Éric Zemmour

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Éric Zemmour
Zemmour in 2022
President of Reconquête
Assumed office
5 December 2021
Preceded byOffice established
Personal details
Éric Zemmour

(1958-08-31) 31 August 1958 (age 65)
Montreuil, France
Political partyReconquête (2021–present)
Mylène Chichportich
(m. 1982)
Domestic partnerSarah Knafo (2021–present)
Alma materSciences Po
OccupationPolitician, essayist, political journalist
AwardsPrix Richelieu, Prix Combourg-Chateaubriand
WebsiteYouTube channel
Nickname"Le Z"[1]
Writing career
SubjectPolitical history, cultural evolution, opposition to immigration
Notable worksL'homme qui ne s'aimait pas
Le premier sexe
Mélancolie française
Le Suicide français
Destin français
La France n'a pas dit son dernier mot

Éric Zemmour (French: [eʁik zemuʁ]; born 31 August 1958) is a French far-right[a][b][c] politician, essayist, writer and former political journalist and pundit. He was an editor and panelist on Face à l'Info, a daily show broadcast on CNews, from 2019 to 2021.[4] He ran in the 2022 French presidential election, in which he placed fourth in the first round.

Born in Montreuil, Zemmour studied at Sciences Po. He worked as a reporter for Le Quotidien de Paris from 1986 to 1996. He then joined Le Figaro, where he worked until 2021.[d] Zemmour also became known as a television personality, appearing as a pundit or co-host on shows such as On n'est pas couché on France 2 (2006–2011) and Ça se dispute on I-Télé (2003–2014), as well as Zemmour et Naulleau (2011–2021), a weekly evening talk show on Paris Première, together with literary critic Éric Naulleau.[9] Zemmour also worked for RTL from 2010 until 2019, first hosting the daily radio show Z comme Zemmour, prior to joining Yves Calvi's morning news show as an analyst. His book The French Suicide (Le Suicide français) sold more than 500,000 copies in 2014.[10][11]

Zemmour is well known for his controversial views regarding immigration and Islam in France. He has extensively supported the idea of the "great replacement", a conspiracy theory contending that France's native population will be replaced by non-European people.[12] Zemmour was fined for incitement to racial discrimination in 2011 and for incitement of hate against Muslims in 2018. He appealed the conviction before the European Court of Human Rights but he lost the appeal.[13] He was acquitted six times of similar charges, in 2008, 2014 (twice), 2016, 2017 and 2019. Convictions in 2015 and 2020 were overturned on appeal.

Zemmour announced his candidacy for the 2022 French presidential election on 30 November 2021.[14] On 5 December 2021, he launched Reconquête, a nationalist political party.[15] In 2021, a New York Times article described Zemmour's views as "hard-line... on immigration, Islam's place in France and national identity",[12] while he self-identifies as Gaullist and Bonapartist.[16] During his presidential campaign, Zemmour advocated vast changes in France's political system. He endorsed Marine Le Pen for the second round.[17]

He was a candidate for a parliamentary seat in the Saint-Tropez-centred 4th constituency of the Var department in the 2022 French legislative election but was eliminated in the first round, placing third.

Life and career[edit]

Early life and family[edit]

Zemmour was born on 31 August 1958 in the Seine department, now part of Seine-Saint-Denis. His parents were Berber Jews from Algeria, which was part of France at that time, and so they had French citizenship.[e][19][20] They had moved to metropolitan France in 1952, before the Algerian War, alongside their parents and siblings.[21][22] Upon their arrival in France, his paternal grandparents, born Liaou and Messouka, took the names Justin and Rachel, and his maternal grandmother, born Ourida, took her middle name Claire. Her husband was named Léon; this is the root of Zemmour's middle name.[23]

His parents were Roger Zemmour, a paramedic, and Lucette, a housewife.[24] His father was often absent and so he was principally raised by his mother and grandmother; he has since said that this helped him to forge his character, and that it was his mother who instilled in him drive and ambition for excellence.[25][26] He has one younger brother, Jean-Luc.[27]

Zemmour grew up first in Drancy and later in the Paris Château Rouge quarter.[24] He was brought up in the Jewish faith, and he speaks Hebrew.[28] Although private about his faith, he follows the directions of the Halakha and attended synagogues frequently until the death of his father in 2013.[citation needed] He has stated that his Jewish name is "Moïse".[29][23][30]


Zemmour attended Jewish private schools, École Lucien-de-Hirsh and École Yabné.[31] He graduated from the Institut d'études politiques de Paris in 1979. He subsequently failed twice (in 1980 and 1981) to gain admission to the École nationale d'administration (ÉNA).[32] However, he later became member of the admissions committee of the school in 2006.[33]

Personal life[edit]

Since 1982, Éric Zemmour has been married to Mylène Chichportich, a lawyer of Tunisian Jewish descent who specialises in bankruptcy law. She maintains a low media profile and never comments on her husband's controversies. The couple have three children, two boys and a girl.[34]

In 2021, Zemmour was alleged by French gossip magazines to have made his chief campaign advisor Sarah Knafo pregnant,[35] although he recognised her as his partner in January 2022.[36]

In a 2014 interview with Le Point, Zemmour stated that although he does not believe in God, he keeps a kosher home and occasionally attends synagogue services on High Holy Days.[37]

Political journalist[edit]

Zemmour in 2011

Zemmour began his career in 1986 on the politics desk at Le Quotidien de Paris, under the editorship of Philippe Tesson. After the newspaper went out of business in 1994, he became a lead writer at Info-Matin, where he stayed for a year. He joined Le Figaro in 1996 as a political journalist. During this period, Zemmour was also a freelancer for Marianne (1997) and for Valeurs actuelles (1999).[38]

According to Libération, during the 1990s he called for a political union of the French right-wing parties, cultivating contacts with the founder and president of the National Front Jean-Marie Le Pen ("who Zemmour was unique amongst journalists in addressing as president") and his rival Bruno Mégret.[39]

In 2009, he was moved by Le Figaro to Le Figaro Magazine, allegedly after making controversial statements in other media, but in fact, due to his salary being considered too high for his modest weekly output.[40][41] He was moved back to Le Figaro as a permanent journalist in 2013, where he wrote regularly, including literary reviews, until he took time off work in September 2021 to promote his new book.[42]

He was also a political columnist at Le Spectacle du Monde, a monthly publication by the Valeurs Actuelles group, from 2013 until it ceased publication in July 2014.A


Zemmour at a book signing in 2008.

Zemmour has written biographies of Prime Minister Édouard Balladur (Balladur, immobile à grands pas, or "Balladur, Motionless With Great Strides") and President Jacques Chirac (L'Homme qui ne s'aimait pas, or "The Man Who Did Not Like Himself") along with political essays. Notably, in 2006 he published Le premier sexe ("The First Sex"), a book on what he considers to be the feminisation of society. He worked on the screenplay for the film Dans la peau de Jacques Chirac by Michel Royer and Karl Zéro, although the latter stated that Zemmour's writing was only used to a limited extent.[43] In 2008, he published Petit Frère, in a limited run of 63,000 copies, in which he criticised "antiracist angelism". In March 2010, with Mélancolie française ("French Melancholy") which won the Prix du livre incorrect (lit.'Inappropriate Book Award'), he considers alternate histories of France, if some events had not happened.[44]

In 2014, Zemmour published Le Suicide français ("The French Suicide"), which sold over half a million copies and remains his best literary success to date.[45] In it, he defends his thesis that the French nation-state has weakened since the 1970s, which he most notably attributes to the influence of the "May '68 generation".

In Destin français ("French Destiny"), published in 2018, he put events from his own life story in the context of various historical events. He once again addressed the history of France, as well as discussing the influence of Islam in France, which he sees as growing generally in French society.[46]

His book La France n'a pas dit son dernier mot ("France Has Not Spoken Its Last Word"), released on 15 September 2021, made Zemmour an estimated €1.3 million in three weeks, according to Le Parisien, selling over 80,000 copies in the first four days[47] and 165,000 copies in the first 3 weeks.[48][49]

Television and radio personality[edit]

Beginning in September 2003, he participated weekly on the show Ça se dispute on the 24-hour news channel i>Télé first alongside Christophe Barbier and later Nicolas Domenach. The channel decided to cancel the programme in December 2014, after Zemmour's comments on Islam in the Italian newspaper Corriere della Sera. The channel was later ordered to pay Zemmour €50,000 for wrongful breach of contract.[50]

Zemmour also appeared on Vendredi pétantes on Canal+ until June 2006, and starting September 2006, he rejoined France 2 to participate on the show On n'est pas couché, hosted by Laurent Ruquier, accompanied by Michel Polac and then Éric Naulleau, where they were responsible for presenting honest criticism of films, books or most notably musical albums. During the show, their exchanges with cultural figures sometimes ended in clashes. On 27 May 2011, Ruquier announced in Le Parisien that he was replacing Zemmour and Naulleau with new contributors for the next season of On n'est pas couché.[51]

Éric Zemmour was also a participant on the show L'Hebdo as an editorialist on Tempo, a channel for the overseas departments and territories; he was accompanied by, among others, sociologist Dominique Wolton. Finally, he was on the cable network Histoire on the show Le grand débat, hosted by Michel Field.[52] Since 4 January 2010, he has presented a short piece on RTL entitled Z comme Zemmour every Monday and Friday, during which he presents topical news analysis.[53] Since September 2011, he has hosted Zemmour et Naulleau alongside Éric Naulleau, an evening talk show on Paris Première.[54] In 2021, Zemmour's show was receiving about 900,000 nightly viewers, ten times higher than in 2019.[45]

In 2015, following the Charlie Hebdo shooting, Zemmour was temporarily placed under armed police protection.[55] On 30 April 2020, Zemmour was insulted and threatened in Paris as he was walking by himself carrying bags of groceries. The incident was recorded by the perpetrator himself who posted the video on social media, boasting about his act as Zemmour was filmed ignoring the man and trying to walk away.[56] Shortly thereafter, Zemmour received a phone call from President Emmanuel Macron in which they discussed the incident. The perpetrator, who later also recorded himself saying Zemmour is "too good at debate, what do you want to do except insult him",[57] received a suspended prison sentence of three months on 8 September 2020.[58] On 27 September 2021, Zemmour was again threatened in Paris, when a man shouted a death threat in the name of Islam.[59] Since October 2020, he has again been under permanent armed police protection.[60]

Candidacy in the 2022 presidential election[edit]

Zemmour at a meeting next to the Trocadéro, 27 March 2022.

