Łazienki Park

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Łazienki Park
4 Warszawa-Lazienki Krolewskie 107.jpg
Type Municipal
Location Warsaw
Area 76 ha[1]
Created 1918[2][3]
Status Open all year

Łazienki Park (Polish: Park Łazienkowski or Łazienki Królewskie, literally "Baths Park" or "Royal Baths"; often rendered "Royal Baths Park") is the largest park in Warsaw, Poland, occupying 76 hectares of the city center.

The park-and-palace complex lies in Warsaw's central district (Śródmieście), on Ujazdów Avenue (Aleje Ujazdowskie) on the "Royal Route" linking the Royal Castle with Wilanów palace to the south. North of Łazienki Park, on the other side of Agrykola Street, stands Ujazdów Castle.

History[edit]

Łazienki Park was designed in the 17th century by Tylman van Gameren, in the baroque style, for Stanisław Herakliusz Lubomirski. It took the name Łazienki ("Baths") from a bathing pavilion that was located there.

This picturesque and charming garden scheme owes its emergence as its present shape and appearance mainly to the last ruler of the Royal Republic of Two Nations, King Stanisław August Poniatowski. But the history of this place is much older. It began with Jazdów, the medieval fortified settlement of the Dukes of Masovia, which was perched atop an escarpment overlooking the vistula. In the mid-16th century, it became part of the estates of Poland’s Italian- born Queen Bona Sforza, who built a wooden manor house with an Italian garden on this site. Later, the wooden manor house of Anna Jagiellonka stood on this spot, immortalized in 1578 by the performance of the first Polish play, “Dismissal of the Greek Envoys” by Jan Kochanowski. To the south, King Zygmunt III Vasa had a four- sided stone castle with corner towers erected in 1624.

In the second half of the 17th century, Ujazdów became the property of Grand Crown Marshal Stanisław Herakliusz Lubomirski. He was the first to call attention to the thickly wooded area of a former animal park stretching along the foot of Ujazdów Castle and he built two garden pavilions there. One was a hermitage. The other, situated on an islet, originally contained an ornate bath chamber which first gave its name to the building and eventually to the entire gardens. (In Polish, Łazienki means “baths”). The original baths designed by the outstanding architect Tylman of Gameren in Baroque style, are contained to this day within the walls of the Palace on the Islet. In the first half of the 18th century, Ujazdów was leased to King August II the Strong, during whose reign a regular waterway known as he Piaseczno Canal was built.

In 1764, Ujazdów became the property of King Stanisław August Poniatowski. The monarch first set about rebuilding Ujazdów Casle which he chose as his summer residence. Work was begun in the castle’s forefield, where a series of straight paths converging at circles was laid out. Work to tidy up the former animal park also got under way. The remodeling of old Ujazdów Castle, which received an additional storey and new wings, dragged on without producing the expected results. The king became discouraged, abandoned further work and shifted his attention to the surrounding gardens.

Modified and reconstructed in several stages over two decades beginning in 1772, the former Lubomirski Bath-House was eventually transformed into elegant classicist Palace on the Islet. Many new structures were erected throughout the gardens which had been cultivated by numerous artiststs to mention only the architects Dominik Merlini and Jan Chrystian Kamsetzer, painters Jan Bogumił Plersch and Marcello Bacciarelli and sculptors Andrzej Le Brun, Jakub Monaldi and Franciszek Pinek. In 1774, a White House was erected. This was a modern villa in the form of a simple hexagon with comfortably appointed interiors. According to legend, the king’s great love Elżbieta Grabowska as well as his sisters resided therein. From 1775 to 1783 the Myśliwiecki Palace was built opposite the Bath-House. Originally it took the form of a cube built on a square, to which eventually wings were built on and subsequently elevated. During the 1770s the hermitage, which had been damaged by lightening, was resored and one of the king’s companions, Teresa Lhullier, took up residence therein.

