Đồng Khánh

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Nguyễn Phúc Ưng Kỷ
Emperor of Đại Nam under French protectorate of Annam and Tonkin
DongKhanh.jpg
Emperor Đồng Khánh
Emperor of Đại Nam
Reign 19/09/1885–28/01/1889
Predecessor Hàm Nghi
Successor Thành Thái
Emperor of Nguyễn Dynasty
Reign 19/09/1885–28/01/1889
Predecessor Hàm Nghi
Successor Thành Thái
Born 19/02/1864
Imperial City, Huế, Đại Nam
Died 28/01/1889 (aged 24)
Imperial City, Huế, Đại Nam, French Indochina
Burial Tư Lăng (思陵)
Spouse 11 concubines
Issue 9 including 6 sons and 3 daughter
prince Nguyễn Phúc Bửu Đảo
Full name
Nguyễn Phúc Ưng Kỷ (阮福膺祺)
Era name and dates
Đồng Khánh (同慶): 1885–1889
Posthumous name
Hoằng Liệt Thông Thiết Mẫn Huệ Thuần Hoàng Đế (弘烈聰哲敏惠純皇帝)
Phối Thiên Minh Vận Hiếu Đức Nhân Vũ Vĩ Công Hoằng Liệt Thông Thiết Mẫn Huệ Thuần Hoàng Đế (配天明運孝德仁武偉功弘烈聰哲敏惠純皇帝) (1916)
Temple name
Cảnh Tông (景宗)
House Nguyễn
Father Nguyễn Phúc Hồng Cai (son of Thiệu Trị)
Mother Concubine Bùi Thị Thanh
Religion Ruism, Buddhism
Signature Nguyễn Phúc Ưng Kỷ's signature

Đồng Khánh (Chữ Hán: 同慶; 19 February 1864 – 28 January 1889), born Nguyễn Phúc Ưng Kỷ (阮福膺祺) or Nguyễn Phúc Ưng Đường (阮福膺禟), also known as Chánh Mông, was the ninth emperor of the Nguyễn Dynasty of Vietnam. He reigned three years between 1885 and 1889. His royal temple name was Nguyễn Cảnh Tông (阮景宗).

Biography[edit]

Đồng Khánh was given birth in 19/12/1864 at Imperial city of Huế. He got the childhood name Chánh Mông when he was brought up in Chánh Mông palace. Đồng Khánh was the eldest son of Prince Nguyễn Phúc Hồng Cai (son of emperor Thiệu Trị) and Concubine Bùi Thị Thanh.
As his uncle, Emperor Tự Đức, had no children, Đồng Khánh was adopted and made the title Kiên Giang quận công (Duke of Kiên Giang).

Rule[edit]

Imperial examination at Nam Định during Đồng Khánh's era in (1888).

After the French armies captured the city of Huế and the Purple Forbidden City of was fallen to French, hen court regents Nguyễn Văn Tường and Tôn Thất Thuyết took the young Emperor Hàm Nghi escaped from the Purple Forbidden City of Huế, and took him to the mountains as the figurehead of a revolutionary movement against the French. To take away the legitimacy of Hàm Nghi general de Courcy sai de Champeaux of France asked the empress dowager Nghi Thiên to enthrone prince Nguyễn Phúc Ưng Kỷ (Hàm Nghi's elder half brother). In 19/09/1885, Prince Nguyễn Phúc Ưng Kỷ had to go to the governor of Annam to attend his cornoration, he became the ninth emperor of Đại Nam with the era name of Đồng Khánh.
The emperor showed himself as the Pro-French ruler and this thing was also mentioned in Diary of Trần Trọng Kim:
"Emperor Đồng Khánh had a gentle personality, loved to wear luxurious jewelry and adopted French culture therefore French colonial government gave favor to him. After the dethroned emperor Hàm Nghi fled to Quảng Bình, Đồng Khánh accepted the French request of travelling to Quảng Bình to persuade Hàm Nghi and his loyal subjects surrender but unsuccessful. After that, Hàm Nghi was betrayed by his loyal subject Trương Quang Ngọc, then he was captured by French and exiled in Algérie."