The suggestion that Zemmour might stand in the 2022 French presidential election was first made in 2019,[61] when no natural candidate[clarification needed] emerged from the traditional right-wing parties. Zemmour then announced that he was thinking about "a platform of ideas for the right". The media also took notice of the presence in his entourage of Sarah Knafo, a political campaigner.[62]

In 2021, he engaged in a national tour of France to promote of his new book, La France n'a pas dit son dernier mot.[63] Appearing as a guest on France 2 on 11 September in Laurent Ruquier's On est en direct programme,[64] Zemmour would not confirm whether he would announce his candidacy.[65] He reiterated this position throughout September on RTL,[66] BFMTV,[67] CNews[68] and LCI.[69] On 28 September, Le Parisien revealed that Éric Zemmour already had at his disposal a large office space, in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, rented by the association "The Friends of Éric Zemmour".[70]

On 24 September, Zemmour engaged in a widely publicized two-hour-long televised debate with left-wing presidential candidate Jean-Luc Mélenchon, attracting over 3.8 million viewers.[71][72] On 30 November Eric Zemmour declared himself a candidate for the 2022 presidential election.[73] On 5 December, he revealed his political party would be called "Reconquête".[15] On 9 December 2021, Zemmour debated Bruno Le Maire on Elysée 2022, a presidential debate which was aired on France 2. During the debate, he said that the #MeToo is a movement of "eradication of men".[74] Zemmour finished in fourth place during the first round of the 2022 election and was eliminated. He subsequently endorsed Marine Le Pen ahead of the second round.[75]

Polls for the 2022 presidential election[edit]

The popularity of his candidacy has been tested in several polls since June 2021.[76][77] The first time he appeared in a poll, in June 2021, the Institut français d'opinion publique (IFOP) credited him with 5.5% of the vote.[78][76] In August 2021, he was credited with 7% of voting intentions according to Ipsos.[79] On 14 September he was credited by Harris Interactive with 10% of voting intentions.[80]

On 1 October 2021, with opinion polls showing him with 15% of voting intentions, putting him in third place overall, only 1 point behind National Rally candidate Marine Le Pen. Hence, he was in a potentially competitive position to reach the second round of the election.[81] On 6 October, Zemmour reached 17% of voting intentions, in second place among all of the candidates for the first time, which, if realized, would have seen him reach the second voting round.[82] Throughout October and November, before the confirmation of The Republicans' candidate, Le Pen and Zemmour were close in polls to come second behind Macron in the first round.[83][84][85]

In December 2021, polls credited him with 12–14% of the vote, placing him fourth in the race, behind Macron, Valérie Pécresse (who had won the primary for The Republicans on 4 December) and Le Pen.[86][87][88] In mid-January 2022, BBC correspondent Hugh Schofield commented following Zemmour's hate speech conviction that "in the last few weeks, Zemmour's star, which shone so brightly in the autumn, has shown distinct signs of fading. This verdict will entrench some in their support for the man. But it may also convince others that he is indeed beyond the pale".[89]

Zemmour received notable endorsements from Philippe de Villiers, Jean-Marie Le Pen, Jacques Bompard, Jean-Frédéric Poisson, Jacline Mouraud, Paul-Marie Coûteaux, Jérôme Rivière, Guillaume Peltier, Joachim Son-Forget and Christine Boutin in the early stages of his campaign.[90][91][92][93][94][95] In February 2022, Zemmour saw a resurgence in the polls, as he again rose to second place behind Macron.[96]


Political orientation[edit]

Zemmour in 2012.

Zemmour identifies his political leanings as "Gaullo-Bonapartiste", a set of views inspired by Gaullism and Bonapartism.[97][98] This has been defined in more concrete terms by the historian Nicolas Lebourg, who wrote that Zemmour's politics are defined by four elements. Firstly, Bonapartism: Zemmour believes in the importance of "great men" in the fate of a country. Secondly, unitarism, a great importance is given to the unity of a nation state. Thirdly, "complete sovereignty": Zemmour believes that all of a nation's problems can be solved by the sovereignty of the nation state. The fourth element of Zemmour's ideas is a "nationalism obsessed with decadence" which would take the form of a sort of Darwinism: if the French people don't change, they will be "swept away by history".[99]

Zemmour has been commonly presented as a "far-right pundit" in French[100] and international[101][14][102][103] media. Historian Laurent Joly wrote in 2015 that "since Barrès and Maurras, no other intellectual, journalist or writer has had this status as a broker of far-right ideas with a very large readership".[104]

On the contrary, political scientist Jean-Yves Camus has opposed designating Zemmour as far-right, claiming that Zemmour was not a fascist or a Nazi.[105] Asked in October 2021 on the positioning of Eric Zemmour in relation to Marine Le Pen, Camus ranks him "on the right", more precisely in the "radical conservative right".[106][107][108] Some French media outlets also present him "on the right", in the "conservative right", or as Gaullist, or in the "sovereignist right", or in the "radical right", or in the "radical and identitary right".[b]

Social issues[edit]

Zemmour takes a conservative stance on social issues and has identified as a reactionary.[109][110]

French decline[edit]

Zemmour has expressed the view that the French nation-state has been in a state of decline since the 1970s, which he has attributed to the rise of immigration, feminism, left-wing politics and the erosion of traditional values.[102][111] He presented these views at length in his 2014 essay The French Suicide. Zemmour has therefore been associated with declinism.[112][113]

In a review of The French Suicide in The New Yorker, Alexander Stille argued that Zemmour significantly overstates the decline of France which, while no longer a great power, "remains among the top twenty countries by virtually all measures of the World Bank's Human Development Index."[112]

Immigration and assimilation[edit]

Zemmour has extensively promoted the Great Replacement conspiracy theory, contending that France's population will be replaced by immigrants.[114][115][116]

Interviewed in August 2021 on his views on immigration in France, Zemmour declared: "We have to stop the flow. I'm not just talking about the illegals; I am thinking first of legal immigration. ... There is a process of replacing the population from the moment there are too many immigrants who no longer assimilate. It's inevitable."[117]

A member of the French assimilationist tradition, Zemmour has strongly opposed mass immigration, and the current model of integrating immigrants which he considers to have been too lenient, for a long time.[118] In November 2008, he gave an interview to the monthly Le Choc du mois where he compared immigration to a "demographic tsunami".[119] In 2007 he also came out in favour of the Thierry Mariani amendment, which would require genetic tests in order to qualify for family reunification.[120]

At a public meeting in Lille in October 2021, Zemmour reiterated his position on migrants, calling for an end to illegal and legal immigration in France.[121]

Race and anti-racism issues[edit]

Zemmour says he would like to put on trial the anti-racism of the 1980s,[122] which he considers, along with feminism, to be a "bien-pensant cause" derived from the "milieu of French and Western pseudo-elites" that the people will not follow in the least.[22] He says that it was especially after having "read Pierre-André Taguieff" who is known for his positions and work on the Nouvelle Droite and anti-racism that he "understood that anti-racist progressivism was the successor of communism, with the same totalitarian methods developed by the Comintern during the 1930s".[123] According to him, anti-racism is a tactic initiated by François Mitterrand to make people forget the left's turn to economic liberalism in 1983. He claims that anti-racism is an ideology implemented by former leftists who had had to give up their illusions. With immigrants, these people had found a kind of alternative revolutionary people.[22]

Feminism, women and homosexuality[edit]

Zemmour has expressed criticism of feminism and homosexuality, and has claimed that France's decline had partly been caused by the erosion of virility, and the "feminization" of society, themes he has explored at length in Le Premier Sexe and The French Suicide.[111][124][125][126] Zemmour called the legalization of abortion a "collective suicide"[126] and has argued that women were unsuited to positions of political power.[127] In The French Suicide, he expressed criticism of birth control, women's rights, and gender studies.[128][112] He has also defended Dominique Strauss-Kahn and Tariq Ramadan in relation to accusations of sexual assault levelled against them.[129][125]

A number of op-ed pieces have labelled his positions as misogynistic.[124][125][127][112][129]

Zemmour defends himself from such allegations, stating that he instead believes himself to be "the greatest defender of women".[130] In televised debates and during his presidential campaign he has often taken this position, arguing that he is the sole candidate to defend women from Islam, especially from the compulsion to wear veils under many modern interpretations of Sharia law.[131][132]

Economic policy[edit]

Zemmour's diagnosis of the current economic state of France precedes his positions on various economic issues, and in particular questions of fiscal policy and free trade. He says that France is "world champion in everything" in this regard, with 30% of GDP for social protection, 56% for public spending and 47% for compulsory contributions, such as direct taxes and various other social contributions.[133] He also says that France's budget massively helps foreigners and immigrants, who benefit for example from 42% of the social redistribution of the national Family Allowance Fund.[134] Zemmour declared in that regard that he will stop all kind of aid and subsidies to foreigners, and claims that this will bring 20 to 30 billion euros yearly savings to the French budget.[135] In particular, he also advocates abolishing state medical aid for foreigners,[136][137] which costs 1 billion euros per year to the state budget.[138]

Rather anti-liberal with regards to free trade, he opposes European federalism[139] and the European Union, which he considers to be clearly in favour of the free movement of goods and in deep conflict with the French social model. According to him, because of the European Union, the left, like the right, must apply "the same economic policy, social liberalism or liberal socialism"[140] because, in the words of Philippe Séguin, "right and left are retailers of the same wholesaler, Europe".[141] Zemmour supports protectionism.[142]

Taxes and social contributions[edit]

Zemmour wants to lower corporate taxes.[143] He has proposed to reduce the CSG (general social contribution) from 9% to 2.5%, for employees who have a modest salary, from the minimum wage up to 2,000 euros. Eric Zemmour thus judges that this would make a salary increase of a monthly minimum wage over the year.[144][145] In order both not to reduce the social protection model of the French and to finance this tax cut, he wants "national solidarity to become national again", and has proposed that non-contributory social expenditure (family allowances, housing allowances, minimum old-age allowance, minimum living allowance) be withdrawn from foreigners and are reserved for the French. According to him, this represents 20 billion savings for the national budget.[144]

Euro and free trade issues[edit]

While Zemmour has advocated France dropping the Euro currency, he is no longer supporting this idea, which he believes would have more disadvantages than advantages at this stage. He rather prefers to concentrate on free trade issues, in order to stop free trade treaties, and introduce import taxes on strategic products where France needs to defend its national interest, local production, and social model.[146]

Other topics[edit]

  • Zemmour has called the French state a "bureaucratic hell" and advocates administrative simplification.[147]
  • He proposes the retirement age be raised to 64.[148][149]
  • He regrets France abolished the death penalty and has expressed philosophical views in favour of it.[150]

International relations[edit]

Zemmour has argued for a distancing of France from the United States, a closer relationship with Russia,[151] as well as an increased independence from the European Union and its foreign policy. He has stated that the Normandy landings during World War II had been a liberation, but also a "colonization", of France by the United States.[152] Zemmour has also called for a strengthening of the French Armed Forces, arguing that the only influence that France has retained on the international scene was due to the strength of its armed forces and its nuclear defense capabilities.[152] He supports a withdrawal from the NATO's integrated military command.[153][154][155]

Zemmour supported Brexit and Britain's vote to leave the European Union, describing the EU as a "pure technostructure that has got rid of the people," but has said that he would not seek to fully withdraw France from the EU if elected president, arguing that France's war record made it harder for the country to follow Britain's example. Instead, Zemmour has summed up his position as "I want France to be in Europe, but I want France to come before Europe," and pledged to withdraw France from the EU's immigration and asylum policies, put French law above EU law and halt accession talks with Eastern European countries aiming to join the bloc.[156][157]

In addition, Zemmour has expressed support for Rattachism, the integration of Wallonia, the French-speaking part of Belgium, into France, pointing to a 2010 opinion poll in which 49 per cent of Walloons were ready for such a move.[158] He described Belgium as having become largely a fiction, and likened its separation from France to that of East Germany from West Germany, calling it "France's GDR".[159]

Zemmour condemned Russia's 2022 invasion of Ukraine despite his previous pro-Russia stance.[160]

After the Israel-Hamas war, Zemmour described the conflict as the "fight of our civilisation", called for a ban on Hamas's parent organisation, the Muslim Brotherhood, in France, and visited Israel in solidarity.[161][162]

Electoral history[edit]

