – engineering of interactive systems (LII), and economics – air transport econometrics (LEEA).[136]

Notable people[edit]

Alumni[edit]

Faculty[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ (in French)Liens Archived 7 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ GEA – Groupement des Grandes Ecoles Aéronautiques et Spatiales Archived 7 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ (in French)ENAC Ecole Nationale de l'Aviation Civile Archived 5 December 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ "Avis n° 2011/04-03 relatif à l'habilitation de l'Ecole nationale de l'aviation civile (ENAC) à délivrer un titre d'ingénieur diplômé" (PDF) (in French). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 November 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
  5. ^ (in French)La formation Ingénieur ENAC reçoit le label EUR-ACE[permanent dead link]
  6. ^ "Elargissement du réseau FRANCE AEROTECH et signature d'une charte de gouvernance" (PDF) (in French). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 April 2012.
  7. ^ "IAAPS || International Association of Aviation Personnel Schools". Iaaps.info. Archived from the original on 21 September 2011. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
  8. ^ (in French)Décret numéro 2007-651 du 30 avril 2007 portant statut de l'École nationale de l'aviation civile
  9. ^ (in French)France Aérotech, un nouveau réseau pour l’aéronautique et le spatial
  10. ^ "ENAC Graduate Engineer". calameo.com. Retrieved 2 December 2017.
  11. ^ "Le Iatom, unique au monde". Le Monde (in fr-FR). Retrieved 24 July 2018.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  12. ^ (in French) 50 ans d'Énac, p. 13
  13. ^ (in French) 50 ans d'Énac, p. 14
  14. ^ (in French) 50 ans d'Énac, p. 15
  15. ^ a b (in French) 50 ans d'Énac, p. 18
  16. ^ Speech on 3 March 1951.
  17. ^ a b (in French) 50 ans d'Énac, p. 25
  18. ^ René LEMAIRE, 1952
  19. ^ a b (in French) 50 ans d'Énac, p. 28
  20. ^ a b (in French) 50 ans d'Énac, p. 32
  21. ^ (in French) 50 ans d'Énac, p. 33
  22. ^ (in French) 50 ans d'Énac, p. 34
  23. ^ a b (in French) 50 ans d'Énac, p. 35
  24. ^ (in French) 50 ans d'Énac, p. 36
  25. ^ (in French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.45
  26. ^ "Plaquette de présentation de l'ENAC".
  27. ^ a b (in French) 50 ans d'Énac, p. 55
  28. ^ (in French) 50 ans d'Énac, p. 56
  29. ^ (in French) 50 ans d'Énac, p. 57
  30. ^ (in French) 50 ans d'Énac, p. 58
  31. ^ (in French) 50 ans d'Énac, p. 59
  32. ^ (in French) 50 ans d'Énac, p. 61
  33. ^ (in French) 50 ans d'Énac, p. 62
  34. ^ (in French) 50 ans d'Énac, p. 63
  35. ^ (in French) 50 ans d'Énac, p. 79
  36. ^ (in French) 50 ans d'Énac, p. 81
  37. ^ (in French) 50 ans d'Énac, p. 87
  38. ^ (in French) 50 ans d'Énac, p. 88
  39. ^ (in French) 50 ans d'Énac, p. 89
  40. ^ (in French) 50 ans d'Énac, p. 91
  41. ^ (in French) 50 ans d'Énac, p. 101
  42. ^ (in French) 50 ans d'Énac, p. 102
  43. ^ a b (in French) 50 ans d'Énac, p. 125
  44. ^ (in French) 50 ans d'Énac, p. 127
  45. ^ (in French) 50 ans d'Énac, p. 130
  46. ^ (in French) 50 ans d'Énac, p. 129
  47. ^ a b (in French) 50 ans d'Énac, p. 131
  48. ^ (in French) 50 ans d'Énac, p. 133
  49. ^ (in French)Le réseau GEA France Archived 20 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  50. ^ (in French)L'aéronautique forme des cadets en Chine et en Libye
  51. ^ (in French)SAFRAN, PARTENAIRE DES UNIVERSITÉS CHINOISES
  52. ^ (in French)Les formations en partenariat Archived 14 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  53. ^ (in French)Mastères spécialisés Archived 1 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  54. ^ (in French) 50 ans d'Énac, p. 146
  55. ^ (in French)Le livre prend son envol au salon de l'ENAC
