|English: Independence March|
Original manuscript written by Mehmet Âkif Ersoy
National anthem of Turkey
|Lyrics||Mehmet Akif Ersoy, 1921|
Osman Zeki Üngör, 1930
|Adopted||12 March 1921|
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The İstiklâl Marşı (Turkish pronunciation: [ɯstiˈklaːl marˈʃɯ]; English: Independence March) is the national anthem of Turkey, officially adopted on 12 March 1921 - two and a half years before the 29 October 1923 establishment of the Republic of Turkey, both as a motivational musical saga for the troops fighting in the Turkish War of Independence, and as an anthem for a Republic that was yet to be established. It is also the anthem of Northern Cyprus.
Penned by Mehmet Âkif Ersoy, ultimately composed by Osman Zeki Üngör, the theme is one of affection for the Turkish homeland, freedom, and faith, of sacrifice for liberty, and of hope and devotion, explored through visual, tactile and kinesthetic imagery as they relate to the flag, the human spirit and the soil of the homeland. The manuscript by Ersoy carries the dedication Kahraman Ordumuza – "To our Heroic Army", the army that won the Turkish War of Independence. The lyrics reflect on the sacrifice of the soldiers during the war. Of the ten-stanza anthem, only the first two quatrains are typically sung. The anthem is regularly heard during state and military events, as well as during national festivals, bayrams, sporting events, and school ceremonies.
The anthem was the subject of a brief copyright dispute in 2010, when GEMA, the German music copyright society, attempted to collect royalties on the anthem. The composition was adopted as the National Anthem of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, an internationally unrecognized state on the island of Cyprus that was declared by the Turkish Cypriot community in 1983 after the events of 1974.
Even before the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, in 1921, a nationwide competition was organized to select an original composition for a National March- for which a total of 724 poems were submitted. Mehmet Akif Ersoy, a very well known poet of the time, refused to participate due to the monetary prize of the competition. He was then called and convinced by parliament to submit a poem, disregarding the prize of the competition. This ten-quinteto-long poem written by Ersoy was recited to the National Assembly by Hamdullah Suphi, on March 1, 1921, and it was unanimously adopted by the Deputies, following evaluation by a parliamentary committee; the prize of the competition was granted to a society of veterans.
Shortly thereafter, twenty-four composers participated in another competition arranged for the selection of a musical composition that would suit the elected National Anthem best. The Committee, which was only able to convene in 1924 due to the Turkish War of Independence, adopted the music composed by Ali Rıfat Çağatay. This composition lasted only six years. In 1930 a new composition by Osman Zeki Üngör was adopted. Edgar Manas (Armenian: Էտկար Մանաս) made the arrangements for the orchestra.
A framed version of the national anthem typically occupies the wall above the blackboard in the classrooms of almost every school in Turkey (accompanied by a Turkish flag, a photograph of the country's founding father Atatürk, and a copy of Atatürk's famous inspirational speech to the nation's youth).
The lyrics of the Turkish National Anthem consist of a long poem with 41 lines of verse. Only the first 8 lines (shown in bold) are performed in official ceremonies.
|Turkish lyrics||English translation|
1 A white crescent and star superimposed on a crimson background comprise the Turkish flag - the poet here is referring to the crimson flag's star, and is declaring that it belongs to the hearts of those comprising the Turkish nation, who cherish it deeply, and refuse to be deprived of it (and hence, their freedom and liberty) by anyone.
2 A white crescent and star superimposed on a crimson background comprise the Turkish flag- the poet is invoking the curvilinear image of the crescent and comparing it to the furrowed eyebrows of a frowning face, and anthropomorphises the flag by suggesting that its "sulky face" is an outward expression of its resentment of the invading foreign armies. The poet elaborates upon this imagery by suggesting that the flag is not only being surly, but also coy. He depicts the flag (and the spirit of freedom which it embodies, under threat from invading nations against whom victory initially seems impossibly difficult to achieve, hence "coy") as a demure maiden with a sulky face (symbolically, the resentment of the invasion) who is playing hard-to-get. That is, the "coy" flag is being "playful" about letting Turkish troops achieve ultimate victory and thus, freedom.
3 Although the word used here, "ırk", means "race" in contemporary Turkish, it had different associations in Ottoman Turkish. In Ottoman Turkish, it also carries the connotations of 'generation,' 'offspring', and 'family linage; in short, 'kin'.' Also note that the poet was of Albanian and Uzbek origin. Thus, the correct translation would be "Smile upon my heroic kinfolk!", rather than "Smile upon my heroic race".
4 The poet elaborates upon his earlier anthropomorphization of the flag by suggesting that it contain its rage and resentment, and resume its noble and honorable self in order to validate the efforts of Turkish patriots in protecting it.
5 There is a wordplay here that is difficult to translate. The play is on the homophonic words "hak" (justice, right) and Hakk (God), and thus the line can be perceived as both "my pious countrymen are deserving of freedom", or "my justice-loving countrymen are deserving of freedom".
6 The original word used ("Enginler"), which can be translated as "the Infinites" or " the Great Expanses", is a Turkish poetical word (with no direct English translation) that refers to anything perceived by Man as a vast, boundless expanse: the heavens, the oceans, the horizon, the Universe, etc.
