École nationale de l'aviation civile

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École nationale de l'aviation civile
Logo-enac.jpg
Motto La référence aéronautique
Motto in English
The aeronautical reference
Type Grande école
Established 1949 (1949)
General Director Olivier Chansou
Administrative staff
910
Students 3000 (in 2017)
80
Location Biscarrosse, Carcassonne, Castelnaudary, Château-Arnoux-Saint-Auban, Grenoble, Melun, Montpellier, Muret, Saint-Yan and Toulouse, France
43°33′55″N 1°28′52″E / 43.56528°N 1.48111°E / 43.56528; 1.48111Coordinates: 43°33′55″N 1°28′52″E / 43.56528°N 1.48111°E / 43.56528; 1.48111
Campus Biscarrosse - Parentis Airport, Carcassonne Airport, Castelnaudary - Villeneuve Airport, Château-Arnoux-Saint-Auban Airport, Grenoble-Isère Airport, Melun Villaroche Aerodrome, Montpellier – Méditerranée Airport, Muret - Lherm Aerodrome, Saint-Yan Airport and Toulouse
Colours Blue and Grey         
Nickname ENAC
Affiliations 3AF,[1] Aerospace Valley, CDEFI, CESAER,[2] CGE,[3] CTI,[4] Elles Bougent, Erasmus, EUR-ACE,[5] France AEROTECH,[6] GEA, IAAPS,[7] ICAO, ISSAT, PEGASUS, Toulouse Tech, University of Toulouse
Website www.enac.fr

The École nationale de l'aviation civile (ENAC) (French Civil Aviation University) is one of the 207 schools that offers degrees in engineering in France.

The University belongs to the group of Grandes écoles in France and was founded on August 28, 1949 to provide initial and continuing education in the field of civil aviation. The university is a établissement public à caractère scientifique, culturel et professionnel (French public scientific, cultural or professional establishment) under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development, Transport and Housing.[8] It is a member of the Conférence des Grandes Écoles, University of Toulouse, Aerospace Valley and one of the five founders of France AEROTECH.[9]

ENAC offers 30 engineering degree tracks in civil aeronautics,[10] most notably including aerospace engineers, aerospace technicians, airline pilots, air traffic controllers, and flight instructors. The university also offers a Master of Science in Aerospace Systems.

History[edit]

Origins[edit]

In 1945, immediately following WWII, the French air transport industry expanded rapidly. To ensure safety compliance, there was a high demand for qualified staff, as well as a need to harmonise communications between various sectors of the aviation industry. ENAC was formed to address this issue.[11] Among the founders was Max Hymans, the secretary general of civil and commercial aviation at the time, who played a prominent role in ENAC's creation.

Max Hymans was secretary general of civil and commercial aviation between 1945 and 1948

In the years following the Western Front, there was a distinct lack of unity within the civil aviation industry due to the recruitment of people with various backgrounds; this was a common situation in times of emergency when personnel were recruited hastily and in high quantities. In order to standardize backgrounds, many centers were created to train aeronautic personnel. Airfield commanders were trained in Orly while technical staff for air navigation were trained in Le Bourget. Wireless operators and radio technicians were also trained in Orly, although under the Department of Telecommunications and Signaling, which was not connected directly to the world of aviation. Technical managers were mostly trained in engineering schools, including Arts et Métiers and the National School of Meteorology (École nationale de la météorologie). Designers were trained by the École spéciale des travaux aéronautiques while aircrew were trained by other public or private institutions.[12] ENAC's mission was to unify the training of all aviation personnel.

Through Decree No. 49-970 (7 June 1948), the rules of the French public administration were laid down. A complete overhaul of the regulations applying to civil aviation officials was made, affecting the technical staff in particular. Several new bodies of civil servants were established: air traffic engineers, air navigation operation engineers, aerial telecommunication civil engineers, air traffic controllers, telecommunication controllers and air navigation agents. The creation of these new bodies was immediately followed by a ministerial decision on 12 August 1948 that paved the way for the first recruitment by competitive examination. The examinations themselves were organized in October 1948. Independently of these events, on 14 April 1948, the International Civil Aviation Organization established prerequisite conditions for air crew licensing, notably including a minimum number of flight hours for each category of aircraft pilots.[13]

Before adopting the name ENAC, the school was called a "service of education and internships" (service des écoles et des stages) and was provided by the General secretariat for civil and commercial aviation. That contrasted with that the longstanding tradition of French civil service personnel being trained in higher education institutions called Grande écoles. Jules Moch, the Minister of Works, Transport and Tourism at the time, proposed the name: "École nationale de l'aviation marchande", a name which was ultimately not chosen.[14]

University of aviation safety in Paris[edit]

Jules Moch in 1957.