Gradually, the gardens also changed their appearance. In 1778, a Royal Promenade was laid out – a lane joining the White House to the Bath-House. At the point where it crossed the Wilanów Road, a one-storey Chinese-style summer house (subsequently dismantled in the 19th century) was built. The old canals and pool near the Bath House were transformed into diversely shaped ponds of considerable size. In addition to gardens geometrically laid out in the French manner, the park also contained scenic areas inspired by the romantic English garden. Near the Royal Promenade a pavilion meant for then popular game Trou Madame was erected. A short while later, it was converted into a theatre known as the Little Theatre. Directly opposite, on the southern shore of he pond, an earthen amphitheatre with a stage in a cluster of trees was created. Meant to accommodate larger audiences, the amphitheatre was subsequently encased in stone and took on a more architectural, less rustic form. The view from the Bath House to the south was closed off with a water cascade and to the north – with a stone bridge upon which a monument to King Jan III Sobieski was erected. The road to the palace at the northern pond was guarded over by the Old Guardhouse. Nearby, a Grand Annexe of considerable size was built. It contained the extensive premises of the royal kitchen as well as lodgings for officials and servants quarters. Beneath the escarpment on the opposite side of the garden a Great Orangery was built, whose wing conained yet another theatre. Above it, on the escarpment terrace, a fruit and vegetable garden was laid out and a greenhouse known as the Trebhaus was built. Moreover, the garden was embellished with numerous bridges, bowers and statuary, and decorative waterworks were erected. One of them, a rotunda-like structure (near the Great Orangery) supplied the water for the fountain on the terrace in front of the palace.

By then, the royal complex also included the baroque Belvedere Palace situated at the southern edge of the escarpment. In one of the wings, the king set up a faience manufactory whose products were known as Belvedere vessels. Whenever Stanisław August was at Łazienki, he was followed by his entire court and closest family members. Decorative tents were set up in the garden to accommodate mainly all the servants and guards. At such times, the park was filled with strolling couples, people in carriages and small boats. Colourful and raucous spectacles including firework displays and other illuminations were staged in the gardens and often attended by Warsaw townspeople. Such was the case when a magnificent carousel was set into motion to mark the unveiling of the King Jan Sobieski monument in 1788. The palace itself was the scene of the famous “Thursday dinners”, to which the king would invite scholars, writers and poets. Łazienki at that time was an important cultural centre that flourished thanks to the support of Stanisław August, a patron of the fine arts and propagator of science and learning. As a palace and garden complex, Łazienki reflected the classicist style widespread in Europe during the latter half of the 18th century. But it stood for its picturesque nature and variety, hence that classicism (also found in the interiors of Ujazdów Castle designed by the King) has come to be known as the style of Stanisław August.

Following the partitions of Poland, in the 19th century Łazienki fell into the hands of the Russian tsars. In the period from 1819 to 1830, at the request of the new owners architect Jakub Kubicki rebuilt the Belvedere in the late-classicist style and subsequently erected new pavilions – the Egyptian Temple and Temple of Diana- in the gardens. He converted the former Trou- Madame pavilion into a New Guardhouse and school, hence today it is best known as “Podchorążówka” (Cadets’ Hall). The Nazi occupation was a tragic period for Łazienki. In 1939 it was closed to Poles. The historic buildings were taken over by the German military. Towards the end of December 1944, before evacuating the palace, the Nazis drenched its walls with petrol and set them on a fire. In the building’s blackened walls they drilled some one thousand holes to place dynamite in order to blow it up the way they had Warsaw’s Royal Castle. Fortunately, they were unable to carry out their plans. Following the Secong World War, an arduous reconstruction project of the Łazienki royal complex, which was to last nearly two decades, got under way. The first seven ground- floor chambers of the Palace on the Islet was opened to the public in 1960 and in 1965 the entire first floor. The White House, Myśliwiecki Palace and the theatre in the Old Orangery happily avoided the fate that befell the palace. Nevertheless, they required thorough restoration, since they did sustain damage during the war. At present they are completely renovated and open to visitors. Also restored are the Amphitheatre, Waterworks and the Cadets’ Hall which recently became the home of the Jan Agency Paderewski Museum. This historic palace and garden complex, now situated in the city centre, performs various cultural functions and is regularly visited by a great many domestic and foreign excursions as well as Warsovians. Its constant care and maintenance under the watchful eye of conservators is extremely costly.