Death[edit]

In 28/01/1889, Đồng Khánh passed away at aged 24 after reigning in 3 years.he was granted the Posthumous name as Hoằng Liệt Thông Thiết Mẫn Huệ Thuần Hoàng Đế (弘烈聰哲敏惠純皇帝), with temple name Cảnh Tông (景宗). In 1916, his son (Emperor Khải Định) granted him as Phối Thiên Minh Vận Hiếu Đức Nhân Vũ Vĩ Công Hoằng Liệt Thông Thiết Mẫn Huệ Thuần Hoàng Đế (配天明運孝德仁武偉功弘烈聰哲敏惠純皇帝). He was buried in Tư Lăng mausoleum (思陵) which is located at Dương Xuân Thượng village, Hương Thuỷm commune, Thừa Thiên Province.

Relatives[edit]

Madame Nhu, the First Lady of South Vietnam from 1955–63, was a great-granddaughter of Đồng Khánh.[1][2][3][4]

  • Father: Nguyễn Phúc Hồng Cai (阮福洪侅), title Thuần Nghị Kiên Thái Vương (純毅堅太王).
  • Mother: Bùi Thị Thanh (裴氏清), title Thuần Nghị Kiên Thái Vương Phi (純毅堅太王妃).
  • Concubine:
  1. Phụ Thiên Thuần Nguyễn Hữu thị Empress(輔天純皇后阮有氏; 22/12/1870 - 09/11/1935), courtesy name Học Khương (學姜); historical book record as Đức Thánh Cung (德聖宮). Daughter of Vĩnh Lai Quận công (Duke of Vĩnh Lai) , House of secret council mandarin Nguyễn Hữu Độ.
  2. Hựu Thiên Thuần Dương thị Empress(佑天純皇后楊氏; 18/04/1868 - 17/09/1944),hometown in Phú Lộc commune, Thừa Thiên province, Daughter of Phú Lộc Quận công (Duke of Phú Lộc) Dương Quang Hướng. She is the mother of emperor Khải Định.
  3. Concubine Phan Văn thị (佳妃潘文氏).
  4. Concubine Trần Đăng thị (关妃陈登氏) .
  5. Concubine Hồ Văn thị (正嫔胡文氏).
  6. Concubine Nguyễn Văn thị (宜嫔阮文氏).
  7. Concubine Trần Văn thị (裕嫔陈文氏).
  8. Concubine Hồ thị (婕妤胡氏).
  9. Concubine Trịnh thị.
  10. Concubine Nguyễn Hữu thị.
  11. Concubine Bách Hợp (宫人百合).
  • Successors:
  • Princes:
  1. Nguyễn Phúc Bửu Đảo (阮福寶嶹): emperor Khải Định
  2. An Hóa Quận vương (Duke of An Hóa) Nguyễn Phúc Bửu Tung (安化郡王阮福寶𡾼)
  3. Nguyễn Phúc Bửu Nguy (阮福宝巍).
  4. Nguyễn Phúc Bửu Nga (阮福寶峨).
  5. Nguyễn Phúc Bửu Cát (阮福寶嶱).
  6. Nguyễn Phúc Bửu Quyền (阮福寶巏).
  • Princess:
  1. Ngọc Lâm princess "Nguyễn Phúc Hỷ Duyệt" (玉林公主阮福喜悦).
  2. Ngọc Sơn princess "Nguyễn Phúc Hỷ Hỷ" (玉山公主阮福喜喜).
  3. Princess Nguyễn Phúc Hân Hân.

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.4dw.net/royalark/Vietnam/annam9.htm
  2. ^ Erica J. Peters - Appetites and Aspirations in Vietnam: 2011 "His dramatic embrace of Western grand cuisine met with the approval of his French overlords, though whether other Vietnamese saw Đồng Khánh as manipulating the French or as a puppet depended on their own political perspective."
  3. ^ Vietnamese Royal Exile in Japan - Page 27 "Meanwhile, Đồng Khánh assumed the throne after Hàm Nghi vas removed from power. To some degree Đồng Khánh benefited from French efforts to restore Some prestige to the Vietnamese monarchy, the demise of which was one of the ..."
  4. ^ Christian Culas, François Robinne Inter-Ethnic Dynamics in Asia: Considering the Other 2009 "EMPEROR ĐồNG KHÁNH'S DESCRIPTIVE GEOGRAPHY (1888) Another important source written in characters on the ethnic populations of northern Vietnam is the Emperor Đồng Khánh's Descriptive Geography (Ngô Duc Tho, Nguyên Văn .
Đồng Khánh
Born: 19 February 1864 Died: 28 January 1889
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Hàm Nghi
Emperor of Vietnam
1885–1889
Succeeded by
Thành Thái