2022 French presidential election[edit]

Summary of the 10 April and 24 April 2022 French presidential election results
Candidate Party 1st round
10 April 2022
2nd round
24 April 2022
Votes % Votes %
Emmanuel Macron La République En Marche! LREM 9,783,058 27.85 18,768,639 58.55
Marine Le Pen National Rally RN 8,133,828 23.15 13,288,686 41.45
Jean-Luc Mélenchon La France Insoumise LFI 7,712,520 21.95
Éric Zemmour Reconquête R! 2,485,226 7.07
Valérie Pécresse The Republicans LR 1,679,001 4.78
Yannick Jadot Europe Ecology – The Greens EELV 1,627,853 4.63
Jean Lassalle Résistons! RES 1,101,387 3.13
Fabien Roussel French Communist Party PCF 802,422 2.28
Nicolas Dupont-Aignan Debout la France DLF 725,176 2.06
Anne Hidalgo Socialist Party PS 616,478 1.75
Philippe Poutou New Anticapitalist Party NPA 268,904 0.77
Nathalie Arthaud Lutte Ouvrière LO 197,094 0.56
Total 35,132,947 100.00 32,057,325 100.00
Valid votes 35,132,947 97.80 32,057,325 91.34
Blank ballots 543,609 1.51 2,233,904 6.37
Invalid ballots 247,151 0.69 805,249 2.29
Turnout 35,923,707 73.69 35,096,478 71.99
Not voted 12,824,169 26.31 13,655,861 28.01
Registered voters 48,747,876 48,752,339
Source: Minister of the Interior[163]
Vote share – 1st round
Emmanuel Macron
Marine Le Pen
Jean-Luc Mélenchon
Éric Zemmour
Valérie Pécresse
Yannick Jadot
Jean Lassalle
Fabien Roussel
Nicolas Dupont-Aignan
Anne Hidalgo
Philippe Poutou
Nathalie Arthaud

2022 French legislative elections[edit]

2022 French legislative election: Var's 4th constituency
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
LREM (Ensemble) Sereine Mauborgne 14,735 28.51 -3.79
RN Philippe Lottiaux 12,784 24.74 -0.02
REC Eric Zemmour 11,983 23.19 N/A
LFI (NUPÉS) Sabine Cristofani-Viglione 6,649 12.87 +0.88
LR (UDC) Marie-Christine Hamel 2,454 4.75 -13.12
DIV Chantal Sarrut 1,205 2.33
Others N/A 1,671 3.62 N/A
Turnout 51,681 46.66 +3.87
2nd round result
RN Philippe Lottiaux 25,581 53.65 +8.30
LREM (Ensemble) Sereine Mauborgne 22,098 46.35 -8.30
Turnout 47,679 44.89 +7.89
RN gain from LREM


Controversies and conflicts with opponents[edit]

The subjects Zemmour addresses, as well as the positions he defends, have earned him some strong opponents and equally strong supporters. According to an article by François Dufay, La fronde des intellos (literal translation: "The upheaval of the intellectuals"), in the June 2002 edition of Le Point, Jean-Marie Le Pen reportedly said that "[the] only three journalists who behave properly with respect to [him]" are Élisabeth Lévy, Éric Zemmour and Serge Moati.[165][failed verification] Zemmour noted during an interview: "I think he meant that with an ironic wink: it refers to his famous declaration fifteen years ago that caused such a scandal when he criticised Elkabbach, Levaï, who were all Jewish, and you will note that the three who he noted treat him well are also all Jewish. [...] And he knows that quite well, and everyone knows that quite well".[166]

Following a number of controversies after a talk show on Arte dedicated to miscegenation on 13 November 2008, as a result of his comments on races (that blacks and whites belonged to two different races and that this difference was discernible by skin colour, without ranking them hierarchically), Zemmour also published a reply in the magazine Vendredi.[167] Faced with the criticism caused by the views expressed by Éric Zemmour during the show, the deputy manager of programmes for the Arte channel distanced himself from these words but explained that nothing said was illegal.[f]

On 25 March 2009, he filed a complaint against the French rapper Youssoupha for "criminal threats and public abuse" after the uploading of the song "Because of saying it" in which Zemmour was attacked ad hominem: "Because of judging our faces, people know, that talking heads often demonise the ghetto-dwellers, each time it blows up they say it's us, I put a price on the head of the one who silences this asshole Éric Zemmour".[169] The rapper had clarified in a previous interview in the newspaper Le Parisien that he was not advocating silencing Zemmour by force, but rather by argument.[g] The album was finally released on 12 October 2009, with an expurgated version of the controversial track in which Zemmour's name is scrambled out. On 26 October 2011, Zemmour won his suit against the rapper and the director general of EMI Music France, Valérie Queinnec.[171]

On 5 March 2011, some voices were raised against Zemmour and called for Rémy Pflimlin, the CEO of France Télévisions, to suspend Zemmour's collaboration with France 2,[h] which he refused to do, explaining: ""The public service is attached to humanist and republican values, but it is also the place where the diversity of opinions is expressed within the legal framework", he reminds those around him urging him to suspend Éric Zemmour's collaboration with France 2".[174]

On 17 November 2015, four days after the 13 November 2015 Paris terrorist attacks, Zemmour stated on RTL: "Instead of bombing Raqqa, France should bomb Molenbeek from which the Friday 13 commandos came". This caused outrage in Belgium.[175] In a 24 March 2016 column, Zemmour added: "Molenbeeks, France is full of them. France creates them in abundance".[176]

On 18 September 2018, controversy arose over his opinion about the first name of columnist Hapsatou Sy on the TV programme Les terriens du dimanche hosted by Thierry Ardisson. His words "It's your first name that is an insult to France", adding "first names embody the history of France" were cut at the editing of the show but rebroadcast by Sy. She then asked him "What would you like my name to be?" to which he answered "Corinne, that would suit you very well". She decided to file a complaint against Zemmour.[177]

In 2020, whilst commenting on footage that showed four policemen hitting a black man in Paris, Zemmour responded to accusations of racism levelled at the involved policemen by saying "I can hardly see [them] getting up in the morning and telling themselves: 'Here, I'm going to endanger my career and I'm going to hit a black guy'", although he recognised "that does not mean that they were right" to do what they did. He also questioned the victim's judicial history.[178]

In September 2021, in his book La France n'a pas dit son dernier mot, Zemmour states Seine-Saint-Denis—the northern suburbs of Paris known for their large Muslim population—has become a "foreign enclave under the reign of Allah", a remark which angered local politicians.[179]

On 11 September 2021, Zemmour's declaration about the 2012 Toulouse and Montauban shootings[i] caused controversy among Jewish communities in France.[180]

Remarks about Vichy France's treatment of Jews[edit]

Zemmour generated controversy by claiming that "Vichy [France] protected French Jews and gave the foreign Jews [to the Nazis]" in an interview with CNews. His statements in the interview polarized the French Jewish community, and were criticized by many Jewish leaders and intellectuals.[181] In response to Zemmour's comment, the chief rabbi of France, Haïm Korsia, called Zemmour an antisemite and a racist.[182][183]

Accusations of sexual harassment[edit]

In May 2021, Zemmour was publicly accused of inappropriate sexual behaviour by several women, but no judicial proceedings followed.[184]

Wikipedia page manipulation[edit]

In February 2022, a shadow group working covertly within the digital division of Zemmour's campaign team was organized to alter articles at Wikipedia in order to promote Zemmour's profile. This "WikiZedia" team was discovered, and administrators at French Wikipedia banned seven editors, including a 15-year veteran who was one of the top contributors.[185][186]

Legal cases[edit]

As of 2022, Zemmour has been convicted once in France for provoking racial discrimination in 2011, and once for hatred against Muslims in 2018[187] as well as once for inciting racial hatred for 2022. He did not appeal his 2011 conviction, but appealed on 5 December 2019 the 2018 conviction to the European Court of Human Rights on the basis of article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights protecting freedom of expression. The ECHR upheld his conviction.[188]


2010: Incitement of racial discrimination[edit]

The International League against Racism and Anti-Semitism (LICRA) decided to launch legal proceedings against Éric Zemmour for his views after the 6 March 2010 broadcast of Salut les Terriens presented by Thierry Ardisson, where he promoted his book Mélancolie française. He declared during the show that: "French people with an immigrant background were profiled because most traffickers are Blacks and Arabs. ... It is a fact."[189] The same day, he asserted on France Ô that employers "had the right to refuse Arabs or blacks".[7][j] On 23 March 2010, he wrote a letter to the LICRA explaining his views. In this letter he particularly observed the views of Christian Delorme before a parliamentary commission of the Senate.[195] He cited the book L'Islam dans les prisons by Farhad Khosrokhavar, who confirmed the figure of 70 or 80% of "Muslims in prison" estimated in a survey commissioned by the Ministry of Justice.[196] Following this letter, the International League against Racism and Anti-Semitism (LICRA) decided to withdraw its legal proceedings against Éric Zemmour.[195]

On 30 March 2010, Éric Zemmour was summoned by SOS Racisme to appear in court on 29 June 2010,[197] where he "will have to answer for the offense of racial defamation and incitement to racial hatred."[198] [k] During the trial, Zemmour received testimony in his favour from journalist Robert Ménard, his fellow columnist Éric Naulleau, writer Denis Tillinac, politician Claude Goasguen and essayist Xavier Raufer.

On 18 February 2011, in a first judgment, the 17th chamber of the court of Paris acquitted Zemmour of the offense of defamation for the remarks on the traffickers. These words may be "shocking", writes the court, but they are not "defamatory". On the other hand, he was condemned to a 1,000 euros fine suspended for having, on France Ô, "justified an illegal discriminatory practice – discrimination in hiring – by presenting it as lawful".[l] [7] In a second judgment, the 17th chamber only retained the offense of incitement of racial discrimination and sentenced Zemmour to a suspended fine of 1,000 euros.[m][7]

On 2 March 2011, invited by Hervé Novelli[199] and given an ovation by the members of Parliament from the Union for a Popular Movement[200] at the national convention of The Reformers, Zemmour suggested doing away with the laws on racial discrimination, the memorial laws, prosecutions by anti-racist organisations and subsidies to them in a speech to UMP members of Parliament.[201]

2018: Incitement of religious hatred towards Muslims[edit]

In the 6 September 2016 episode of the programme C à vous on France 5, while promoting the launch of his book Un quinquennat pour rien, Zemmour stated that Muslims should be given the choice "between Islam and France" and that "all Muslims, whether they say it or not", consider jihadists to be "good Muslims".[202] On the 3 May 2018, the Court of appeal reckoned that these passages do not contain "any exhortation, even implicit, to incitement of hatred". On the other hand, the court of law did condemn him to a 5,000 euro fine for incitement to religious hatred, as well as to pay one euro in damages to the association Coordination des appels pour une paix juste au Proche-Orient - EuroPalestine and 3,000 euros for the legal costs. The court considered Zemmour's statements to "aim at Muslims in their entirety and constituted an implicit exhortation to discrimination", when he claimed that France had been experiencing "an invasion for thirty years" and that a "struggle to Islamise a territory" was taking place "in the countless French banlieus where many young women are veiled", "a jihad".[203]

On the 17 September 2019, the Cour de cassation, bringing against him the charges of "an implicit exhortation to discrimination" and "a call for discrimination", rejected his appeal, making his condamnation on appeal definitive in domestic law.[204]

However, on 5 December 2019, Zemmour complained to the European Court of Human Rights on the basis of article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights which protects freedom of expression.[205][206] His appeal was subsequently rejected by the EHCR in December 2022. In its ruling the court said that Zemmour had "duties and responsibilities" as a journalist and was aware of the scope and consequences of his words on a television program. It also said that he sought to "stoke a rift between the French and the Muslim community as a whole,"

2022: Inciting racial hatred[edit]

On the 17 January 2022, Zemmour was found guilty by a Paris court for inciting racial hatred during a TV programme on the French channel CNews in September 2020. He was fined €10,000 for comments about child migrants.[207]


He was acquitted six times of similar charges, in 2008, 2014 (twice), 2016, 2017 and 2019. Convictions in 2015 and 2020 were overturned on appeal.

