In 1980 Škoda produced ES 499.1001 and 1002 as prototype locomotives for the replacement of the existing ČSD fleet. Production series locomotives started to be delivered in 1984. Two single system derivatives were also created S 499.2 (AC) and E 499.3 (DC). During 1990 further development to run at 140 km/h lead to the ČD Class 362, but an order for 30 locos was canceled due to financial problems. Some ČD Class 363 and ŽSR Class 363 locomotives are being rebuilt as 362s.
In 1980, these locomotives were the world's first multisystem locomotives with power thyristor pulse regulation. This regulation has minimal losses compared to older resistive regulation with much higher losses. This gave the locomotive its characteristic sound in three frequencies (the first is 33,3 Hz, the second is 100 Hz and the third is 300 Hz) when locomotive accelerating.