ENAC was created on 28 August 1949 (Decree 49-1205) in Paris at the initiative of Max Hymans, Secretary General of Civil Aviation, and Jules Moch.[14] in order to train all the professionals of civil aeronautics and harmonize all the air transport stakeholders, aircrew or not, commercial or technical, including the civil services of civil aviation. The university is located at Orly, south of Paris (ENAC's buildings at Orly served as an examination center until the early 1990s). René Lemaire considers ENAC as "a university of aviation safety".[15] This priority given to aviation safety is somehow consubstantial with ENAC, being the first reason for the training of future technicians and future airmen in a single university. As noted in a report of the Inspection générale de l'aviation civile, "It was in the minds of the creators of the university, to develop between the aircrew and the ground staff a community of ideas, reciprocal knowledge, and esteem, that are essential for the teamwork required by air transport." However, it is doubtful that the "community of ideas" the author of the report wishes could be only expressed by the coexistence of different courses in the same university. Other factors work in opposite directions, including the very significant disparity of durations of the training cycles.[16] Thus, air navigation civil engineers of the branch "telecommunications" stays 30 months in the university ; the students of the course "operations" are trained in 27 months ; the air navigation engineers in two years ; and finally, the air traffic controllers in nine months.[16] To realize fully the chemistry that, in the minds of its founders, must proceed in the creation of ENAC, it is necessary that other conditions are met. The main is the consistency of the education provided to the students in different cycles. This need is reflected by the interpenetration of theoretical and practical training, "air" and "ground". The brand's most visible of such interpenetration is the development, whenever this is possible, of the teaching called "inter-specialization", that means, integrated programs of distinct cycles. It should be noted that these teachings, which have different promotions for a single design cost, results in significant savings, as well noticed by Rene Lemaire.[17]

ENAC's F-HCTA at Le Touquet. The aircraft is based at Muret-Lherm

First partners[edit]

On the 13th of October 1959, the first major partner of the university was officially recognised. This allowed the recruitment of novice pilots with no previous flight experience. Before that in 1958 the university only held training sessions on a purely experimental basis, and the university was responsible for the Airline Transport Pilot License theory. As for the practical training in flight, it is realized at the SEFA center of Saint-Yan, created in 1949, until the commercial pilot licence, and at the Air France school for the advanced training. ENAC, in addition to his official duty related to the preparation of the Airline Transport Pilot Licence theory, has some tasks of theoretical training for pilots of various airlines. The question of the financial aspect of the training for airline pilots in private airlines arises.[18] This training, which the cost is not paid by the French state, is too expensive for airlines and students, particularly because of the flight training part. Private airlines decided to pay the cost, which makes possible the free education for student pilots.[18]

ENAC buildings and aircraft at the Saint-Yan Airport.

Meanwhile, in order to enable its students to acquire a thorough knowledge of the environment in which the air transport takes place, ENAC seeks to develop cooperation with the École nationale de la météorologie. A report dated 29 May 1950 invokes the obvious implications of meteorology in the air traffic and promotes the training of this subject for air traffic controllers.[19] Also, many and close links traditionally exits between civil aviation and Air Force. After World War II, when civil aviation is developing, soldiers can help its expansion. A lot of pilots, but also radios, navigators and mechanics are coming from the army to airlines. ENAC seeks to be part of this movement, and help the conversion of military aircrew.[19] It is in this spirit that is signed on 9 June 1951 a memorandum specifying its duties in the training of military pilots for civil aviation. The university is the general contractor of the operations and provides the theoretical training. The Service de l'aviation légère et sportive (SALS), under the decree of 31 March 1951, is providing for free the flight training for airline pilots candidates coming from the army.[20]

From 1949 to 1959, the number of courses held increase from 6 to 64 and the number of students from 49 to 800.[21] The causes of rapid enrollment growth are multiple. There is no doubt that ENAC has benefited from the spectacular development of air transport in the postwar years. But it would not have taken such an advantage if its teachings were not performing. Finally, one can not ignore the presence of a significant contingent of students from either foreign countries or – in even larger numbers – which territories would gain independence in the near future.[22] In the early 1960s, the university is beginning to welcome its first students and trainees from foreign civil aviation authorities.[23] Along with enrollment growth, new courses are created regularly. This creation is often a direct result of an administrative decision, as it is the case when a new rating is introduced. Thus, in 1956 was created the navigation instructor rating, with the opening of the corresponding training. Sometimes a course is simply set to meet a need. The same year 1956, for example, is introduced a speaking techniques course for instructors. Still in 1956, appears the first engineering students called "civilians", that is to say, not officials. The openings of new training graduate courses, of course, is much less frequent than those of new continuous training, which occurs fairly regularly. In 1958, the airline pilots theoretical training course is starting.[22]

Life at ENAC Orly is then punctuated by the yearly trip for all the students, undoubtedly one of the highlights of the studies. It has its share of unexpected, but its rites, as the inevitable reception in full uniform of the university officials and the students by local authorities, on arrival at a new location.[24]

A Time of Transition[edit]

The university underwent significant changes during the period 1960–1975. In 1968 the university moved to Toulouse[25] where the main campus is still located today. In 1970, the status of the university was changed, from an external department of the DGAC to a public Administration institution.[26]

At the time of its creation, the École nationale de l'aviation civile was located on the outskirts of the runways of Paris-Orly Airport. This location near the largest airport in France offered many advantages, such as easy access to airplanes for navigation flights, promotional trips and other activities. In addition, leaders from nearby airlines, aircraft manufacturers and other aviation-related businesses could come to the university for lectures and conferences.