2008: Legal case related to his novel[edit]

In 2008, following the publication of his novel Petit Frère, in which a Jew is attacked by a young North African in a parking lot, Zemmour admits to having been inspired by a news item that occurred five years earlier: the murder of Sébastien Selam by Adel Amastaibou. Selam was a childhood friend and next door neighbour of Amastaibou.[208][209] Zemmour was sued by the family of Selam who demanded the book be banned. According to the family lawyer, in the novel, the victim is described as a "bad Jew, his mother defamed and his grandfather accused of the worst evils". Zemmour won the case.[210]

2014: Alleged Incitement of racial hatred[edit]

The Representative Council of Black Associations (CRAN) filed a complaint with the Superior Audiovisual Council (CSA) about a column by Zemmour aired on 6 May 2014 on RTL. As a result, CSA "strongly warned" RTL on 17 June, judging that Zemmour's remarks "were likely to encourage discriminatory behavior towards the population groups specifically named, and to be capable of inciting hatred or violence against them".[211] The comments by Zemmour that were the subject of the complaint were these:

Our territory, deprived of the protection of its ancient frontiers, is now seeing a revival in the cities, but also in the countryside, of the great raids and pillaging of the past. The Normans, the Huns, the Arabs, the great invasions after the fall of Rome have now been replaced by bands of Chechens, Roma, Kosovars, Maghrebis, Africans, who rob, assault, or steal.[n]

— Eric Zemmour, via RTL

The CSA also considered that RTL, "by allowing the broadcasting of these remarks, had failed in their obligation to maintain control of the broadcast", recalling that the column had been communicated to station managers beforehand by its author.[213] Prosecuted for "incitement to racial hatred" for these comments, Zemmour was released in September 2015 by the Correctional tribunal [fr][o] in Paris, which ruled that "as excessive, shocking or provocative as these comments may seem", they apply "only to a fraction of the targeted communities and not to them as a whole". The Court of Appeal confirmed the acquittal on 22 June 2016.[215]

2014: Remarks about Muslims[edit]

On 30 October 2014, he told the Italian newspaper Corriere della Sera: "Muslims have their civil code, it is the Koran. They live among themselves, in the outskirts. The French were forced to leave".[216] The journalist then asks him: "But don't you think that it is unrealistic to think that we take millions of people, we put them on planes to get rid of them?"[217] Zemmour replied, "I know, it's unrealistic, but the story is surprising. Who would have said in 1940 that a million pieds-noirs, twenty years later, would have left Algeria to return to France? Or that after the war five or six million Germans would have abandoned central and eastern Europe where they had lived for centuries?" On 17 December 2015, Zemmour was sentenced at first instance to a fine of €3,000, for inciting hatred against Muslims.[218] The conviction was confirmed by the Paris Court of Appeal on 17 November.[219] In January 2018, the Cour de Cassation overturned the conviction. Zemmour was released on 29 November 2018, by the Paris Court of Appeal, the judges considering that "it is not proven that Eric Zemmour, prosecuted as an interviewee, knew that this newspaper was published in France".[220]

2016: Defamation on Cécile Duflot[edit]

On 12 May 2016, Zemmour declared on RTL that by publishing Denis Baupin's telephone exchanges, "Mediapart violated all the rules of respect for private life" and that these journalists are "also and above all the consenting instruments of Cécile Duflot's political revenge against Emmanuelle Cosse, Denis Baupin's companion, who betrayed her for a ministerial dish of lentils". Zemmour was sued for defamation by Duflot, but on 6 February 2018, the Paris Criminal Court released him, finding that his allegations against Cécile Duflot were not defamatory.[221]

2017: Sanctions imposed by media watchdog agency canceled[edit]

On 2 February 2017, Zemmour declared on RTL: "Non-discrimination is misrepresented as a synonym of equality whereas over time it has become a machine to disintegrate the Nation, the family, society in the name of the rights of an individual king". On 14 June 2017, RTL was put on formal notice by the High Audiovisual Council (CSA), France's media watchdog agency, for having broadcast "praise of discrimination" without any "contradiction or putting into perspective". On 15 October 2018, the Conseil d'Etat cancelled the decision of the CSA.[222]

Pending court ruling[edit]

2019: Alleged Incitement to hatred of Muslims[edit]

On 25 September 2020, the Paris court sentenced Zemmour to a fine of 10,000 euros for "insult and incitement to hatred", because of the comments he had made in September 2019 during a speech to the against Muslims and immigration, at the opening of the right-wing convention organised by relatives of Marion Maréchal. In its judgment, the court said that, "by distinguishing among the French all the Muslims opposed to the 'ethnic French' and by designating them, as well as the Muslim immigrants living in France, not only as criminals perpetrators of the terrorist attacks of 2015 but like former colonized people who became colonizers", the remarks made "constitute an exhortation, sometimes implicit and sometimes explicit, to discrimination and hatred towards the Muslim community and its religion".[p][223]

Zemmour appealed. The appeal hearing took place on 2 June 2021. The Paris Court of Appeal acquitted him on 8 September 2021. In the reasons for its judgment, the court of appeal ruled that "none of the statements pursued target all Africans, immigrants or Muslims but only fractions of these groups". "There is no justification for remarks targeting a group of people as a whole because of their origin or their belonging or not belonging to a particular ethnicity, nation, race or religion," the court added, "from where it follows that the prosecuted offenses are not constituted."[224][225] The general prosecutor's office has filed a cassation appeal, which is pending.[226]




  • 1995: Balladur, immobile à grands pas, Grasset ISBN 978-2-246-48971-9
  • 1998: Le Livre noir de la droite, Grasset et Fasquelle ISBN 978-2-246-56251-1
  • 1998: Le Coup d'État des juges, Grasset et Fasquelle ISBN 978-2-246-52551-6
  • 1998: Une certaine idée de la France, collectif, France-Empire ISBN 978-2-7048-0872-4
  • 2000: Les Rats de garde, in collaboration with Patrick Poivre d'Arvor, Stock ISBN 978-2-234-05217-8
  • 2002: L'Homme qui ne s'aimait pas, Balland ISBN 978-2-7158-1408-0
  • 2006: Le premier sexe, Denoël, ISBN 978-2-207-25744-9 – republished J'ai lu, 2009
  • 2010: Mélancolie française, Fayard /Denoël ISBN 978-2-213-65450-8 – republished Le Livre de Poche, 2011.
  • 2011: Z comme Zemmour, Le Cherche midi ISBN 978-2-7491-1865-9
  • 2012: Le Bûcher des vaniteux, Albin Michel ISBN 9782226240248
  • 2013: Le Bûcher des vaniteux 2, Albin Michel ISBN 9782226245410
  • 2014: Le Suicide français, Albin Michel ISBN 9782226254757
  • 2016: Un quinquennat pour rien, Albin Michel ISBN 9782226320087
  • 2018: Destin français, Albin Michel ISBN 9782226320070
  • 2021: La France n'a pas dit son dernier mot, Rubempré ISBN 9782957930500 (translation of title: France has not said its last word[227])
  • 2023: Je n'ai pas dit mon dernier mot, Rubempré ISBN 9782957930524



  1. ^ Zemmour is commonly presented as a far-right pundit in news outlets.
  2. ^ a b Many French media outlets present him "on the right", on the "conservative right", as "Gaullist", on the "sovereignist right", on the "radical right", or on the "radical and identitary right".
  3. ^ Many British or American media outlets also present him as "far-right",[2] and also "conservative" or "right-wing".[3]
  4. ^ Between 2010 and 2013, Zemmour was reassigned to Le Figaro Magazine. Some sources say the move was caused by an insufficient production in comparison to his salary,[5][6] while other sources contend that the move followed his conviction for incitement to racial discrimination and fine of €2,000.[7][8]
  5. ^ According to historian Benjamen Stora, quoted by Le Monde,[18] Eric Zemmour is an Arab Jew, but would prefer to say "Berber Jew", an expression "which makes it possible to distinguish oneself from the frowned-upon arabness". Stora, however, does not mention any source for his statement.
  6. ^ "I did not think he would express himself in such a clumsy way! Our channel, of course, is not associated with Zemmour's views. We checked with our legal services to see if these statements fell within the scope of the law. This does not seem to be the case. The important thing is that these words were disputed on set.... we will think twice before inviting him again!"[168]
  7. ^ "Silencing, it means putting him in his place. (...) The words do not refer to murder, or aggression, or injuries... I did not want to either have him killed or to deprive him of his freedom of expression. Silencing, it means to put him in his place, to expose him to his own contradictions".[170]
  8. ^ The president of SOS Racisme, Dominique Sopo, wrote him a letter and demanded sanctions,[172] after which it was the turn of the General Confederation of Labour[173] to demand a reaction from Pfimlin.
  9. ^ "The family of Mohammed Merah asked to bury him on the land of his ancestors in Algeria. It was also known that the Jewish children murdered in front of the denominational school in Toulouse would be buried in Israel. Anthropologists have taught us that we are from the country where we are buried. Assassins or innocents, executioners or victims, enemies or friends, they wanted to live in France, (...) but when it comes to leaving their bones, they especially did not choose France, foreigners above all".
  10. ^ The Club Averroes[190] and the MRAP submitted the case to the Conseil supérieur de l'audiovisuel[191][192] after the legal proceedings brought by the LICRA. Éric Zemmour was supported by several personalities, including the founder of Reporters Without Borders, journalist and right-wing Mayor of Béziers,[193] Robert Ménard.[194]
  11. ^ Meanwhile, these views and the trial were given international scope by an article devoted to them and to Zemmour in The New York Times in February 2011.[12]
  12. ^ Moreover, in addition to the fine, the first judgment sentenced him to pay €1,000 in damages and interest and €2,000 in legal costs to each of the three organisations (totalling €9,000) and the second sentenced him to pay one euro to each of the civil parties and €750 in legal costs (totalling €1,502)
  13. ^ He must also pay 1 euro to each of the civil parties, plus 750 euros in legal costs, for a total of 1,502 euros. The two judgments will finally have to be published in the press.
  14. ^ Notre territoire, privé de la protection de ses anciennes frontières, renoue dans les villes, mais aussi dans les campagnes, avec les grandes razzias, les pillages d'autrefois. Les Normands, les Huns, les Arabes, les grandes invasions d'après la chute de Rome sont désormais remplacées par des bandes de Tchétchènes, de Roms, de Kosovars, de Maghrébins, d'Africains, qui dévalisent, violentent ou dépouillent.[212]
  15. ^ In France, the correctional tribunal is a specialized chamber of the judicial court ruling in first instance (as a lower court) in criminal matters on offences defined as felonies (Délit pénal) and for which the prison sentence may not exceed ten years.[214]
  16. ^ Éric Zemmour was also ordered to pay one euro in damages and 1,500 euros for legal costs to eight civil party associations, including the Human Rights League (LDH) and SOS Racisme.