Structures in the Park[edit]

Palace on the Water[edit]

Main article: Łazienki Palace

The principal edifice of Łazienki In the Palace on the Islet (Polish: Pałac na Wodzie). As mentioned, earlier, it came into beginning as a result of the baroque Bath-House erected in about 1680 by Grand Crown Martial Herakliusz Lubomirski. According to the design of Tylam of Gameren, the most outstanding architect in the Poland at that time. The square-shaped structure had a three-side protrusion on its northern elevation. Inside was a round hall with a fountain. The hall was topped by a cupola and illuminated from above by a lanterns whose walls were studded with pebbles and seashells and imitated grotto. Adjoining it was a bath chamber whose walls were mainly adorned with bas-reliefs. Both the building interior as well as its exterior elevation elevations were richly decorated with stuccowork, sculptures and murals. A portion of the original decorations have survived on the entrance wall of the columned portico. Also original is the Latin inscription to be read as a rebus. In translation it says: “This house hates sorrow, loves peace, offers a bath, recommands an idyllic life and wishes to play host to honest men.”

Rear (north face).
Palace on the Water. Front (south face).

To a large extent, the decorations of the main entrance hall, the Chamber of Bacchus and the Bath-Chamber, dating from Lubomirski’s time, have survived. Stanisław August first took an interest in the old Bath-House in 1772. Initially, some of the interiors were restored and turned into living quarters. That coincided with the then fashionable notion of fleeing palatial mansions to secludes rural abodes. On the northern side was built and fitted with side stairs leading down to the water. Sculpted element decorated the base of the balustrades. In 1777, the first considerable change in the Bath-House’s appearance occurred. An upstairs was added to the building and a sleeping suite for Stanisław August was installed therein. Downstairs a dining-room was created which already had a classicist appearance. (Earlier it had served as a bedroom.) Then fashionable roofed-over Chinese galleries with little bridges were added at either side, with the western one leading to what soon would be the Royal Promenade. In 1784, a more extensive reconstruction of the Bath-House was launched according to a design by Dominik Merlini. Two new annexes were built on the southern side, joined together by a row of four columns. The classicist façade was covered with sandstone slabs. Four years later the building was further expanded. Two new segments slightly set back from the south, were added on either side. On the northern side they formed part of the new, monumental northern façade which featured a columned portico crowned by a triangular tympanum. The cupola lantern was now covered with a little belvedere. All the elevation, including a belvedere, were crowned with a stone attic embellished with Le Brun’s sculptures.

In 1793, two more pavilions were added. They stood on land and were joined to the palace by little bridges with columned galleries. All in all, despite the numerous reconstructions effected over the years, the edifice had remained a uniform and harmonious whole. But what started as a pavilion had transformed itself into a palace. The exterior changes were accompanied by work on the interiors, most of which were given a classicist appearance. (Exceptions were the aforementioned Entrance Hall, Bacchus’ Hall and Bath-Chamber.)