  56. ^ (in French)Le Centre de formation à la sûreté de l'ENAC agréé par l'OACI Archived 7 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  57. ^ (in French) 50 ans d'Énac, p. 143
  58. ^ "La France dispose de la plus grande école d'aviation européenne" (PDF) (in French). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 June 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2012.
  59. ^ ""DSNA Services" devient "France Aviation Civile Services"" (in French). Retrieved 30 August 2019.
  60. ^ (in French)Marc Houalla le pilote du changement
  61. ^ (in French)Marc HOUALLA
  62. ^ (in French)Décret du 27 novembre 2017 portant nomination du directeur de l'Ecole nationale de l'aviation civile (ENAC) – M. CHANSOU (Olivier)
  63. ^ Annuaire INGENAC 2010, p. 9
  64. ^ (in French)Construction des avions: par Guy Du Merle,... Préface de Paul Dumanois,...
  65. ^ "La lettre d'information mensuelle de l'École Nationale de l'Aviation Civile" (PDF) (in French).
  66. ^ (in French)Annuaire Archived 30 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  67. ^ (in French)PAILHAS Louis
  68. ^ (in French)Monsieur Louis PAILHAS
  69. ^ "L' ÉNAC à ORLY" (PDF) (in French).
  70. ^ (in French)L'Énac fête ses cinquante ans
  71. ^ (in French)Gérard ROZENKNOP
  72. ^ (in French)Gérard ROZENKNOP
  73. ^ (in French)Marc Houalla le pilote du changement
  74. ^ (in French)Marc Houalla : un nouveau pilote pour l'École de l'aviation civile
  75. ^ (in French)Organigramme général Archived 23 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  76. ^ (in French)Avis présenté au nom de la commission du développement durable et de l'aménagement du territoire sur la loi de finances pour 2011 (n° 2824), tome IV, écologie, développement et améngament durables : transports aériens
  77. ^ (in French) Enac : L'école cherche à se doter d'une fondation
  78. ^ (in French) Newsletter ENAC – n°97 / Septembre 2011
  79. ^ (in French) Travaux. Rangueil : l'Enac rénove son campus
  80. ^ a b (in French)Enac / SEFA : La fusion opérationnelle pour le 1er janvier 2011
  81. ^ (in French)Les cadets Air France dans la nature Archived 24 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  82. ^ (in French) De la voltige de haut niveau
  83. ^ (in French) Formation FI
  84. ^ (in French) L'École nationale d'aviation civile ouvre ses portes
  85. ^ (in French) SEFA 60 Ans au Sommet
  86. ^ (in French) Les 60 ans de Saint Yan
  87. ^ (in French) L'AEROPORT DE SAINT YAN
  88. ^ (in French) Montpellier, entre ciel et mer
  89. ^ (in French) Muret
  90. ^ (in French) Melun-Villaroche – L'aérodrome restera occupé toute la semaine
  91. ^ (in French) École Nationale de l’Aviation Civile ENAC – Toulouse
  92. ^ (in French) La France dispose de la plus grande école d'aviation européenne Archived 7 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  93. ^ (in French)Tout est bon dans le Salon
  94. ^ (in French) Un simulateur de vol à prix discount
  95. ^ (in French) Lettre mensuelle DSNA numéro 29 – avril 2010 Archived 4 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  96. ^ (in French)L'ENAC met en réseau ses simulateurs de vol et de contrôle pour répondre aux besoins de formation et de recherche des entreprises aéronautiques Archived 17 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  97. ^ (in French) Calendrier des recrutements ÉNAC 2012 Archived 11 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  98. ^ (in French) Page d'accueil
  99. ^ (in French)Plaquette de présentation de la formation ingénieur ÉNAC
  100. ^ (in French)Décret n°2002-523 du 16 avril 2002 portant statut particulier du corps des ingénieurs des ponts et chaussées.
  101. ^ (in French)Création du Master GNSS Archived 1 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  102. ^ (in French)Les formations ingénieur ENAC