  1. ^ "À la rencontre de ces Français séduits par "le Z"", lalibre.be (in French), 24 February 2022.
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^ Cassini, Sandrine; Faye, Olivier (4 May 2021). "La chaîne conservatrice CNews dépasse BFM-TV, la Macronie s'y presse" [The conservative channel CNews overtakes BFM-TV, the Macronosphere rushes in]. Le Monde (in French).
  5. ^ "Zemmour: 9.700 euros pour un petit papier par semaine" [9,700 Euros for one small paper per week] (in French). 25 March 2010. Archived from the original on 9 October 2021. Retrieved 9 October 2021.
  6. ^ Schwartzenberg, Emmanuel (25 March 2010). "Zemmour : 9700 euros pour zéro papier" [Zemmour : 9700 euros for no paper]. ElectronLibre (in French). Archived from the original on 20 October 2014.
  7. ^ a b c d "Eric Zemmour condamné pour provocation à la discrimination raciale" [Eric Zemmour sentenced for incitement to racial discrimination], 20 minutes.fr (in French), 18 February 2011, archived from the original on 27 August 2011, retrieved 5 December 2011
  8. ^ Ternisien, Xavier (28 March 2013). ""Le Figaro" lance une nouvelle formule et veut faire payer plus d'articles sur le Net". Le Monde (in French). Archived from the original on 27 August 2021. Retrieved 27 August 2021.
  9. ^ "Zemmour et Naulleau : les snipers du PAF à l'antenne le 23 septembre" [Zemmour and Naulleau: the PAF (Paysage audiovisuel français) snipers on the air September 23]. tele.premiere.fr (in French). Archived from the original on 11 December 2011.
  10. ^ Bajos, Sandrine; à 19h38 (27 September 2018). "Zemmour, numéro 1 des ventes de livres, détrône Nothomb" [Zemmour, number 1 in book sales, dethrones Nothomb]. Le Parisien (in French). Archived from the original on 7 October 2021. Retrieved 9 October 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  11. ^ Béglé, Jérôme (21 October 2014). "Zemmour bat tous les records de vente !" [Zemmour beats all the sales records!]. Le Point (in French). Archived from the original on 7 September 2021.
  12. ^ a b c Norimitsu, Onishi (21 September 2021). "From TV to the French Presidency? A Right-Wing Star Is Inspired by Trump". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 21 September 2021. Retrieved 21 September 2021.
  13. ^ Camut, Nicolas (20 December 2022). "Court upholds French far-right leader's conviction over anti-Muslim comments". Politico. Retrieved 15 December 2023.
  14. ^ a b Breeden, Aurelien; Méheut, Constant (30 November 2021). "Éric Zemmour, Far-Right Pundit, Makes French Presidential Run Official". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
  15. ^ a b Galindo, Gabriela (5 December 2021). "They're off: Jean-Luc Mélenchon and Eric Zemmour launch French presidential bids". POLITICO. Retrieved 10 December 2021.
  16. ^ "Éric Zemmour: Je suis gaullo-bonapartiste" [Eric Zemmour: I'm a de Gaullean-Bonapartist]. Figaro Live (in French). 13 October 2014. Archived from the original on 28 September 2021.
  17. ^ Hummel, Tassilo; Thomas, Leigh (10 April 2022). "French far-right candidate Zemmour endorses Le Pen for runoff". National Post. Reuters. Retrieved 15 December 2023.
  18. ^ "Et Zemmour devint Zemmour" [And Zemmour became Zemmour]. Le Monde.fr. 8 November 2014. Archived from the original on 16 October 2021. Retrieved 17 October 2021.
  19. ^ (in French) Les Grandes Gueules, 7 January 2008, [1] Archived 17 October 2021 at the Wayback Machine: "I come from North Africa. My ancestors were Berber Jews. ... They lived with Arabs for 1,000 years."
  20. ^ (in French) Éric Zemmour: "I am not asking for the francization of surnames" Archived 27 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Article in L'Express by Laurent Martinet, published on 11 March 2010: "I was born in Montreuil in Seine-Saint-Denis. I am therefore not an immigrant ... and my parents were French. But my origins are indeed Berber and my name does indeed mean 'olive tree' in Berber."
  21. ^ "La biographie d'Éric Zemmour". Vanity Fair. 1 January 2020.
  22. ^ a b c Nicolet, Laurent (14 July 2008). "Entretien Éric Zemmour". Migros Magazine (in French).
  23. ^ a b Cloarec, Glenn (5 December 2021). "Eric Zemmour: "son" judaîsm, "son" identité française et toutes ses polémiques". Times of Israel.
  24. ^ a b Monnier, Vincent (7 February 2008). "Éric Zemmour: passé recomposé" [Eric Zemmour: past perfect-ed (play on words)]. Le Nouvel Observateur (in French).
  25. ^ Klein, Klara (10 June 2006). "Le mâle être" [The Male Being/Malaise (play on words)]. Le Soir (in French).
  26. ^ "Éric Zemmour parle de sa mère d'origine d'Algérie et les valeurs qu'elle lui a transmises". Dzair Daily (in French). 6 December 2021. Retrieved 1 January 2022.
  27. ^ Whitman, Chloe (6 December 2021). "Eric Zemmour : qui est son frère méconnu Jean-Luc?". Gala FR.
  28. ^ Tugdual, Denis (7 May 2015). "Éric Zemmour, quand le succès fait le monstre". L'Express.
  29. ^ Berretta, Emmanuel (8 April 2010). "« Qui est vraiment Éric Zemmour ?". lepoint.fr.
  30. ^ Cabana, Anna (2 April 2014). "" Éric Zemmour : les Rolling Stones, Dieu et moi "". Le Point.
  31. ^ Vincent Monnier, "Éric Zemmour, passé recomposé", Paris Obs, nos 364-2257, 7 February 2008.
  32. ^ Mpome, Suzanne. "Interview d'Éric Zemmour (seconde partie)" [Interview with Eric Zemmour (second part)] (in French). Archived from the original on 23 December 2007. Retrieved 8 January 2008.
  33. ^ "Éléments d'information sur les membres du jury 2006" [Information about the members of the 2006 jury] (in French). Archived from the original on 26 November 2006. Retrieved 15 February 2008.
  34. ^ Vardan, Charlotte (23 September 2021). "Eric Zemmour marié à Mylène Chichportich : qui sont leurs trois enfants ?" [Eric Zemmour is married to Mylène Chichportich: who are their three children?]. Closer (in French). Retrieved 5 December 2021.
  35. ^ "France's Zemmour sues gossip mag over pregnancy claim". POLITICO. 26 November 2021. Retrieved 18 December 2021.
  36. ^ ""Sarah Knafo est ma compagne", officialise Eric Zemmour" (in French). Le Parisien. 13 January 2022.
  37. ^ Cohen, Roger (25 October 2021). "A Jewish Far-Right Pundit Splits the French Jewish Community as He Rises". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 21 May 2022.
  38. ^ Who's Who in France
  39. ^ Gendron, Guillaume (30 November 2021). "Parvenu à la présidentielle. Eric Zemmour candidat : retour sur les origines tortueuses de ses ambitions élyséennes". liberation.fr.
  40. ^ "Zemmour: 9.700 euros pour un petit papier par semaine" [9,700 Euros for a brief weekly report]. Slate.fr (in French). 25 March 2010. Archived from the original on 9 October 2021. Retrieved 9 October 2021.
  41. ^ "Zemmour: 9700 euros pour zéro papier" [9,700 for no report]. ElectronLibre (in French). 20 October 2014. Archived from the original on 20 October 2014.
  42. ^ "Eric Zemmour se retire du Figaro le temps de la promotion de son livre" [Eric Zemmour suspends work at Figaro for the period of promoting his book]. Le Figaro (in French). 1 September 2019. Archived from the original on 9 October 2021. Retrieved 9 October 2021.
  43. ^ (in French) L'infime regret de Karl Zéro [The tiny regret of Karl Zero] Archived 24 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine, interview with Carlos Gomez, published on 8 April 2008, in Le Journal du Dimanche
  44. ^ (in French) Talk with the author by Christophe Dickès, Éric Zemmour : Mélancolie française ou l'idéal romain dans notre Histoire Archived 10 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine, on Canalacademie.com, uploaded 18 March 2010.
  45. ^ a b Caulcutt, Clea (4 June 2021). "Eric Zemmour, the French TV star who is stealing Marine Le Pen's thunder". Politico. Archived from the original on 24 June 2021. Retrieved 20 June 2021.
  46. ^ Zemmour, Éric (2018). Destin français. Paris. ISBN 978-2-226-32007-0. OCLC 1052509571.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  47. ^ "Palmarès des meilleures ventes littéraires : la déferlante Zemmour" [Literary bestseller list: the Zemmour surge]. L'Express. 27 September 2021. Archived from the original on 3 October 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2021.
  48. ^ "Après un démarrage en trombe, les ventes du dernier livre d'Eric Zemmour sont en forte baisse" [After a strong start, sales of Eric Zemmour's latest book are down sharply]. Le Parisien. 7 October 2021. Archived from the original on 7 October 2021. Retrieved 7 October 2021.
  49. ^ Bajos, Sandrine (7 October 2021). "Après un démarrage en trombe, les ventes du dernier livre d'Eric Zemmour sont en forte baisse". leparisien.fr (in French). Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  50. ^ "iTELE condamnée pour "rupture abusive" de contrat avec Eric Zemmour". LEFIGARO (in French). 22 November 2016. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  51. ^ "Ruquier : " Pourquoi je me sépare de Naulleau et Zemmour"" [Why I'm cutting ties with Naulleau and Zemmour]. Le Parisien (in French). 27 May 2011. Archived from the original on 3 September 2011. Retrieved 5 December 2011.
  52. ^ "Le grand débat" [The Great Debate]. histoire.fr (in French). 2009. Archived from the original on 27 December 2011. Retrieved 5 December 2011.
  53. ^ Aurelie Demarcy (4 January 2012). "Eric Zemmour : "Je ne suis pas un provocateur"" [Eric Zemmour: 'I am not a provocateur']. toutelatele (in French). Archived from the original on 6 April 2012. Retrieved 5 December 2011.
  54. ^ "Zemmour et Naulleau : les snipers du PAF à l'antenne le 23 septembre" [Zemmour and Naulleau: PAF snipers on the air September 23]. Premiere.fr (in French). 30 August 2011. Archived from the original on 11 December 2011. Retrieved 5 December 2011.
  55. ^ "Eric Zemmour sous protection policière" [Eric Zemmour under police protection] Archived 5 October 2021 at the Wayback Machine, Le Figaro (in French), 15 January 2015.
  56. ^ "Mehdi Korchi, l'agresseur d'Éric Zemmour, interpellé et déféré devant le parquet de Paris" [Mehdi Korchi, the assailant of Eric Zemmour, arrested and referred to the public prosecutor's office of Paris] Archived 5 October 2021 at the Wayback Machine, Valeurs actuelles (in French), 5 May 2020.
  57. ^ "Le regard libre d'Elisabeth Lévy – "Ils sont Zemmour", conversion générale au pluralisme" [Elisabeth Lévy's frank view - "They are Zemmour", general shift towards pluralism Archived 5 October 2021 at the Wayback Machine, Sud Radio (in French), 4 May 2020.
  58. ^ "Eric Zemmour insulté dans la rue : trois mois de prison avec sursis pour son agresseur" [Eric Zemmour insulted in the street: three months suspended sentence for his assailant] Archived 5 October 2021 at the Wayback Machine, Le Parisien (in French), 9 September 2020.
  59. ^ "Éric Zemmour menacé de mort en pleine rue à Paris, enquête ouverte" [Éric Zemmour threatened with death in the streets of Paris, investigation opened] Archived 5 October 2021 at the Wayback Machine, Le Figaro (in French), 27 September 2021.
  60. ^ "Eric Zemmour : les secrets d'une ambition | Entretien" [Eric Zemmour : the secrets of ambition | Interview]. Archived from the original on 11 October 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2021 – via YouTube.
  61. ^ "Eric Zemmour se lance-t-il en politique ?". www.franceinter.fr (in French). 10 June 2019. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  62. ^ "Sarah Knafo, l'énarque dans l'ombre d'Eric Zemmour". L'Obs (in French). 17 February 2021. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  63. ^ Meus, Carl (9 September 2021). "Éric Zemmour: les extraits exclusifs de son nouveau livre choc" [Éric Zemmour: exclusive excerpts from his new book]. Le Figaro (in French). Archived from the original on 8 October 2021. Retrieved 9 October 2021.