7 The verse here alludes to the well-funded military might of the invading foreign powers, i.e. "the West", and compares it to the exhausted bodies and limited resources of the rag-tag team of patriots comprising the Turkish resistance army. The poet asserts that the men and women who are fighting to defend the nation from invading powers must not be daunted by these countries' superior firepower and technology, because the strength of spirit that comes from heartfelt optimism and faith are just as strong as any "walls of steel" the enemy might have around them.
8 There is a difficult-to-translate wordplay here on the word "ulusun", which can be broken down into a root, "ulu", and a suffix, "-sun". The verb form of the root "ulu", means "to howl, to cry out, to bellow", while the adjective form means "grand, sublime, noble". The suffix -sun serves to modify the adjective-form of this root to give it a second-person singular connotation, while it modifies the verb-form to give it a third person connotation. Thus, the phrase "ulu-sun" may be interpreted in two ways: "let it howl/cry out" (let your mighty voice echo across the land!) or "you are noble"
9 The term "civilization" here is used as a synonym for "the West", and the imagery of the "single-fanged beast" is in reference to the severe battering delivered to foreign armies by Turkish forces, the patriotic fighters of which have knocked out all but one of the ferocious monster's (the invaders') teeth - hence the expression, "single-fanged". In essence, the poet is building upon his earlier message to the Nation about showing patience and endurance against seemingly-impossible odds. He states that the vast superiority of the West in terms of technology, equipment and manpower to the war-stricken, undermanned, and underfed Turkish forces (that were hastily assembled by patriotic civilians and ex-military officials following World War I) can not only be matched, but actually overcome and even defeated for good by the unassailable spirit of the Turkish people.
Thus, the poet is calling out to the Nation, saying, "While 'the lands of the West may be armed with walls of steel', i.e., while these European armies may have seemingly impenetrable/unbeatable modern technology and weaponry, do not be fooled/discouraged by their apparent superiority. Look at what we have accomplished so far with virtually non-existent arms and supplies! We are horribly fatigued, and at a disadvantage in every conceivable way, yet we still are able to succeed in our battle for liberty! This seemingly undefeatable 'monster' has had almost every one of its teeth knocked out (hence, 'single-fanged') by our victorious campaign! Our motivation, faith, and internal drive is what has and will continue to carry us through, and that is something that our enemies cannot remotely match. All we need for ultimate victory is the ability to recognize our true 'innate strengths': a 'fiery faith' and the 'mighty chest (i.e. heart) of a believer'".
10 In Turkish, shroud-less is a metaphor used for martyrs, i.e. those who have sacrificed their lives for their country and their faith. In Islamic tradition, the dead have to be ceremoniously washed and dressed in linen shrouds before burial in order to have a safe passage to Heaven. Due to the chaotic nature of war, this practice is often unavailable to the battle-fallen, who may lie "shroudless" and exposed on the battle-field.
12 The image being painted here is that of a battle-fallen and pain-stricken patriot, who becomes ecstatic following the victorious end of the War of Independence. Despite not having a headstone at his final resting place, this is a man whose mind, body and soul have at long last found peace, and may thus finally ascend and reach the heavens, knowing that his homeland is safe and sound once and for all, and that all his suffering was worth it in the end.
- "Turkey: İstiklal Marşı". NationalAnthems.me. Retrieved 2011-08-08.
- "Turkey Scrambles to Protect National Anthem". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 2011-08-08.
- Çiloğlu, F. (1999). Kurtuluş Savaşı sözlüğü. Doğan Kitap. Retrieved 2014-10-31.
- Vefatını 72. yılında Mehmet Âkif Ersoy bilgi șöleni 3 : Mehmed Âkif edebî ve fikrî akımlar. Ankara: Türkiye Yazarlar Birliği. 2009. p. 54. ISBN 9789757382409.
- "İstiklal Marşı’nın Bestelenmesi Çalışmaları" (in Turkish). Retrieved 2012-12-11.
- Külekçi, Cahit (2010). Sosyo-kültürel açıdan Ermeniler ve Türkler: İstanbul Ermenileri (in Turkish). 432: Kayihan. p. 340.
- Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey. Banknote Museum: 7. Emission Group - One Hundred Turkish Lira - I. Series & II. Series. – Retrieved on 20 April 2009.
- "OSMANLICA - TÜRKÇE SÖZLÜK, LÛGAT, ESKİ ÖLÇÜ BİRİMLERİ DÖNÜŞTÜRÜCÜ". osmanlicaturkce.com. Retrieved 2014-10-31.
- "Mehmet Akif Ersoy". nathanielturner.com. Retrieved 2014-10-31.
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- Vocal of the İstiklal Marşı in Ogg Vorbis
- Dramatic Reading of the text of the İstiklal Marşı
- The Original Composition by Ali Rıfat Çağatay
- Official Records of the Grand National Assembly of The Republic of Turkey on the parliamentary debates and history of the İstiklal Marşı - Zabit Ceridesi - 12.03.1921 (Turkish)
- Documentary on the Turkish National Anthem (Turkish)