However, the rapid growth of traffic at Paris-Orly – the platform of Roissy Charles de Gaulle did not exist yet – created in new challenges. For instance, requirements for the aircraft used by ENAC to be used in air traffic were growing more stringent. Consequently, Aéroports de Paris became increasingly reluctant to renew the lease for the lands on which the university was located.[26] From the early 1960s, there the future of the facilities at Orly looked uncertain.[27]

In the mid-1950s, people began to consider the possibility of moving the ENAC to a new location. Potential locations all involved cities close to Parisian airports. Thus, between 1954 and 1957, Thiais, Rungis, Issy-les-Moulineaux, Les Mureaux and even Le Bourget were all considered.[28] That's not counting with the requirements of decentralization. Even before the famous book by Jean-François Gravier, Paris et le désert français (Paris and the French desert), decentralization was considered a key priority. Plans to keep the ENAC close to Paris looked increasingly doubtful, and more peripheral locations began to be considered. The potential locations were all part of a 150 km radius around the capital, among others Melun, Pontoise, Coulommiers, Étampes, Reims, Évreux, Chartres and Orléans. Meanwhile, a report published on 20 May 1959 listed the disadvantages of a location too distant from Paris, such as difficulties of transporting personnel, the possible extension of duration of the courses, and increased operating costs.[29]

It was against this backdrop that René Lemaire proposed moving the school to Toulouse in a report published on 14 June 1960.[30] The city's aeronautical infrastructure and long history as a university town made it an attractive location: the (University of Toulouse, created in 1229, isone of the oldest universities in France, ENSICA had settled in Toulouse since 1961 and the SUPAERO[31] was going to move from Paris to the city). On 15 June 1961, the university's transfer to Toulouse was officially approved by the Prime Minister Michel Debré.[32] It was confirmed by his successor Georges Pompidou in a letter dated 23 July 1963.[33]

Construction of new buildings on the Rangueil campus began in April 1966.[34] and was completed on 19 August 1968. The academic year started on 16 September 1968. An intake of five hundred students was expected, including 325 who were beginning their training. The new students consisted of 15 air navigation engineering students drawn largely from École Polytechnique, 70 engineering students in air navigation from classe préparatoire aux grandes écoles, 60 airline pilot students, 100 air traffic controllers students, 40 electronics students, 20 commercial pilot students and 20 flight dispatcher students.[35]

Public administration institution in Toulouse[edit]

The Commission permanente began to grapple with the issue of the university's ambiguous legal status. This had been a problem since the university's founding, and had resurfaced on numerous occasions, as the various inspection reports on the management of the institution show. The ENAC was closely monitored by its supervisory authority. Inspection reports were published at a rapid pace, at a rate of one every two years or more,[36] and frequently leveled harsh criticisms at the ENAC. In a departure from previous years, reports published from mid-1950s onwards began to call into question the university's very existence. For instance, the confidential Brancourt Controller of 12 March 1952, asserted that the university had "a lack of doctrine", that "there is a certain tension with the training center of Air France", and even that the "ENAC is a mistake".

These difficulties were largely due to the mismatch between the status of ENAC and the nature of its business, which required it to provide courses for students and trainees who were not all officials from the supervisory authority, and to use teaching staff from different origins.[37] The cumbersome process for allocating university budget also created challenges after other types of income, such as non-public resources, were reduced. This happened more in the years 1958–1964. In 1962, the management of ENAC considered raising tuition fees, courses prices and fees for customers outside from the Directorate General for Civil Aviation. However, the status of the institution meant this involved a complex approval process that ultimately lead to paralysis. For this reason, the separate status of "public administrative institution" appeared more appropriate.[38] The final decision was taken in the form of Decree No. 70-347 on 13 April 1970, with application from 1 January 1971. This made the school a public administrative institution. The ENAC was given a board of directors, with René Lemaire as its first president.[39]

New missions[edit]

ENAC Toulouse entrance

From 1975 a phenomenon is growing. It consists of a slow but inexorable increase of the proportion of engineering students called "civilians" in opposition to the "officials" (civil servants) engineering students. ENAC is becoming a major player in the training for aerospace industry (civilian personnel), while its primary purpose was only the training of officials for direction générale de l'aviation civile. It is true that the existence of students for the private sector is not new at the university : it was in 1956 that are off the first of them. At the end of the 1950s, however, this recruitment is subsidiary and affects only a minority of students.[40] It is primarily intended to offset the disadvantage which consists of the highly fluctuating number of students to serve in the Administration and to prevent the size of successive promotions with a too great disparity. However, this second source tends to become more and more important, to finally become dominant. This results in an overhaul of the teachings.[41] ENAC engineering education, particularly that of the specialty called "facilities" – it focuses on electronics – convince the industrial sectors of electronics and information technology. Without having particularly desired, the university is gradually invested with the role of National Grande Ecole of Engineers.