  64. ^ "Eric Zemmour – On est en direct #OEED 11 septembre 2021" [Eric Zemmour - We are live #OEED September 11, 2021]. Archived from the original on 29 September 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2021 – via YouTube.
  65. ^ "Zemmour "n'a pas peur" d'être éventuellement candidat à l'Élysée" [Zemmour 'not afraid' to be a candidate for the Elysée]. Le HuffPost. 12 September 2021. Archived from the original on 3 October 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2021.
  66. ^ "Éric Zemmour était l'invité de RTL – Vidéo Dailymotion" [Éric Zemmour was the guest on RTL - Video Dailymotion]. 14 September 2021. Archived from the original on 3 October 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2021 – via Dailymotion.
  67. ^ "Débat Mélenchon VS Zemmour – Le replay" [Mélenchon – Zemmour debate - the replay]. Archived from the original on 3 October 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2021 – via YouTube.
  68. ^ "Eric Zemmour dans le Grand Rendez-Vous Europe 1 Cnews du 26 septembre 2021 (intégrale)" [Eric Zemmour in the Grand Rendez-Vous Europe 1 on Cnews of September 26, 2021 (full text)]. Archived from the original on 3 October 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2021 – via YouTube.
  69. ^ "Éric Zemmour chez Ruth Elkrief" [Éric Zemmour with Ruth Elkrief]. Archived from the original on 3 October 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2021 – via YouTube.
  70. ^ Alex, Par Jean-Michel Décugis et; à 13h11, re Sulzer Le 28 septembre 2021 (28 September 2021). "Présidentielle : Éric Zemmour n'est pas encore candidat... mais il a déjà un QG de campagne" [Presidential election: Eric Zemmour is not yet a candidate... but he already has a campaign HQ]. Le Parisien. Archived from the original on 3 October 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  71. ^ Willsher, Kim (24 September 2021). "Hard-left presidential candidate and far-right pundit meet in French TV 'cockfight'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 8 October 2021. Retrieved 9 October 2021.
  72. ^ à 12h03, Par Catherine Balle et Kevin Boucher Le 24 septembre 2021 (24 September 2021). "Débat Mélenchon-Zemmour : record d'audience pour BFMTV avec 3,8 millions de téléspectateurs" [Mélenchon – Zemmour debate: record audience for BFMTV with 3.8 million viewers]. Le Parisien (in French). Archived from the original on 8 October 2021. Retrieved 8 October 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  73. ^ Berdah, Arthur; Bordas, Wally (30 November 2021). "Éric Zemmour se déclare candidat à l'élection présidentielle de 2022" [Éric Zemmour declares himself a candidate for the 2022 presidential election]. Le Figaro (in French). Retrieved 30 November 2021.
  74. ^ "EN DIRECT. Présidentielle : Eric Zemmour voit en #MeToo "un mouvement d'éradication de l'homme"" [Eric Zemmour sees the #MeToo as "a movement of eradication of men"] (in French). 9 December 2021. Archived from the original on 9 December 2021. Retrieved 9 December 2021.
  75. ^ "French far-right candidate Zemmour endorses Le Pen for runoff". France 24. 11 April 2022. Retrieved 11 April 2022.
  76. ^ a b "Comment l'Ifop et Le Point ont décidé de tester la candidature d'Eric Zemmour" [How Ifop and Le Point decided to check Eric Zemmour's candidacy]. La Revue des Médias. Archived from the original on 3 October 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2021.
  77. ^ "Liste de sondages sur l'élection présidentielle française de 2022" [List of presidential election surveys for the French presidential election of 2022]. 3 October 2021 – via Wikipedia.
  78. ^ Woessner, Géraldine (16 June 2021). "EXCLUSIF. Zemmour candidat à la présidentielle ? Le sondage qui le teste" [EXCLUSIVE. Zemmour presidential candidate? The poll that tests the waters]. Le Point. Archived from the original on 2 October 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2021.
  79. ^ "Présidentielle 2022 : les intentions de vote en faveur d'Eric Zemmour augmentent" [Presidential election 2022: those favoring Eric Zemmour on the rise]. Valeurs actuelles. 27 August 2021. Archived from the original on 3 October 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2021.
  80. ^ "Zemmour donné à 10% selon un sondage pour la présidentielle, Macron et Le Pen en tête" [Zemmour scoring 8 according to a presidential election poll; Macron and Le Pen ahead]. www.ln24.be. 14 September 2021. Archived from the original on 3 October 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2021.
  81. ^ "Sondage présidentielle : Éric Zemmour, avec 15% des intentions de vote, passe devant la droite" [Presidential poll: Éric Zemmour, with 15% in a survey, goes ahead of the Right]. e Parisien. 1 October 2021. Archived from the original on 2 October 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2021.
  82. ^ "Présidentielle 2022 : un sondage qualifie Zemmour au second tour" [Presidential election 2022: a poll shows Zemmour qualifying for the second round]. Le Point. 6 October 2021.
  83. ^ "Poll sees Zemmour making it to second round of French presidential vote". Reuters. 7 November 2021 – via www.reuters.com.
  84. ^ "Sondage: Zemmour devance Le Pen, les catégories populaires divisées" [Poll: Zemmour ahead of Le Pen, popular categories divided]. LEFIGARO. 7 November 2021.
  85. ^ "Présidentielle : Marine Le Pen creuse l'écart avec Eric Zemmour, à nouveau en baisse" [Presidential election: Marine Le Pen widens the gap over Eric Zemmour, who drops again]. La Depeche (in French). 24 November 2021. Retrieved 19 January 2022.
  86. ^ "Présidentielle 2022 : Pécresse donnée gagnante du second tour face à Macron, selon un sondage" [2022 presidential election: Pécresse would win second round against Macron, according to a poll]. Le Figaro (in French). 7 December 2021. Retrieved 11 December 2021.
  87. ^ "Présidentielle : Pécresse talonne Macron, Zemmour recule encore, la gauche dégringole" [Presidential election: Pécresse on Macron's heels, Zemmour falls again, the left is plummeting]. L'Obs (in French). 10 December 2021. Retrieved 11 December 2021.
  88. ^ "La gauche en berne, la percée Pécresse... les tendances des sondages à 4 mois du 1er tour" [The left at half-mast, the Pécresse breakthrough... the polling trends at 4 months from the 1st round]. Le HuffPost (in French). 10 December 2021. Retrieved 11 December 2021.
  89. ^ "Eric Zemmour: Far-right candidate found guilty of hate speech". BBC News. 18 January 2022. Retrieved 19 January 2022.
  90. ^ "Philippe de Villiers explique son ralliement à Éric Zemmour : "J'ai l'impression que mon pays va mourir, et je ne veux pas de ça"" [Philippe de Villiers explains his rallying behind Éric Zemmour: "I have the impression that my country is going to die, and I don't want that"]. Le Figaro (in French). 12 December 2021. Retrieved 15 December 2021.
  91. ^ Paris, Peter Conradi. "Marine Le Pen's father backs far-right rival Éric Zemmour for presidency". The Times. ISSN 0140-0460. Retrieved 15 December 2021.
  92. ^ "Présidentielle : Eric Zemmour à l'assaut de l'électorat LR" [Presidential election: Eric Zemmour on the attack in Republican electorate]. Europe 1 (in French). 6 December 2021. Retrieved 15 December 2021.
  93. ^ "L'ex-figure des " gilets jaunes " Jacline Mouraud rejoint Eric Zemmour" [Ex-"gilets jaunes" figure Jacline Moraud joins Eric Zemmour]. www.20minutes.fr (in French). 6 December 2021. Retrieved 15 December 2021.
  94. ^ "Des soutiens de Zemmour tirent sur des caricatures de juifs, de musulmans et de noirs" [Some Zemmour supporters shoot caricatures of Jews, Muslims and Blacks]. StreetPress (in French). Retrieved 15 December 2021.
  95. ^ "Condamnation confirmée pour le maire d'Orange Jacques Bompard, proche d'Eric Zemmour, contraint à la démission" [Conviction confirmed for the mayor of Orange Jacques Bompard, close to Eric Zemmour, forced to resign]. Le Parisien. 17 November 2021.
  96. ^ "Présidentielle: Pécresse derrière Zemmour, Macron toujours en tête, selon un sondage". BFM TV. 18 February 2022.
  97. ^ El-Faizy, Monique El-Faizy (13 September 2021). "Éric Zemmour: The far-right pundit who threatens to outflank Le Pen". France 24. Retrieved 6 December 2021. Zemmour... describes himself as a Gaullist and a Bonapartist
  98. ^ Keiger, John (6 October 2021). "Eric Zemmour has already revolutionised the French Right". The Telegraph. London. For all its apparent novelty and shock value, the Zemmour phenomenon is a continuation of a two century old powerful strand of the French Right: Bonapartism.
  99. ^ "Nicolas Lebourg : Eric Zemmour incarne un "nationalisme obsédé par la décadence"". LExpress.fr (in French). 9 February 2021. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  100. ^ 'Far right pundit' is often used in English-language sources:
  101. ^ "Eric Zemmour: Far-right French presidential candidate grabbed at rally". BBC News. 6 December 2021. Retrieved 8 December 2021.
  102. ^ a b Abboud, Leila (5 December 2021). "Eric Zemmour's first big campaign rally marred by melee". Financial Times. Retrieved 8 December 2021.
  103. ^ Patel, Tara (5 December 2021). "French Far-Right Candidate's First Rally Marked by Violent Clash". Bloomberg. Retrieved 8 December 2021.
  104. ^ "Le FN, Marion Maréchal-Le Pen, Villiers, Zemmour... Ce qu'ils doivent à l'Action française" [The Front National, Marion Maréchal-Le Pen, Villiers, Zemmour... What they owe to Action Française]. Bibliobs (in French). 5 December 2015. Archived from the original on 1 September 2021. Retrieved 27 August 2021.
  105. ^ "Éric Zemmour, une passion française pour les candidatures venues de la société civile" [Éric Zemmour, a French passion for candidates from civil society]. franceculture (in French). 4 July 2021. Archived from the original on 5 October 2021. Retrieved 5 October 2021.
  106. ^ "Eric Zemmour est-il d'extreme droite?" [Zemmour – is he far right?]. levif.be (in French). 4 October 2021. Archived from the original on 9 October 2021. Retrieved 9 October 2021.
  107. ^ "La popularité de Zemmour et Le Pen" [The popularity of Zemmour and Le Pen]. tf1.fr (in French). 4 October 2021. Archived from the original on 9 October 2021. Retrieved 9 October 2021.
  108. ^ "Eric Zemmour: Meet the right-wing TV pundit set to shake up France's presidential race". euronews.com. 13 October 2021. Retrieved 30 October 2021.
  109. ^ Calvi, Yves (10 September 2018). ""Je suis nostalgique et réactionnaire", confie Éric Zemmour". RTL (in French). Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  110. ^ Schofield, Hugh (14 December 2014). "France shaken up by Zemmour and 'new reactionaries'". BBC News. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  111. ^ a b Cohen, Roger (4 December 2021). "In France, a Right-Wing Polemicist Tries Channeling De Gaulle to Win Votes". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 8 December 2021.
  112. ^ a b c d Stille, Alexander (11 December 2014). "The French Obsession With National Suicide". The New Yorker. Retrieved 8 December 2021.
  113. ^ Donadio, Rachel (3 February 2017). "France's Obsession With Decline Is a Booming Industry". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 8 December 2021.
  114. ^ Malle, Victor (13 September 2021). "Would-be French presidential candidate Zemmour axed from TV talk show". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 14 September 2021. Retrieved 14 September 2021.
  115. ^ "Eric Zemmour, the French TV star who is stealing Marine Le Pen's thunder". Politico. 4 June 2021. Archived from the original on 12 September 2021. Retrieved 14 September 2021.
  116. ^ ""Enclaves étrangères" : la Seine-Saint-Denis n'exclut pas de porter plainte contre Eric Zemmour" [Enclaves étrangères" : la Seine-Saint-Denis n'exclut pas de porter plainte contre Eric Zemmour"] Archived 21 September 2021 at the Wayback Machine, LCI (in French), 10 September 2021.
