Émile Gsell (1838 - 1879) was a French photographer who worked in Southeast Asia, becoming the first commercial photographer based in Saigon (now Ho Chi Minh City). He participated in at least three scientific expeditions, and the images he produced from the first, to Angkor Wat, are amongst the earliest photographs of that site. Though he died at an early age he managed to make several hundred photographs in just over a dozen years featuring a wide range of subject matter including architecture, landscapes, and studio, ethnographic and genre portraits.
Gsell was born in Sainte-Marie-aux-Mines, Haut-Rhin, France on 31 December 1838. He served in the military from 1858 to 1866, during which time he learned photography and travelled to Cochin China (now Southern Vietnam).
In Cochin China, Gsell was hired by the Commission d'exploration du Mékong, directed by Ernest Doudart de Lagrée (b. 1823 - d. 1868), to photograph the ruins of Angkor. Gsell accompanied the expedition to Cambodia and Siam (now Thailand, and at the time in possession of Angkor) from June to September or October 1866, often receiving suggestions for photographic points of view from Doudart de Lagrée.
Also in 1866, following the expedition, Gsell established himself as a commercial photographer in Saigon, becoming the first professional photographer to do so in that city.
In the first half of 1873 Gsell returned to Angkor and travelled through Cambodia with Louis Delaporte. On the strength of his Cambodian photographs Gsell was awarded a medal of merit at the Vienna International Exhibition, which was held from 1 May to the 31 October 1873 and during which Gsell exhibited two albums of photographs, one of the ruins of Angkor and the other of "the mores, customs, and types of the Annamite and Cambodian populations".
In April 1875, Gsell accompanied a mission, led by Brossard de Corbigny, to Huế, though he was not allowed to photograph the people he met nor the Citadel. However, two of his photographs demonstrate that he was in Hanoi at the end of 1875 and from November 1876 to January 1877 Gsell was able to take many views of Tonkin (now Northern Vietnam).
Gsell's photographs were marketed by Auguste Nicolier, who sold chemicals and photographic supplies in Saigon from 1876.
Emile Gsell died at home in Saigon on 16 October 1879. After his death, O. Wegener succeeded Gsell, obtaining and using his stock in the early 1880s then passing it on to Vidal (also known as Salin-Vidal) who marketed it under the names Vidal and Salin-Vidal until his own death in 1883.
- Des photographes en Indochine: Tonkin, Annam, Cochinchine Page 224 Philippe Franchini, Jérôme Ghesquière, Sylvie Aubenas - 2001 "Émile GSELL Originaire de Sainte-Marie-aux-Mines, dans le Haut-Rhin, ou son père est imprimeur sur toile, Émile Gsell est né le 31 décembre 1838. Ses parents sont de religion protestante et habitent rue du Temple avec leur deuxième ..."
- Anglo-American Name Authority File, s.v. "Gsell, Emile", LC Control Number nr2002017108. Accessed 26 May 2004.
- Auer, Michèle, and Michel Auer. 'Encyclopédie internationale des photographes / Photographers encyclopaedia international: index' (Paris: Maison européenne de la photographie; Hermance, Switzerland: Camera Obscura, 1992).
- Canadian Centre for Architecture; Collections Online, s.v. "Gsell, Emile". Accessed 3 April 2006.
- Bautze, Joachim K[arl]. 'Émile Gsell (1838–79) and Early Photographs of Angkor'. Connecting Empires and States: Selected Papers from the 13th International Conference of the European Association of Southeast Asian Archaeologists, Vol. 2; ed. by Mai Lin Tjoa-Bonatz, Andreas Reinicke & Dominik Bonatz, Singapore: NUS Press 2012, 306-316.
- Franchini, Philippe, and Jérôme Ghesquière, sous la direction de [under the direction of]. 'Des photographes en Indochine: Tonkin, Annam, Cochinchine, Cambodge et Laos au XIXe siècle' (Paris: Marval, 2001), 224-225.
- Edwards, Gary. 'International Guide to Nineteenth-Century Photographers and Their Works' (Boston: G.K. Hall, 1988), 231.
- Ministère des Affaires étrangères, France. 'France diplomatie; Archives et patrimoine; Pages d'Histoire; Journées du Patrimoine 2003: Patrimoine spirituel autour du Monde; Une contribution à la préservation du patrimoine mondial. Les temples d'Angkor.; La mission Doudart de Lagrée à Angkor, 1866.'. Accessed 16 January 2004.
- Suriyakantha. 'France - Sri Lanka Cultural Exchanges; Culture; Photography; Nostalgia...; Emile Gsell (1838-1879) 's Indochina'. Accessed 21 February 2006.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Emile Gsell.|