Điện Biên Phủ

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Điện Biên Phủ

Thành phố Điện Biên Phủ
Điện Biên Phủ City
Điện Biên Phủ.JPG
Location in northern Vietnam
Location in northern Vietnam
Điện Biên Phủ is located in Vietnam
Điện Biên Phủ
Điện Biên Phủ
Location of Điện Biên in Vietnam
Coordinates: 21°23′N 103°1′E / 21.383°N 103.017°E / 21.383; 103.017
Country Vietnam
ProvinceĐiện Biên
ClimateCwa

Điện Biên, sometimes called Dienbien Phu (Vietnamese: [ɗîənˀ ɓīən fû] (About this soundlisten) / means Dienbien Prefecture), is a city in the northwestern region of Vietnam. It is the capital of Điện Biên Province. The city is best known for the events which occurred there during the First Indochina War, the Battle of Điện Biên Phủ, during which the region was a breadbasket for the Việt Minh. The city was formerly called Thaeng.

Population[edit]

Statistics on Điện Biên Phủ's population vary depending on definitions—figures are generally between 70,000 and 125,000. The city is growing quickly, and is projected to have a population of 150,000 by 2020.[1] The majority of the population is not ethnically Vietnamese—rather, Thai ethnic groups form the largest segment. Ethnic Vietnamese make up around a third of the population, with the remainder being Hmong, Si La, or others.[citation needed]

Location within Vietnam[edit]

Điện Biên Phủ lies in Mường Thanh Valley, a 20 kilometres (12 mi)) long and 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) wide basin sometimes described as "heart-shaped." It is on the western edge of Điện Biên Province, of which it is the capital, and is only about 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from the border with Laos. Until the creation of the province in 2004, it was part of Lai Châu Province. The Vietnamese government elevated Điện Biên Phủ to town status in 1992, and to city status in 2003.

Transport[edit]

National route 12 connects Điện Biên to Lai Châu. Điện Biên Phủ Airport serves the city with air route to Hanoi.

History[edit]

The 8th century Thai locality of Muang Then is believed to have been centered here.[citation needed]

Operation Castor (1953)[edit]

In the 1950s, the town was known for its famous opium traffic, generating 500,000,000 French francs annually. It was also an extensive source of rice for the Việt Minh.[2]

The region was fortified in November 1953 by the French Union force in the biggest airborne operation of the 1946–1954 First Indochina War, Operation Castor, to block Việt Minh transport routes and to set the stage to draw out Việt Minh forces.

Siege of Điện Biên Phủ (1954)[edit]

Explosion crater at the top of A1 Hill (named Eliane 2 by French)

The following year, the important Battle of Điện Biên Phủ was fought between the Việt Minh (led by General Võ Nguyên Giáp), and the French Union (led by General Henri Navarre, successor to General Raoul Salan). The siege of the French garrison lasted fifty-seven days, from 17:30, 13 March to 17:30, 7 May 1954. The southern outpost or fire base of "Camp Isabelle" did not follow the cease-fire order and fought until 01:00. The long-scheduled Geneva Meeting's Indochina conference involving the United States, the UK, the French Union and the USSR had already begun on 26 April 1954[3][4]

The battle was significant beyond the valleys of Điện Biên Phủ. Giáp's victory ended major French involvement in Indochina and led to the Geneva accords which partitioned Vietnam into North and South.

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Điện Biên Phủ
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 32.4
(90.3)
33.9
(93)
36.1
(97)
38.5
(101.3)
38.6
(101.5)
37.9
(100.2)
36.0
(96.8)
35.2
(95.4)
35.0
(95)
35.5
(95.9)
32.4
(90.3)
31.2
(88.2)
38.6
(101.5)
Average high °C (°F) 23.7
(74.7)
25.9
(78.6)
29.1
(84.4)
30.9
(87.6)
31.6
(88.9)
31.0
(87.8)
30.3
(86.5)
30.2
(86.4)
30.2
(86.4)
28.9
(84)
26.3
(79.3)
23.6
(74.5)
28.5
(83.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 16.3
(61.3)
18.0
(64.4)
20.9
(69.6)
23.7
(74.7)
25.5
(77.9)
26.0
(78.8)
25.8
(78.4)
25.5
(77.9)
24.7
(76.5)
22.6
(72.7)
19.4
(66.9)
16.2
(61.2)
22.0
(71.6)
Average low °C (°F) 12.1
(53.8)
13.1
(55.6)
15.5
(59.9)
19.0
(66.2)
21.6
(70.9)
23.2
(73.8)
23.2
(73.8)
22.8
(73)
21.6
(70.9)
19.1
(66.4)
15.4
(59.7)
12.0
(53.6)
18.2
(64.8)
Record low °C (°F) −1.3
(29.7)
4.8
(40.6)
5.3
(41.5)
11.4
(52.5)
14.8
(58.6)
17.4
(63.3)
18.7
(65.7)
10.7
(51.3)
15.0
(59)
7.7
(45.9)
4.0
(39.2)
0.4
(32.7)
−1.3
(29.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 21
(0.83)
31
(1.22)
55
(2.17)
111
(4.37)
187
(7.36)
274
(10.79)
310
(12.2)
313
(12.32)
151
(5.94)
65
(2.56)
31
(1.22)
21
(0.83)
1,568
(61.73)
Average precipitation days 4.8 4.0 5.8 12.4 17.1 20.3 22.4 21.3 13.4 8.7 5.5 3.7 139.3
Average relative humidity (%) 82.7 79.7 79.2 81.0 81.9 84.6 86.3 87.4 86.4 84.9 83.5 83.4 83.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 163 175 205 206 203 142 131 146 172 173 158 161 2,034
Source: Vietnam Institute for Building Science and Technology[5]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Điện Biên Phủ: Development and Conservation in a Vietnamese Cultural Landscape, by William Logan. Paper Presented at the Forum UNESCO University and Heritage. 10th International Seminar "Cultural Landscapes in the 21st Century". Newcastle upon Tyne, 11–16 April 2005. Revised: July 2006.
  2. ^ The Last Valley, Martin Windrow, 2004
  3. ^ J. A. S. Grenville, page 407 The Collins History of the World in the Twentieth Century, ISBN 0 00 255169 1
  4. ^ Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David: Vietnam Past and Present: The North (History and culture of Hanoi and Tonkin). Chiang Mai. Cognoscenti Books, 2012. ASIN: B006DCCM9Q.
  5. ^ "Vietnam Building Code Natural Physical & Climatic Data for Construction" (PDF). Vietnam Institute for Building Science and Technology. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2018. Retrieved 31 July 2018.

External links[edit]

Media links[edit]

Coordinates: 21°23′N 103°01′E / 21.383°N 103.017°E / 21.383; 103.017