  117. ^ "Dans "Nice-Matin", Éric Zemmour toujours pas en campagne, enfin presque, mais pas encore" [In "Nice-Matin", Éric Zemmour still not campaigning, well almost, but not quite yet]. Marianne. 4 August 2021. Archived from the original on 28 September 2021. Retrieved 15 October 2021.
  118. ^ Madouas, Fabrice (25 March 2010). "Éric Zemmour: "La droite a perdu ses repères" [Éric Zemmour: "The right has lost its bearings]. Valeurs actuelles. Archived from the original on 31 December 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2021.
  119. ^ "Le choc du mois, nouvelle série n° 27 – 1918–2008 : plus jamais de guerre civile européenne, c'est un tsunami démographique qui se produit, rencontre avec eric zemmour, elections américaines, quand l'obamania altère la raison, usa : un indien a la maison" [The shock of the month, new series n° 27 – 1918–2008: never again a European civil war, it's a demographic tsunami that's happening, meeting with Eric Zemmour, American elections, when Obama mania twists logic, USA: an Indian at home]. lechocdumois.fr. Archived from the original on 27 October 2021. Retrieved 15 October 2021.
  120. ^ Ripostes, France 5, 23 September 2007.
  121. ^ "Il faut arrêter l'immigration illégale et légale, lance Eric Zemmour depuis Lille" [We must stop illegal and legal immigration, says Eric Zemmour from Lille]. cnews.fr. 2 October 2021. Archived from the original on 15 October 2021. Retrieved 14 October 2021.
  122. ^ Interview with Éric Zemmour by Monique Atlan on the show "Quelle étagère...", 14 January 2008
  123. ^ Éric Zemmour, Immigration : le réel interdit [Immigration: the real ban] Archived 17 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Le Monde, 12 October 2007.
  124. ^ a b Amiel, Sandrine (30 November 2021). "France election: Who is Eric Zemmour and why is he so controversial?". euronews. Retrieved 8 December 2021.
  125. ^ a b c "Comment Eric Zemmour parle-t-il des femmes dans son dernier livre ?". LCI (in French). 8 October 2021. Retrieved 8 December 2021.
  126. ^ a b Zerofsky, Elisabeth (17 December 2014). "France's Frenzy Over the Discourse of Decline". The New Yorker. Retrieved 8 December 2021.
  127. ^ a b Daussy, Laure (17 September 2021). "Zemmour, misogyne et fier de l'être". Charlie Hebdo (in French). Retrieved 8 December 2021.
  128. ^ Lilla, Mark. "France: A Strange Defeat". The New York Review of Books. ISSN 0028-7504. Retrieved 8 December 2021.
  129. ^ a b "Zemmour et les femmes : on a lu " le Premier Sexe ", le bréviaire misogyne qui a lancé le polémiste". L'Obs (in French). 2 November 2021. Retrieved 8 December 2021.
  130. ^ "Eric Zemmour en défenseur des femmes au JT de TF1: "Je ne suis plus le journaliste, je suis le candidat à la présidentielle" (vidéos)". Communes, régions, Belgique, monde, sports – Toute l'actu 24h/24 sur Lavenir.net (in French). Retrieved 1 January 2022.
  131. ^ Éric Zemmour chez Cyril Hanouna, retrieved 1 January 2022
  132. ^ "Drancy : quand Eric Zemmour demande à une femme musulmane d'enlever son voile". Linfo.re. Retrieved 2 January 2022.
  133. ^ "Dépenses publiques, prélèvements obligatoires, protection sociale : la France est-elle "championne du monde partout" ?" [Public expenditure, compulsory levies, social protection: is France 'the world champion everywhere'?]. LEFIGARO. 20 October 2021.
  134. ^ "Eric Zemmour face à Michel Onfray : retrouvez leur débat sur l'avenir de la gauche en France" [Eric Zemmour and Michel Onfray: watch their debate on the future of the left in France]. Atlantico.fr. 30 May 2020.
  135. ^ "VIDÉO - Zemmour veut les supprimer pour les étrangers "y compris ceux en situation régulière"" [VIDEO - Zemmour wants to abolish them for foreigners 'including those here legally']. www.rtl.fr. 24 October 2021.
  136. ^ "France : Éric Zemmour suggère de supprimer l'AME pour les sans-papiers" [France: Eric Zemmour suggests abolishing the state medical assistance for undocumented migrants]. 21 October 2021.
  137. ^ "Éric Zemmour pourrait-il vraiment supprimer les allocations aux étrangers ?" [Could Éric Zemmour really do away with benefits for foreigners?]. www.rtl.fr. 28 October 2021.
  138. ^ "Santé: 1 milliard pour l'aide médicale d'État aux étrangers" [Health: 1 billion for state medical aid to foreigners]. LEFIGARO. 22 September 2021.
  139. ^ Recurring themes on Ça se dispute and in his editorials in Le Figaro; set forth in particular during his interview with François Bayrou in On n'est pas couché [We've not gone to bed] on 1 December 2007.
  140. ^ Ça se dispute, i>Télé, September 2007
  141. ^ Interview with François Bayrou on the TV show On n'est pas couché on 1 December 2007.
  142. ^ Malle, Victor (13 September 2021). "Eric Zemmour, France's Buchanan". theamericanconservative.com. Archived from the original on 13 October 2021. Retrieved 13 October 2021.
  143. ^ Philippe, Barthélémy (16 November 2021). "Eric Zemmour et Marine Le Pen… leurs différences flagrantes sur l'économie". Capital (in French). Retrieved 30 November 2021.
  144. ^ a b "Éric Zemmour veut "réserver" les minima sociaux aux Français et les "retirer aux étrangers"". Boursorama (in French). 22 November 2021. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
  145. ^ Philippe, Barthélémy (16 November 2021). "Eric Zemmour et Marine Le Pen… leurs différences flagrantes sur l'économie". Capital.fr (in French). Retrieved 30 November 2021.
  146. ^ Philippe, Barthélémy (30 November 2021). "Impôts, aides sociales... les promesses économiques du candidat Zemmour". Capital.fr (in French). Retrieved 30 November 2021.
  147. ^ "Dans une salle pleine à craquer, Zemmour dévoile ses premières propositions économiques". Europe 1 (in French). 13 November 2021. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
  148. ^ Éric Zemmour: "Il faut augmenter l'âge de la retraite et le porter à 64 ans" (in French), retrieved 30 November 2021
  149. ^ "Retraites, vade-mecum pour candidats". Les Echos (in French). 21 October 2021. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
  150. ^ "Présidentielle 2022 : Eric Zemmour «philosophiquement» pour la peine de mort". Le Parisien. 15 September 2021.
  151. ^ "Zemmour et la Russie". Atlantico (in French). 22 October 2021. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  152. ^ a b "Éric Zemmour veut rompre avec la doctrine atlantiste" [Éric Zemmour wants to break with the Atlanticism]. LEFIGARO (in French). 22 October 2021. Archived from the original on 24 October 2021. Retrieved 24 October 2021.
  153. ^ Keiger, John (6 October 2021). "Eric Zemmour has already revolutionised the French Right". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Archived from the original on 23 October 2021. Retrieved 24 October 2021.
  154. ^ Rouen, Adam Sage. "Éric Zemmour 'I am man to unite France', says Macron challenger". The Times. ISSN 0140-0460. Archived from the original on 23 October 2021. Retrieved 24 October 2021.
  155. ^ "La France doit-elle quitter le commandement intégré de l'Otan?" [Should France leave NATO's integrated command?]. LEFIGARO (in French). 1 October 2021. Archived from the original on 24 October 2021. Retrieved 24 October 2021.
  156. ^ Napolitano, Ardee (20 January 2022). "France first: Far-right challenger tears into Macron's European vision". Reuters.
  157. ^ Calais, Adam Sage. "France lacks the bottle for Brexit, says Éric Zemmour".
  158. ^ Mélancolie française, Eric Zemmour, Fayard, 2010, page 205
  159. ^ Carte blanche : Eric Zemmour et la Belgique : une incompréhension bien française, Le Soir, 13 April 2010
  160. ^ Bremner, Charles (25 February 2022). "French election 2022: Presidential hopefuls forced into U-turns on Russia after Ukraine invasion". The Times.
  162. ^ "Depuis Israël, Éric Zemmour assure que l'affrontement contre le Hamas est un « grand combat de civilisation »". Le Parisien. 30 October 2023.
  163. ^ "Résultats de l'élection présidentielle 2022". Archived from the original on 7 May 2022.
  164. ^ "Résultats des élections législatives 2022 dans le Var". Le Monde.fr (in French). Retrieved 29 November 2022.
  165. ^ Dufay, François (7 June 2002). "La fronde des intellos" [Revolt of the intellectuals]. Le Point (in French).
  166. ^ Le Bohec, Jacques (2004). L'Harmattan (ed.). L'implication des journalistes dans le phénomène Le Pen [Journalists implicated in the Le Pen phenomenon] (in French). L'Harmattan. p. 103. ISBN 978-2-7475-7020-6.
  167. ^ (in French) "Polémique sur les races : Zemmour répond aux internautes" [Race debate: Zemmour responds to Internet users]. Archived from the original on 5 February 2009. Retrieved 5 December 2011.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link).
  168. ^ Thierry Leclère, « Affaire Zemmour : Arte sort enfin du silence » ['The Zemmour Affair: Arte finally breaks silence'], in Télérama no. 3076, 18 December 2008 [2] Archived 23 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
  169. ^ "Eric Zemmour porte plainte contre le rappeur Youssoupha pour menace" [Eric Zemmour files a complaint against the rapper Youssoupha for threats]. Le Monde.fr. 21 April 2009. Archived from the original on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 8 November 2020 – via Le Monde.
  170. ^ "Un rappeur s'en prend à Eric Zemmour" [Rapper attacks Eric Zemmour]. leparisien.fr. 21 March 2009. Archived from the original on 24 October 2020. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  171. ^ "E.Zemmour fait condamner un rappeur" [Zemmour has a rapper sentenced]. Le Figao.fr (in French). 26 October 2011. Archived from the original on 6 December 2013. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  172. ^ "TéléObs: toute l'actu télé, ciné et musique" [TéléObs: all the news on TV, movies and music]. L'Obs. Archived from the original on 2 May 2012. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
  173. ^ Lettre ouverte de la CGT [Open letter from the CGT] Archived 4 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine (in French).
  174. ^ Rémy Pflimlin ne désavoue pas Éric Zemmour [Rémy Pflimlin does not disavow Éric Zemmour] Archived 7 March 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  175. ^ "Attentats: Zemmour ironise sur un "bombardement" de Molenbeek, la bourgmestre s'indigne" [Attacks: Zemmour winks at a 'bombing' of Molenbeek, the mayor is indignant] Archived 3 October 2021 at the Wayback Machine, Le Point (in French), 17 November 2015
  176. ^ "Éric Zemmour : «Molenbeek est en France !»" [Éric Zemmour: 'Molenbeek is in France!'] Archived 3 October 2021 at the Wayback Machine, Le Figaro (in French), 24 March 2016
  177. ^ « Votre prénom est une insulte à la France » : la chroniqueuse Hapsatou Sy diffuse les propos d'Eric Zemmour ['Your first name is an insult to France': the columnist Hapsatou Sy broadcasts the comments of Eric Zemmour] Archived 23 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine, Le Monde (in French), 18 September 2018
  178. ^ "Zemmour défend les policiers «qui ont eu peur»" [Zemmour defends police officers 'who were afraid'] Archived 3 October 2021 at the Wayback Machine, 20min.ch (in French), 2 December 2020
  179. ^ "La Seine-Saint-Denis «enclave étrangère sous le règne d'Allah» : Troussel traite Zemmour de «guignol» et menace de porter plainte" [Seine-Saint-Denis 'foreign enclave under the rule of Allah': Troussel calls Zemmour a 'clown' and threatens to file a complaint] Archived 3 October 2021 at the Wayback Machine, Le Parisien (in French), 10 September 2021