Industry oriented university, research appeared in 1984, following the law on Higher education which provides that "engineering education [...] has a research activity, basic or applied,[42] " and is organized around four areas: electronics, automation, computer and air transport economy. The university then feels interest for future engineers to learn research methods: while the method of deductive reasoning, for a long time favored by teachers in the classe préparatoire aux grandes écoles and grandes écoles, shows its limitations, the method of inductive reasoning, characteristic of research, appears increasingly better adapted to highly scalable nature of functions performed by nowadays engineers.[42] The most recent manifestation of the growing interest in research at ENAC is the creation of the air transport economics laboratory, which designation reflects the desire to study, in addition to air transport itself, certain related activities such as air navigation.[43]

The mid-1980s saw the emergence of mastères spécialisés programs. They are born for most of them from an industrial demand, including the groupement des industries françaises aéronautiques et spatiales, keen to support the export contracts by training.[44] Indeed, while filling the needs of many French students or professionals, they can train in a relatively short period some foreign executives. The same period saw the diversification of continuing education[45] at the university. The continuing education courses are organized in five main areas: air traffic systems, electronics, computer, aeronautics and languages/humanities.[46]

International dimension[edit]

The international dimension of the university grew significantly during the 1990s. However, its development faced a considerable obstacle in the form of the design and implementation of a new training regime for air traffic controllers. This hampered the university's efforts to develop ties abroad. The ENAC began to take on a more European character by participating in European projects such as EATCHIP (European Air Traffic control Harmonization and Integration Program),[47] and by offering mobility programs for students through the Erasmus or Socrates. Under these programs, the university began to welcome a growing number of foreign students [46] and forged close ties with foreign universities such as the Berlin Institute of Technology and the Technische Universität Darmstadt in Germany, and the University of Tampere in Finland. It was also during this period that ENAC created the groupement des écoles d'aéronautique (GEA France, in English French aeronautical universities network) with the ISAE and ENSMA.[48][49] The three grandes écoles of this network, in partnership with the DGAC and French companies like (EADS, Airbus, Thales, Eurocopter, Safran[50]),[51] created in 2007 the Institut sino-européen d'ingénierie de l'aviation (Chinese European aviation engineering Institute) of Tianjin which provides Masters and Mastères Spécialisés courses for Chinese students.[52] Since 1990, new missions have emerged. Thus, ENAC negotiates new contracts for studies and research abroad. During the 2000s, courses entirely taught in English and activities focused on air navigation were developed.[53] In 2009, the university and its alumni association organized the first edition of the aeronautical literary festival in Toulouse.[54] In December 2010, ENAC becomes an ICAO center for training in aviation security.[55]

Meanwhile, the university also established new teaching facilities : the air traffic control simulator "CAUTRA", the aerodrome control simulator "AERSIM", an Airbus A320 flight management system simulator, a static model of the CFM 56-5B engine that equips the A321 and a telecom networks laboratory.[56]

Since 1 January 2011 when the ENAC merged with the SEFA, the university is the biggest aviation university in Europe.[57]

Directors history[edit]

The current director of the university is Olivier Chansou, succeeding Marc Houalla [58] who was SEFA director from 2006 till the 1st January 2011.[59] It is the eighth person to be director since the establishment of the university. He was elected the 27th of Novembre 2017.[60] The various directors since inception are given in the following table.

List of ENAC directors[61]
Name Years Occupation
Guy du Merle (1908–1993) 1948 to 1951 Aerospace engineer, test pilot and writer[62]
Gilbert Manuel (1913–2010) 1951 to 1967 Telecommunication engineer[63] · [64]
Louis Pailhas (Born in 1926) 1967 to 1982 Aerospace engineer[65] · [66] · [67]
André Sarreméjean 1982 to 1990 Aerospace engineer
Alain Soucheleau 1990 to 1999 Aerospace engineer[68]
Gérard Rozenknop (Born in 1950) 1999 to 2008 Aerospace engineer[69] · [70]
Marc Houalla (Born in 1961) 2008 to 2017 Aerospace engineer and manager[71] · [72]
Olivier Chansou (Born in 1965) since 2017 Aerospace engineer

Administration[edit]

The university is managed by an elected president.[73] The president administers through three councils; the Training and research council, Flight training council and an International relations and development council.

Budget[edit]

In 2011, the university had a budget of 126 Million Euros, an increase of 61% compared to 2010[74]. This came as a result of its merger with SEFA and includes an EU subsidy of 102 Million Euros.