  103. ^ (in French)Nouveau MASTER Global Navigation Satellite System, (GNSS) Archived 7 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  104. ^ Master of Science in Air Traffic Management Archived 16 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  105. ^ (in French)Master IHM
  106. ^ (in French) ENAC Ecole nationale de l'aviation civile
  107. ^ SM-ASAA[permanent dead link]
  108. ^ (in French) La Conférence des Grandes Écoles accrédite le nouveau Mastère Spécialisé AVIATION & AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT de l’ENAC Archived 15 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  109. ^ (in French) Mastère Spécialisé : Aerospace Project Management Mastère Spécialisé : Aerospace Project Management Archived 21 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  110. ^ SM-APM[permanent dead link]
  111. ^ (in French) Page d'accueil
  112. ^ Assemblée générale d'ENAC Alumni
  113. ^ (in French) Master IT parcours SIGL Archived 29 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  114. ^ (in French) Enac : Partenariat avec l'Ecole de Commerce de Nantes
  115. ^ (in French)Élargissement du réseau FRANCE AEROTECH et signature d’une charte de gouvernance Archived 15 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  116. ^ a b (in French)Page des échanges internationaux[permanent dead link]
  117. ^ (in French) ÉNAC Toulouse dans le palmarès l'Étudiant 2012
  118. ^ (in French) OBJECTIF n° 2 : Faire de l’ENAC une école de référence dans le domaine du transport aérien en France et à l’étranger Archived 7 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  119. ^ (in French) Plaquette de présentation de l'ÉNAC
  120. ^ (in French)L'ÉNAC dans le monde
  121. ^ Students graduate from Airbus aviation program
  122. ^ (in French)UN NOUVEL EXECUTIVE MBA POUR L’AVIATION
  123. ^ (in French)L'AIAC lance un Executive MBA in Aviation Management[permanent dead link]
  124. ^ (in French) 50 ans d'Enac, p. 125
  125. ^ (in French) Laboratoire de recherche opérationnelle et automatique Archived 14 October 2005 at the Wayback Machine
  126. ^ (in French) Laboratoire d'économie et d'économétrie de l'aérien Archived 17 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  127. ^ (in French) Présentation (succincte) du LEOPART
  128. ^ (in French)Développement d'algorithmes de planification tactique de trajectoires avion.
  129. ^ (in French) Laboratoire d'Électromagnétisme pour les Télécommunications Aéronautiques (LETA)
  130. ^ (in French) Le laboratoire d'informatique interactive
  131. ^ (in French) Laboratoire de Traitement du Signal pour les Télécommunications Aéronautiques (LTST)
  132. ^ (in French)Page d'accueil
  133. ^ (in French) Page principale
  134. ^ (in French) Partenariat stratégique ÉNAC-ONÉRA dans le domaine de la recherche Archived 25 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  135. ^ (in French)L’ENAC et l’ONERA mettent leurs compétences en commun afin de promouvoir une recherche d’excellence et apporter des solutions à des clients français et étrangers
  136. ^ (in French) Newsletter ENAC – n°98 / Novembre 2011

Bibliography[edit]

  • Ariane Gilotte, Jean-Philippe Husson and Cyril Lazerge, 50 ans d'Énac au service de l'aviation, Édition S.E.E.P.P, 1999
  • Académie nationale de l'air et de l'espace and Lucien Robineau, Les français du ciel, dictionnaire historique, June 2005, 782 p. (ISBN 2-7491-0415-7), p. 626, « Les écoles d'ingénieurs aéronautiques »
  • Sandrine Banessy, Le rêve d'Icare – Histoire de l'aviation à Toulouse, Labége, éditions TME, 2006, 95 p. (ISBN 2-7491-0415-7), p. 80 et 81 « Du rêve à la réalité »
  • [PDF] Agence d'évaluation de la recherche et de l'enseignement supérieur, « Rapport d'évaluation de l'École nationale de l'aviation civile », September 2010
  • GIFAS, Ouvrez grand vos ailes : une formation pour un métier dans l'industrie aéronautique et spatiale, Paris, GIFAS, 2011, 62 p., p. 41

External links[edit]