  180. ^ "Éric Zemmour crée la polémique après ses déclarations sur les victimes juives de Mohammed Merah" [Éric Zemmour creates controversy after his statements on the Jewish victims of Mohammed Merah] Archived 11 October 2021 at the Wayback Machine, La Dépêche du Midi (in French), 15 September 2021
  181. ^ Cohen, Roger (28 October 2021). "A Jewish Far-Right Pundit Splits the French Jewish Community as He Rises". The New York Times.
  182. ^ Liphshiz, Cnaan (1 November 2021). "French chief rabbi calls Jewish prospective presidential candidate an 'antisemite'". Jewish Telegraph Agency. Archived from the original on 14 August 2022.
  183. ^ "Le Grand Rabbin de France, Haïm Korsia sur Eric Zemmour : "Il est juif ? (...) Il est antisémite certainement, raciste évidemment"" [The chief rabbi of France, Haïm Korsia, on Eric Zemmour: Is he Jewish? (...) He is certainly an antisemite and obviously a racist.] (in French). 2021.
  184. ^ "Deux nouveaux témoignages accusent Eric Zemmour d'agressions sexuelles" Archived 22 September 2021 at the Wayback Machine, Libération (in French), 31 May 2021
  185. ^ Pixels (21 February 2022). "Page Wikipédia d'Eric Zemmour : l'encyclopédie en ligne répond aux " tentatives de manipulation "" [The online encyclopedia responds to "attempts at manipulation"]. Le Monde. Retrieved 22 February 2022. Sept comptes de contributeurs qui participaient à cette opération, qualifiée par l'encyclopédie de « tentative de manipulation », ont été bannis indéfinifment de la plate-forme. [Seven accounts of contributors who participated in this operation, described by the encyclopedia as "attempted manipulation", have been banned indefinitely from the platform.]
  186. ^ Grably, Raphaël; AFP (17 February 2022). "'Wikizedia': comment l'équipe d'Eric Zemmour a utilisé wikipédia pour promouvoir le candidat" ['WikiZedia': how Eric Zemmour's team used Wikipedia to promote the candidate]. BFM TV (in French). NextInteractive. Retrieved 21 February 2022.
  187. ^ "Éric Zemmour condamné en appel pour des propos islamophobes". lemonde.fr. 3 May 2018. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
  188. ^ "ECHR Upholds Eric Zemmour's "Incitement to Discrimination" Conviction". 31 December 2022.
  189. ^ "La LICRA va poursuivre en justice Éric Zemmour" [LICRA will sue Éric Zemmour]. Fr.news.yahoo.com. 16 March 2010. Archived from the original on 24 March 2010. Retrieved 30 November 2021 – via AFP.
  190. ^ AFP, « Respects veut voir Zemmour en banlieue [The Banlieu Respects collective wants Zemmour to come to the suburbs Archived 15 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine »,Le Figaro, 12 March 2010.
  191. ^ AFP, «Zemmour : le MRAP en appelle au CSA [Movement Against Racism (MRA) appeals to the High Audiovisual Council (CSA)] Archived 9 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine », Le Figaro, 9 March 2010.
  192. ^ AFP, « Propos d'Éric Zemmour: le CSA saisi [The case of Éric Zemmour: brought before the CSA (High Audiovisual Tribunal)] Archived 10 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine », Le Figaro, 11 March 2010.
  193. ^ "Municipales : Robert Ménard dit avoir le soutien du FN à Béziers" [Robert Ménard says he has the support of the National Front in Béziers]. Le Monde. 30 May 2013. Archived from the original on 9 October 2020. Retrieved 5 October 2020 – via AFP.
  194. ^ Elected in 2014 with the help of the far-right Front National. «Robert Ménard défend Eric Zemmour dans l'émission « C' à dire » sur France 5 [Robert Ménard defends Eric Zemmour in the program "C' à dire" on France 5] Archived 22 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine », Novopress.info, 29 March 2010.
  195. ^ a b Imhotep (24 March 2010). "Et si l'affaire Zemmour faisait réfléchir ?" [What if the Zemmour affair made people think?]. AgoraVox. Archived from the original on 5 April 2012. Retrieved 5 December 2011.
  196. ^ The editors of L'Express commented that Khosrokhavar estimated the share of Muslim prisoners in certain prisons near so-called sensitive districts as between 50% and 80% and that there were no official national statistics on the subject."Eric Zemmour: "Je ne demande pas la francisation des noms"" [I'm not asking for the francization of names.]. LExpress.fr. 11 March 2010. Archived from the original on 10 April 2019. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
  197. ^ The trial was postponed but the court to 11, 13 and 14 January 2011 due to a number of civil action filings, among which were a number of anti-racist organisations.« Le procès Zemmour renvoyé au mois de janvier » [Zemmour case postponed till January] Archived 22 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine on the website FranceAntilles.fr
  198. ^ "Éric Zemmour assigné le 29 juin par SOS Racisme [Éric Zemmour summoned on 29 June by SOS Racisme] Archived 2013-05-12 at the Wayback Machine", Le Parisien
  199. ^ "L'invitation de Zemmour à un débat de l'UMP indigne SOS Racisme" [Zemmour's invitation to a UMP debate outrages SOS Racisme]. L'Obs. 27 February 2011. Archived from the original on 7 February 2019. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
  200. ^ "Franceinfo – Actualités en temps réel et info en direct" [(Franceinfo home page)]. Franceinfo. Archived from the original on 16 October 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
  201. ^ Veron, Michel (3 March 2011). "Zemmour expose sa liberté d'expression à l'UMP" [Zemmour exercises his freedom of expression at the UMP]. L'Express (in French). Archived from the original on 26 September 2021. Retrieved 9 October 2021.
  202. ^ "Propos polémiques sur les musulmans : Éric Zemmour jugé mercredi à Paris" [Polemic statements about Muslims: Éric Zemmour judged on Wednesday in Paris] (in French). 23 May 2017. Retrieved 23 May 2017..
  203. ^ "Éric Zemmour condamné en appel pour des propos islamophobes" [Éric Zemmour condemned on appeal for Islamophobic statements]. Le Monde.fr. 3 May 2018. Retrieved 3 May 2018..
  204. ^ "Éric Zemmour définitivement condamné pour provocation à la haine raciale" [Éric Zemmour définitively condemned for incitement to racial hatred]. Le Monde.fr. 20 September 2019. Retrieved 20 September 2019..
  205. ^ Hugo Domenach (17 October 2019). "Éric Zemmour saisit la CEDH" [Éric Zemmour complained to the CEDH]. lepoint.fr.
  206. ^ "Éric Zemmour, condamné pour provocation à la haine, saisit la Cour européenne des droits de l'homme" [Éric Zemmour, condemned for incitement for hatred, complains to the European Court of Human Rights]. 11 December 2019..
  207. ^ "French far-right presidential candidate Eric Zemmour convicted of hate speech". POLITICO. 17 January 2022. Retrieved 17 January 2022.
  208. ^ à 00h00, Par Cécile Beaulieu Le 15 janvier 2008 (14 January 2008). "Le roman d'Eric Zemmour attaqué" [Eric Zemmour's novel attacked]. leparisien.fr. Archived from the original on 25 May 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  209. ^ Figaro, Madame (18 September 2014). "Trois questions à Eric Zemmour" [Three Questions for Eric Zemmour]. Madame Figaro. Archived from the original on 3 October 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2021.
  210. ^ "Petit frère, d'Éric Zemmour ne sera pas interdit" [Eric Zemmour's novel Petit frère won't be banned]. ActuaLitté.com. Archived from the original on 27 June 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2021.
  211. ^ "Le Cran saisit le CSA après une chronique " xénophobe " d'Eric Zemmour" [CRAN issues summons to the CSA after a 'xenophobic' column of Eric Zemmour]. Les Echos. 9 May 2014. Archived from the original on 3 October 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2021.
  212. ^ ""Bandes" d'étrangers qui "violentent" : 5000 euros requis contre Zemmour" ["Bands" of foreigners who "rape": 5000 euro fine requested against Zemmour]. lci.fr (in French). 25 June 2015. Retrieved 21 June 2021..
  213. ^ "Chronique de Zemmour sur les étrangers: le CSA met "en garde" RTL" [Zemmour's column on foreigners: the CSA 'cautions' RTL]. LExpansion.com. 17 June 2014. Archived from the original on 28 June 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2021.
  214. ^ article L211-1 of the code of judicial organisation. du code de l'organisation judiciaire
  215. ^ "Poursuivi pour incitation à la haine raciale, Eric Zemmour a été relaxé" [Prosecuted for incitement to racial hatred, Eric Zemmour is acquitted]. Le Monde.fr. 22 September 2015. Archived from the original on 3 October 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2021 – via Le Monde.
  216. ^ Montefiori, Stefano (31 October 2014). "Zemmour e la rabbia anti-élite" [Zemmour and anti-elite rage] (in Italian). Archived from the original on 3 October 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2021.
  217. ^ "La polémique Zemmour en six actes" [The Zemmour controversy in six acts]. Franceinfo (in French). 18 December 2014. Archived from the original on 3 October 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2021.
  218. ^ "Eric Zemmour condamné à 3000 euros d'amende pour provocation à la haine envers les musulmans" [Eric Zemmour fined 3,000 euros for inciting hatred towards Muslims]. Libération (in French). 17 December 2015. Archived from the original on 9 September 2021. Retrieved 9 October 2021.
  219. ^ "La condamnation d'Éric Zemmour pour ses propos contre les musulmans confirmée" [Éric Zemmour's conviction for his remarks against Muslims confirmed]. Europe 1 (in French). 17 November 2016. Archived from the original on 3 October 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2021.
  220. ^ "Eric Zemmour relaxé en appel après des propos polémiques sur les musulmans" [Eric Zemmour acquitted on appeal after controversial remarks about Muslims]. Le Point (in French). 29 November 2018. Archived from the original on 28 June 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2021.
  221. ^ "Affaire Baupin : relaxe de Zemmour, poursuivi en diffamation par Duflot" [Baupin case: Zemmour acquitted, sued for defamation by Duflot]. Europe 1 (in French). 6 February 2018. Archived from the original on 3 October 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2021.
  222. ^ "Le Conseil d'Etat annule une décision du CSA visant Zemmour" [The Council of State cancels a CSA decision targeting Zemmour]. Le Monde (in French). 15 October 2018. Archived from the original on 3 October 2021. Retrieved 9 October 2021.
  223. ^ "Eric Zemmour condamné à 10 000 euros d'amende pour injure et provocation à la haine" [Eric Zemmour fined 10,000 euros for insult and incitement of hatred]. Le Monde.fr (in French). 25 September 2020. Archived from the original on 2 October 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2021 – via Le Monde.
  224. ^ "Eric Zemmour relaxé en appel pour des propos anti-islam et anti-immigration tenus en 2019" [Eric Zemmour released on appeal for anti-Islamic and anti-immigration comments made in 2019]. BFMTV (in French). Archived from the original on 10 September 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2021.
  225. ^ "Eric Zemmour relaxé en appel pour des propos sur l'islam et l'immigration tenus à la «Convention de la droite»" Archived 28 September 2021 at the Wayback Machine, Le Figaro (in French), 8 September 2021
  226. ^ "Après la relaxe d'Eric Zemmour pour des propos anti-islam, le parquet général se pourvoit en cassation" [After Eric Zemmour's acquittal for anti-Islamic remarks, the public prosecutor appeals to the Supreme Court]. Le Monde (in French). 14 September 2021. Archived from the original on 9 October 2021. Retrieved 9 October 2021.
  227. ^ Norimitsu, Onishi (12 October 2021). "Rise of a Far-Right Pundit Is Scrambling French Politics". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 October 2021. Retrieved 12 October 2021.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]