A completely new interior, housed in the western segment added in 1788, was the two-tiered Ballroom, whose decorations were designed by Jan Chrystian Kamsetzer. Completed in 1793, it constituted an outstanding example of the classicist style in Poland. The stuccowork and mural decorations were subordinated to architectural divisions. The axis of the composition was set off by two monumentural marble fireplaces in the form of wall porticoes, featuring statues of Belvedere Apollo and Farnesian Heracles set against the shorter walls. The longer, white marbled walls decorated by vertical panneaux, painted by Jan Bogumił Plersh in the style of Raphael’s grotesques in the Vatican. Gold was a dominant colour in another elegant interior appointed by Stanisław August on the ground floor at the northern side – Solomon’s Hall, which was to suggest the wealth of a biblical temple. The plafond, bed-mouldings and both longer walls were filled with paintings by Marcello Bacciarelli illustrating the life of king Salomon. It was also during the time of King Stanislaw August that the interior of the former baroque grotto at the centre of the building was changed into something exceptionally monumental and serious. It walls were stuccoed in gold, grey and white and divided with half-columns (between which neighbouring premises were entered) as well as four niches containing the marble statues of Poland’s monarchs These were Casimir the Great by Jakub Monaldi. Zygmunt I and Stefan Batory by Le Brun and Jan III Sobieski by Franciszek Pinck. They were sculpted “to serve the world as an example” to cite the quotation form the 10th Book of Lucan inscribed on the decorative border. The cupola contained four tondi painted by Bacciarelli symbolizing the four virtues exemplified by the monarchs: courage, wisdom, justice and mercy. They concealed (in 1795) earlier frescos by Plersch illustrating the times of the day which had been in keeping with the interior’s previous climate. At present, for restoration purposes they have been uncovered. Bacciarellis paintings in the meantime may be viewed on the ground floor at might be called a conservator’s exhibition.

Among the other ground-floor premises mention should also be made of the relatively small Portrait Room and the considerably bigger Picture Gallery. Covered with green cloth, their walls were densely hung with paintings of which the king was a devotee and avid collector. A small two level chapel was set up on the ground floor (the king’s loggia situated at the higher level). It was topped with an oval cupola whose walls were divided by pilasters and panels and covered multi-coloured stucco. On the first floor were Stanislaw August’s suite and study, the Little Picture Gallery, a Bedroom, Library and the quarters of the his valet Franciszek Ryx. Lower-ceilinged than the ground-floor premises, these little rooms also reflected the classicist style.

Theater on the Isle[edit]

Seats in Roman theater
Stage of Roman theater

The theatre - inspired by the Ancient Greek and Roman architecture was built on the bank of the Łazienki lake, separated by a narrow strait from its stage. The theater was built in 1790–93 by Jan Chrystian Kamsetzer.[4] Its attic was embellished with sixteen statues representing famous poets, playwrights and thinkers of antiquity and of 16th-17th century. In 1922 these sixteen statues were replaced by eight statues.

The stage, sited on an island, was modeled after ancient Herculaneum and embellished with decorations that imitate ruins in the Roman Forum.[5] Performances are still staged here. The theater and its stage provide a perfect setting on a summer evening, despite occasional noise from swans, ducks and peacocks.[6]

White House[edit]

Little White House

The Little White House (Biały Domek) is a garden villa built in 1774-76 by Domenico Merlini. It housed King Stanisław August Poniatowski's mistress and, for a time, Louis XVIII,[7] who lived here in 1801-05 during his exile from France.[8] Built in the form of a square, it has identical facades, adorned with rustication, an attic and a small pavilion at the top. The interiors were decorated by the prominent Polish painters Jan Ścisło and Jan Bogumił Plersch.[8]

Though the Little White House was devastated by the Germans during World War II however, many of its interior furnishings survived.[8] The most interesting include grotesque paintings in the dining room, 18th-century Chinese wallpaper in the parlor, the king's bed in the bedchamber, and a cabinet in the form of an arbor with trompe-l'œil paintings by Plersch.[8]

Myślewicki Palace[edit]

Main article: Myślewicki Palace
Myślewicki Palace

The palace, which got its name from the village of Myślewice, was situated at the end of the road leading into town. Initially (in 1775) it was conceived as a one-storey villa set on a square. Its facade featured a large niche topped with a conchoa. Next to the main entrance, set off by lanterns held up by sculpted children, Monaldi’s statues on Zephyr and Flora were enshrined in two smaller niches in 1777.

Before the building could be completed (as originally planned) quarter-circular wings were added to either side, ending with one-storey pavilions covered with the than fashionable Chinese-style roofs. Several years later, an additional floor was added to the one-storey pavilions. The edifice, designed by Merilini, took on the appearance of a classicist mansion. Tradition holds that it was given by the king to his nephew Prince Józef Poniatowski.