ENAC foundation[edit]

After several months of consideration,[75] a corporate foundation was established in September 2011. It aims to guide the training and research council on reforming training Ingénieur ENAC (ENAC engineer) and corporate partnerships. It consists of technical and human resources managers from aerospace companies such as Air France, Airbus, Aéroport de Paris, Rockwell Collins, Thalès and Aéroconseil.[76]

Campuses[edit]

École nationale de l'aviation civile is located in France
Biscarrosse
Biscarrosse
Carcassonne
Carcassonne
Castelnaudary
Castelnaudary
Grenoble
Grenoble
Melun
Melun
Montpellier
Montpellier
Muret
Muret
Château-Arnoux-Saint-Auban
Château-Arnoux-Saint-Auban
Saint-Yan
Saint-Yan
Toulouse
Toulouse
Campuses of the École nationale de l'aviation civile
Building Hélène Boucher at ENAC Toulouse

ENAC operates over eight locations with the main campus located at Rangueil, 6 km distant from Toulouse:[77]

The university can provide accommodation.[89] It also has a canteen, cafeteria, library, computer rooms, sports halls including a fitness room, a sports field, a rugby field, five tennis courts, a beach volleyball and a golf driving range.

Aircraft and simulators[edit]

ENAC has a fleet of 130 aircraft of different types[90] · :[91]

The Toulouse campus has a number of fixed and full flight simulators[92] (Robin DR400, Socata TB-20, Airbus A320 and Airbus A340). The air navigation department has control tower simulators[93] (at 120 or 360 degrees), a ground-controlled approach and an area control center simulator.[94]

Teaching and research[edit]

Initial training[edit]

ENAC has four Bachelor's degree courses to train airline pilots and civil aviation Technicians.

ENAC provide theoretical training for airline pilot students (EPL) in eight months in its campus of Toulouse, and the practical training of 16 months, is given in the other campuses of the university in Montpellier, Carcassonne, Saint-Yan or Muret. Since 1992, graduates of this training are represented by an alumni association called AGEPAC.[95] In parallel, the university propose a preparation for the Airline Transport Pilot Licence theory (CPATPL) distinguished by its vocation, allow high school students from low income families to become airline pilot, and its level of recruitment (Baccalauréat). After graduation, students can prepare the Commercial pilot licence or going to the course technicien aéronautique d'exploitation (TAE, in English aeronautical operations technician), training also accessible from two other recruitment. With a similar name but preparing for a different job, the curriculum technicien supérieur de l'aviation (TSA, in English higher aviation Technician) allows the integration of the techniciens supérieurs des études et de l'exploitation de l'aviation civile (TSEEAC, in English higher civil aviation operations Technicians) civil servant department or the one of the techniciens supérieurs de l'aviation civils (TSA civils, in English civilian higher aviation Technician).

In addition, the university has seven Master's degree programs to train people for both aerospace industry and Directorate General for Civil Aviation.

Going exclusively to the Directorate General for Civil Aviation, the courses of ingénieur du contrôle de la navigation aérienne (ICNA, in English Air traffic controller) and ingénieur électronicien des systèmes de la sécurité aérienne (IESSA, in English Air Traffic Safety Electronics Personnel) are done by the university. the Ingénieur ENAC (IENAC) course trains aerospace engineer in three sectors : electronics and aeronautical telecommunications (L), computer systems and air traffic (S) and aeronautical engineering (T). A small part (10 %[96]), are civil servant engineering students. They become ingénieurs des études et de l'exploitation de l'aviation civile (civil aviation operations engineer) after graduation. Since 1949, ENAC is a specialization university for École Polytechnique graduates. Thus, since 16 April 2002 and the merger of the corps des ingénieurs de l'aviation civile (IAC) (civil aviation engineer department) and thus of géographie et de la météorologie (geography and meteorology) into the Corps of Bridges and Roads,[97] the training of managers of the Directorate General for Civil Aviation has changed. The Corps of Bridges and Roads are trained at the École des Ponts ParisTech and part of the course (about 300 hours) is organized in cooperation with ENAC for students who wants to join the DGAC. Furthermore, the university has created in 2007 a Master's degree in International Air Transport Opération Management (IATOM), in 2011 the course Master's degree in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)[98] supported by the European Commission[99] · [100] and in 2012 the training Master's degree in Air Traffic Management (ATM) in partnership with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.[101] The Master's degree in Human–computer interaction (IHM) is realized in cooperation with the Paul Sabatier University.[102]

Finally, the École nationale de l'aviation civile provides seven Mastères Spécialisés courses[103] in the fields : airport management (MA), air transport management (MTA) (in partnership with Toulouse Business School), Communication, navigation and surveillance and satellite applications for aviation (CNSSAA), aviation safety aircraft airworthiness (ASAA) (in partnership with the Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace and the École de l'Air[104]), air-ground collaborative systems engineering (AGCSE), aviation and air traffic management[105] (AATM) and aerospace project management (APM) (in partnership with the Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace[106] and the École de l'Air[107]).

The alumni of the three Master programs, the Ingénieur ENAC course, as well as those of the Corps of Bridges and Roads and those of the Mastères Spécialisés courses was represented by an association, INGENAC, created in 1988, member of the Conseil national des ingénieurs et scientifiques de France (French scientific and engineer council) and located in Toulouse.[108] On 16 March 2012, INGENAC decided to represent all the alumni of the university and changes its name to « ENAC Alumni ».[109]

Each course of the university has its own recruitment process, most of the time by a competitive examination.[110]

Continuing education[edit]

By hosting each year more than 7,500 students who participate to more than 600 courses annually organized by the university, with a turnover of 15 million euros, ENAC is now the largest organization in Europe for aeronautical continuing education. The continuing education of ENAC has been developed in areas which ENAC is well recognized : air traffic, electronics, computer science, aeronautical engineering, aircraft control (instructor), ... These activities are for French and foreign businesses and for personnel of the direction générale de l'aviation civile.

