Étude pour pianola
Étude pour pianola is a 1917 composition for pianola by Russian composer Igor Stravinsky. The étude was published in 1921 and first performed by Reginald Reynolds in the Aeolian Hall of London on October 13 of the same year.
As Stravinsky was finishing Les Noces, he traveled to Madrid and got inspiration by Spanish music for future compositions. This étude was commissioned by Aeolian Company, as a demonstration piece of their new sensible to dynamic shadings player piano. Stravinsky finished it in 1917. However, it became much more popular later in 1928, when he orchestrated this piece together with the Three Pieces for String Quartet. The étude was retitled "Madrid", and the orchestration, titled Quatre études pour orchestre, was premiered in 1930.
This is one of the first compositions for pianola to include dynamic shadings. The original score consists of six staves, which means three pianists are required to perform the piece. However, Soulima Stravinsky later rearranged the orchestral score into a version for two pianos which included most of the original work's compositional density.
- "Composition for pianola - Igor Stravinsky". The Pianola Institute Ltd. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
- Leonard, James (2012). "Igor Stravinsky - Étude, for pianola". Rovi Corporation. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
- Jacobs, Paul (2008). "Jacobs and Oppen: Stravinsky". Stravinsky: Music for Four Hands. Arbiter Records. Retrieved December 20, 2012.