Đọc kinh is the Vietnamese Catholic term for reciting a prayer or sacred text. In communal worship settings, đọc kinh is characterized by cantillation, or the ritual chanting of prayers and responses. To Westerners, this form of prayer can be mistaken for song.
Within the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, Vietnamese liturgical practise is distinct in its extensive use of cantillation: all prayers and responses during the Mass are either sung or chanted, but never spoken. Thus, the Lord's Prayer is recited differently during the Mass than in a private setting. Gregorian chant is not used in a Vietnamese-language Mass; it is entirely omitted from Vietnamese translations of the Roman Missal and Order of Mass.
It is suspected that cantillation in Lao and Hmong Catholic liturgies is due to Vietnamese influence. Cantillation is far from universal among tonal languages, but Fuzhou Catholics in Fujian have a similar practise.
Vietnamese cantillation is neither composed nor improvised; it follows a formula in which each of the Vietnamese language's six tones corresponds to a specific note or sequence. Depending on the diocese, tones are organized along a scale of two or three notes (dấu trụ). For example, parishes in the former West Tonkin diocese use the three-note scale of fa-sol-la, so the incipit of the Hail Mary is rendered:
- Buddhist chant (tụng kinh)
- Kiều, Tùng Công (2009). A Project on Developing Catholic Liturgical Music in Vietnam (PDF) (S.T.M.). Boston University. pp. 71–72. Retrieved June 9, 2013.
- Zaragoza, Rufino (November 2001). "The Sacred Sound of Đọc Kinh: Exploring the Sonic World of Vietnamese Chanting". Ministry & Liturgy (San Jose, California: Resource Publications). Retrieved June 9, 2013.
- Nguyễn Xuân Thảo; Zaragoza, Rufino (March 1, 2012). "Doc Kinh: A Vietnamese Sonic Landscape". Pastoral Music (National Association of Pastoral Musicians). Retrieved June 9, 2013.
- Reyes, Adelaida (1999). Songs of the Caged, Songs of the Free: Music and the Vietnamese Refugee Experience. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. pp. 131–132. ISBN 1-56639-685-9.
- Ngọc Kôn (2012). "Sáng tác Đáp ca & Đối ca" [Composing Responsoria & Antiphona] (PDF). Thánh Nhạc Ngày Nay (in Vietnamese) (Ho Chi Minh City): 12–13.
- Khổng Vĩnh Thành. "Thánh Vịnh Đáp Ca: Hát, Ngâm, hay Đọc?" [Responsorial Hymns: Song, Declamation, or Recitation?] (PDF). Hương Trầm (in Vietnamese) (Archdiocese of Ho Chi Minh City) (11): 14–15. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
- Vietnamese Chanting – sample of common Vietnamese Catholic liturgical chants by Oregon Catholic Press
- (Vietnamese) Việc Hát Thánh Vịnh Đáp Ca Tiếng Việt Nam
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