International partners[edit]

An ENAC Socata TB-20 at Airexpo airshow on Muret - Lherm Aerodrome 28 May 2011.

Students of the IENAC course can study at the Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace and at the École nationale supérieure de mécanique et d'aérotechnique as part of the groupement des écoles d'aéronautique, and also at the INPT[111] and at Audencia.[112] Moreover, as part of France AEROTECH, an exchange of third year engineering students is under consideration with Centrale Lyon, Centrale Nantes, ENSEIRB-MATMECA and Arts et Métiers ParisTech.[113]

Abroad, students have access to the Erasmus programme[114] and to Pegasus. In the aerospace engineer course (Ingénieur ENAC course), the university welcomes 8% of foreign students in 2011.[115] Considering all the courses, this rate is 46% in 2010.[116]

The university has also several bilateral agreements,[114] in particular with : Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Florida Institute of Technology, University of California, University of Washington, École africaine de la météorologie et de l'aviation civile. It also trains the staff of the Agence pour la sécurité de la navigation aérienne en Afrique et à Madagascar.

Also, ENAC is a founder of the Institut sino-européen d'ingénierie de l'aviation of Tianjin. On this city, the university provides four Mastères Spécialisés courses at the Civil Aviation University of China[117] · [118] only for Chinese students : airport management, aviation safety management – airworthiness, aviation safety management – flight opérations (in partnership with the Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace) and aviation safety management – aeronautical maintenance (in partnership with the Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace).[119]

Finally, in December 2011, the university has signed a partnership with the École des Ponts ParisTech and the Académie internationale Mohammed VI de l'aviation civile to launch, in March 2012 at Casablanca,[120] an Executive MBA in aviation management for aerospace middle management.[121]

Research activities[edit]

Main entrance, inner court, ENAC Toulouse

Research is a growing business at ENAC. Industry oriented university, it appears in 1984, following the law on higher education which provides that « la formation des ingénieurs...comporte une activité de recherche, fondamentale ou appliquée » (engineer training...contains a research activity, pure or applied).[122] It was originally organized around four areas : electronics, automation, computer and air transport economy. Mid-2009, the research teams was in the following laboratories : automatique – recherche opérationnelle (LARA) (automation – operational research),[123] économie – d'économétrie de l'aérien (LÉÉA) (economy – air econometrics),[124] étude – d'optimisation des architectures des réseaux de télécommunications (LÉOPART) (study – optimization of telecommunications networks architectures)[125] · ,[126] électromagnétisme pour les télécommunications aéronautiques (LÉTA) (electromagnetism for aeronautical telecommunications),[127] informatique interactive (LII) (interactive computer),[128] mathématiques appliquées (LMA) (applied mathematics), optimisation du trafic aérien (LOTA) (air traffic optimization) and traitement du signal pour les télécommunications aéronautiques (LTST) (signal processing for the aeronautical telecommunications).[129]

ENAC also has, since 2005, a team specializing in UAVs that maintains and develops "Paparazzi", a free system for automatic control of UAVs,[130] unmanned aerial vehicle laboratory. The infrastructure includes also a planetarium and an air traffic control simulator. ENAC is a founding member of the European academy for aviation safety (EAFAS),[131] network of the key training organizations in the field of air safety. During the Paris Air Show of 2005, the university announces a partnership with ONERA[132] in the fields of air traffic management, air safety, satellite navigation, sustainable development and air transport economy.[133]

End of 2011, the university has established a new research organization that are six transverse programs : UAVs and air traffic management, airports, aircraft and air operations, human-computer interaction, air/ground communications and sustainable development, everything is now based on four laboratories : applied mathematics – optimization – optimal control – control engineering operations research (MAIAA), signal processing – satellite positioning system – electromagnetismnetworks (TELECOM), architecture – modeling – engineering of interactive systems (LII) and economics – air transport econometrics (LEEA).[134]