Luckily, the mansion survived the Second World War and many of its interiors have retained their original décor. Worthy of note on the ground floor is the former Dining Hall (now the Salon) containing Plersch’s scenes of Rome and Venice. Next to in (on the western side). Is the former Bathroom with marbled walls and a plafond displaying Flora and Zephyr painted by Plersch. Another room in the west suite in adorned by seven whimsical views of ancient ruins set against a romantic landscape.

They were painted by Antoni Herliczek. The next Bedroom’s walls are decorated with painted medallions showing hunting cupids on the prowls. On the second floor only the décor of the Little Study has survived. Its walls are adorned with grayish-green panels into which medallions incorporating personification of learning and art have been woven.

The Old Orangery[edit]

Old Orangery

The Old Orangery was erected in 1786–88 in a rectangular horseshoe shape, with the southern façade of the core structure broken up by pilasters and arcaded great windows . The adjoining wings to the west were quarters for gardeners and staff. In the (considerably larger) wing to the east, a theatre set up, whose entrance was found in the two-tiered elevation. With its richly decorated interior which has luckily survived down to the present, it is one of the world’s few extant examples of an authentic 18th-century court theatre.

The simple, square-shaped audience area accommodated about 200 and comprised a ground floor where benches were arranged in amphitheatre fashion as well as three boxes on each wall overlooking the ground floor. The walls between the boxes were divided by pairs of pilasters, between which pilaster statues depicting women holding candles were placed. The statues were the work of Andrzej Le Brun who was assisted by Jakub Monaldi and Joachim Staggi. Above the real boxes illusionary ones were painted to suggest yet another tier of boxes filled with a courtly, elegantly attired public. The painting was the work of Plersch who had also painted above the stage what appeared to be bas-reliefs of coats-of-arms with the crest of the Royal Republic at centre.

Also painted by Plersch was the plafond depicting Apollo in a quadriga. The painting is set in a circular frame, beyond whose perimeters bas-relief-effect medallions bearing the likeness of the outstanding playwrights Sophocles, Shakespeare, Molière and Racine extend. The theatre’s interior was built entirely of wood to ensure excellent acoustics. The deep stage has a slanted floor and displays fragments of the equipment of a former engine-room. At either sides of the stage, three-tiered actors’ dressing-rooms were found. In the west wing of the Old Orangery as well as in the corridors running along its main trunk a Gallery of Polish Sculpture has been set up. On exhibit are works dating from the 16th century up to 1939. Only a very few sculptures dating from the 16th and 17th centuries as well as the first half of the 18th are on display and they may be admired in Room 1. The next room contains sculptures from the latter half of the 18th century including works by Jan Jerzy Plersch, the artist’s father, Franciszek Pinck and Andrzej Le Brun. Dating from the mid-19th century are works by such artist as Paweł Maliński- the first professor of Warsaw University’s Chair of Sculpture, Jakub Tatarkiewicz, Władysław Oleszczyński- an outstanding representative of the romantic school, as well as Marceli Guyski and Henryk Sattler, the son of the painter Korneli.