Notable alumni[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ (in French)Liens
  2. ^ GEA - Groupement des Grandes Ecoles Aéronautiques et Spatiales Archived 7 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
  3. ^ (in French)ENAC Ecole Nationale de l'Aviation Civile
  4. ^ (in French)"Avis n° 2011/04-03 relatif à l'habilitation de l'Ecole nationale de l'aviation civile (ENAC) à délivrer un titre d'ingénieur diplômé" (PDF). 
  5. ^ (in French)La formation Ingénieur ENAC reçoit le label EUR-ACE
  6. ^ (in French)"Elargissement du réseau FRANCE AEROTECH et signature d'une charte de gouvernance" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 April 2012. 
  7. ^ "IAAPS || International Association of Aviation Personnel Schools". Iaaps.info. Retrieved 10 October 2011. 
  8. ^ (in French)Décret numéro 2007-651 du 30 avril 2007 portant statut de l'École nationale de l'aviation civile
  9. ^ (in French)France Aérotech, un nouveau réseau pour l’aéronautique et le spatial
  10. ^ "ENAC Graduate Engineer". calameo.com. Retrieved 2017-12-02. 
  11. ^ (in French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.13
  12. ^ (in French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.14
  13. ^ (in French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.15
  14. ^ a b (in French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.18
  15. ^ Speech on 3 March 1951
  16. ^ a b (in French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.25
  17. ^ René LEMAIRE, 1952
  18. ^ a b (in French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.28
  19. ^ a b (in French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.32
  20. ^ (in French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.33
  21. ^ (in French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.34
  22. ^ a b (in French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.35
  23. ^ (in French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.36
  24. ^ (in French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.45
  25. ^ "Plaquette de présentation de l'ENAC". 
  26. ^ a b (in French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.55
  27. ^ (in French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.56
  28. ^ (in French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.57
  29. ^ (in French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.58
  30. ^ (in French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.59
  31. ^ (in French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.61
  32. ^ (in French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.62
  33. ^ (in French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.63
  34. ^ (in French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.79
  35. ^ (in French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.81
  36. ^ (in French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.87
  37. ^ (in French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.88
  38. ^ (in French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.89
  39. ^ (in French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.91
  40. ^ (in French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.101
  41. ^ (in French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.102
  42. ^ a b (in French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.125
  43. ^ (in French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.127
  44. ^ (in French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.130
  45. ^ (in French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.129
  46. ^ a b (in French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.131
  47. ^ (in French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.133
  48. ^ (in French)Le réseau GEA France Archived 20 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  49. ^ (in French)L'aéronautique forme des cadets en Chine et en Libye
  50. ^ (in French)SAFRAN, PARTENAIRE DES UNIVERSITÉS CHINOISES
  51. ^ (in French)Les formations en partenariat Archived 14 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  52. ^ (in French)Mastères spécialisés Archived 1 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  53. ^ (in French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.146
  54. ^ (in French)Le livre prend son envol au salon de l'ENAC
  55. ^ (in French)Le Centre de formation à la sûreté de l'ENAC agréé par l'OACI Archived 7 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
  56. ^ (in French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.143
  57. ^ (in French)"La France dispose de la plus grande école d'aviation européenne" (PDF). 
  58. ^ (in French)Marc Houalla le pilote du changement
  59. ^ (in French)Marc HOUALLA
  60. ^ (in French)Décret du 27 novembre 2017 portant nomination du directeur de l'Ecole nationale de l'aviation civile (ENAC) - M. CHANSOU (Olivier)
  61. ^ Annuaire INGENAC 2010 page 9
  62. ^ (in French)Construction des avions: par Guy Du Merle,... Préface de Paul Dumanois,...
  63. ^ (in French)"La lettre d'information mensuelle de l'École Nationale de l'Aviation Civile" (PDF). 
  64. ^ (in French)Annuaire
  65. ^ (in French)PAILHAS Louis
  66. ^ (in French)Monsieur Louis PAILHAS
  67. ^ (in French)"L' ÉNAC à ORLY" (PDF). 
  68. ^ (in French)L'Énac fête ses cinquante ans
  69. ^ (in French)Gérard ROZENKNOP
  70. ^ (in French)Gérard ROZENKNOP
  71. ^ (in French)Marc Houalla le pilote du changement
  72. ^ (in French)Marc Houalla : un nouveau pilote pour l'École de l'aviation civile
  73. ^ (in French)Organigramme général Archived 23 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  74. ^ (in French)Avis présenté au nom de la commission du développement durable et de l'aménagement du territoire sur la loi de finances pour 2011 (n° 2824), tome IV, écologie, développement et améngament durables : transports aériens
  75. ^ (in French)Enac : L'école cherche à se doter d'une fondation
  76. ^ (in French)Newsletter ENAC – n°97 / Septembre 2011
  77. ^ (in French)Travaux. Rangueil : l'Enac rénove son campus
  78. ^ a b (in French)Enac / SEFA : La fusion opérationnelle pour le 1er janvier 2011
  79. ^ (in French)Les cadets Air France dans la nature Archived 24 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  80. ^ (in French)De la voltige de haut niveau
  81. ^ (in French)Formation FI
  82. ^ (in French)L'École nationale d'aviation civile ouvre ses portes
  83. ^ (in French)SEFA 60 Ans au Sommet
  84. ^ (in French)Les 60 ans de Saint Yan
  85. ^ (in French)L'AEROPORT DE SAINT YAN
  86. ^ (in French)Montpellier, entre ciel et mer
  87. ^ (in French)Muret
  88. ^ (in French)Melun-Villaroche – L'aérodrome restera occupé toute la semaine
  89. ^ (in French)École Nationale de l’Aviation Civile ENAC – Toulouse
  90. ^ (in French)La France dispose de la plus grande école d'aviation européenne Archived 7 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
  91. ^ (in French)Tout est bon dans le Salon
  92. ^ (in French)Un simulateur de vol à prix discount
  93. ^ (in French)Lettre mensuelle DSNA numéro 29 – avril 2010 Archived 4 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  94. ^ (in French)L'ENAC met en réseau ses simulateurs de vol et de contrôle pour répondre aux besoins de formation et de recherche des entreprises aéronautiques
  95. ^ (in French)Page d'accueil
  96. ^ (in French)Plaquette de présentation de la formation ingénieur ÉNAC
  97. ^ (in French)Décret n°2002-523 du 16 avril 2002 portant statut particulier du corps des ingénieurs des ponts et chaussées.
  98. ^ (in French)Nouveau MASTER Global Navigation Satellite System, (GNSS)
  99. ^ (in French)Création du Master GNSS
  100. ^ (in French)Les formations ingénieur ENAC
  101. ^ Master of Science in Air Traffic Management Archived 16 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  102. ^ (in French)Master IHM
  103. ^ (in French)ENAC Ecole nationale de l'aviation civile
  104. ^ SM-ASAA
  105. ^ (in French)La Conférence des Grandes Écoles accrédite le nouveau Mastère Spécialisé AVIATION & AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT de l’ENAC Archived 15 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  106. ^ (in French)Mastère Spécialisé : Aerospace Project Management Mastère Spécialisé : Aerospace Project Management Archived 21 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  107. ^ SM-APM[permanent dead link]
  108. ^ (in French)Page d'accueil
  109. ^ Assemblée générale d'ENAC Alumni
  110. ^ (in French)Calendrier des recrutements ÉNAC 2012 Archived 11 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  111. ^ (in French)Master IT parcours SIGL Archived 29 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  112. ^ (in French)Enac : Partenariat avec l'Ecole de Commerce de Nantes
  113. ^ (in French)Élargissement du réseau FRANCE AEROTECH et signature d’une charte de gouvernance Archived 15 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  114. ^ a b (in French)Page des échanges internationaux[permanent dead link]
  115. ^ (in French)ÉNAC Toulouse dans le palmarès l'Étudiant 2012
  116. ^ (in French)OBJECTIF n° 2 : Faire de l’ENAC une école de référence dans le domaine du transport aérien en France et à l’étranger Archived 7 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
  117. ^ (in French)Plaquette de présentation de l'ÉNAC
  118. ^ (in French)L'ÉNAC dans le monde
  119. ^ Students graduate from Airbus aviation program
  120. ^ (in French)UN NOUVEL EXECUTIVE MBA POUR L’AVIATION
  121. ^ (in French)L'AIAC lance un Executive MBA in Aviation Management
  122. ^ (in French)Book 50 and d'Enac page 125
  123. ^ (in French)Laboratoire de recherche opérationnelle et automatique Archived 14 October 2005 at the Wayback Machine.
  124. ^ (in French)Laboratoire d'économie et d'économétrie de l'aérien Archived 17 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
  125. ^ (in French)Présentation (succincte) du LEOPART
  126. ^ (in French)Développement d'algorithmes de planification tactique de trajectoires avion.
  127. ^ (in French)Laboratoire d'Électromagnétisme pour les Télécommunications Aéronautiques (LETA)
  128. ^ (in French)Le laboratoire d'informatique interactive
  129. ^ (in French)Laboratoire de Traitement du Signal pour les Télécommunications Aéronautiques (LTST)
  130. ^ (in French)Page d'accueil
  131. ^ (in French)Page principale
  132. ^ (in French)Partenariat stratégique ÉNAC-ONÉRA dans le domaine de la recherche Archived 25 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  133. ^ (in French)L’ENAC et l’ONERA mettent leurs compétences en commun afin de promouvoir une recherche d’excellence et apporter des solutions à des clients français et étrangers
  134. ^ (in French)Newsletter ENAC – n°98 / Novembre 2011

Bibliography[edit]

  • Ariane Gilotte, Jean-Philippe Husson and Cyril Lazerge, 50 ans d'Énac au service de l'aviation, Édition S.E.E.P.P, 1999
  • Académie nationale de l'air et de l'espace and Lucien Robineau, Les français du ciel, dictionnaire historique, June 2005, 782 p. (ISBN 2-7491-0415-7), p. 626, « Les écoles d'ingénieurs aéronautiques »
  • Sandrine Banessy, Le rêve d'Icare – Histoire de l'aviation à Toulouse, Labége, éditions TME, 2006, 95 p. (ISBN 2-7491-0415-7), p. 80 et 81 « Du rêve à la réalité »
  • [PDF] Agence d'évaluation de la recherche et de l'enseignement supérieur, « Rapport d'évaluation de l'École nationale de l'aviation civile », September 2010
  • GIFAS, Ouvrez grand vos ailes : une formation pour un métier dans l'industrie aéronautique et spatiale, Paris, GIFAS, 2011, 62 p., p. 41

See also[edit]

External links[edit]