The next two rooms contain works by artists mainly of the 19th century including nthe Warsaw sculptors Wojciech Święcicki, Ludwik Kucharzewski, Andrzej Pruszyński, Bolesław Syrewicz, Teofil Godecki, Ludwik Pyrowicz, Hipolit Marczewski, Karol Kloss, Antoni Olesiński. Also seen here are works by Tomasz Oskar Sosnowski, Wiktor Brodzki and Teodor Rygier, who were working at that time in Rome, as well as Jan Ostrowski of Wilno, Ireneusz Załuski of Galicja (southern Poland) and Tola Certewiczówna of Kraków. One may also admire works transcending the bounds of romantic-academic sculpture by such artists as Kazimierz Ostrowski, Antoni Kurzawa and Jan Woydyga. Room 5 is devoted mainly to works created in the early 20th century by such artists as Józef Gabowicz, Ewa Kulikowska, Leopold Wasilkowski, Henryk Glicenstein, Stanisław Jagmin, Karol Hukan, Mieczysław L. Zawiejski and Czesław Makowski. Room 6 contains works by Antoni Medeyski and Konstanty Laszczka- two mid-20th-century sculptors representing totally different schools. Medeyski worked mainly in Rome and continued academic sculpture whereas Laszczka studied in Paris and in his works combined impressionistic techniques with a penchant for Secessionist decorativeness. Room 7 contains the sculptures of Bolesław Biegas, whose original and innovative compositions incorporated many artistic schools and tendencies that emerged in the first half of the 20th century, notably symbolism. The next two rooms (8 and 9) are devoted to the art of sculptor Wacław Szymanowski, whose principle claim to fame was the Chopin Monument in Łazienki Park. Additional Polish sculptures are on exhibit in rooms situated on the ground floor. They include works by artists as Anastazy Lepli, Henryk Kuna. Jan Szczepkowski, Xawery Dunikowski, Edward Wittig, Stanisław Kazimierz Ostrowski, Stanisław Jackowski, Jadwiga Bogdanowicz, August Zamoyski, Romuald Zerych and Alfons Karny.

New Orangery[edit]

New Orangery

The building was built by Adam Adolf Loewe and Józef Orłowski in 1860.[9] Neo-classicist with eclectic elements, it was designed to shelter the collection of orange trees.

The building was necessary because tsar Alexander II of Russia, who purchased one of the largest in Europe collection of tropical plants from Nieborów, could not transport it to Saint Petersburg, due to climate conditions there.[10] The collection's pride were long-lived orange trees (there were 124 of them in the collection).[10] Unfortunately, during the World War I, they were left without appropriate care and froze.[10] The building consists of an oblong hall, with glass walls.[9] Today it houses a tropical garden[9] and a restaurant in the northern wing.

Temple of Diana[edit]

Temple of Diana

In 1822, Jakub Kubicki erected a classicist temple to the goddess Diana. Also called the "Temple of the Sibyl," it stands next to the northwest part of the southern Łazienki lake. The wooden building is massive and decorated inside with murals with flower and fruit motifs.

Egyptian temple[edit]

An Egyptian temple was also built in 1822 by Jakub Kubicki, on the southwest shore of the southern Łazienki Lake. It was placed next to the fortress built by Stanisław Lubomirski, which protected Warsaw south of that point. In 1771 a bridge was built to it. During the Warsaw Uprising, only the northern part of the temple survived; the southern part has never been rebuilt.

The Museum of Scouting is currently located in the temple.[11]

Water tower[edit]

The Water Tower is a neoclassical structure, built in 1777–78 and 1822 by Jan Christian Kamsetzer and Chrystian Piotr Aigner.[12] It was modeled after Caecilia Metella's mausoleum on the Appian Way in Rome[13] and currently serves as a museum of jewelry.

The White House[edit]

A-one-storey building set on a square, it had identically designed pentaxial elevations embellished with strips of rustic-style masonry’ and crowned by a wooden, balustraded attic. The ground floor openings were extended, rectangular porte-fenêtres. The small first-floor were set off by a stretch of arch – a faint echo of the bygone rococo style. Inside, round the staircase occupying the structures central portion, an elegant suite including a Bed-Chamber were laid out on the south side. The chamber, containing an bed alcove, sports beautiful wood-carvings and reflect the stylized Chinese accents that were than in fashion. The walls were decorated with imitation ‘Chnese’ birds painted by Jan Ścisło. The Drawing-room adjoining the Bed-Chamber on the east may be third regulate as more fully ‘Chinese’. Adorning two of its walls in original Chinese wallpaper depicting landscapes, while a third wall features a mural depicting a Chinese landscape painted by Plersh. Jan Bogumił Plersh, who was assisted by Jan Ścisło, also painted thee decoration of the Octagonal Study adjoining the Bed-Chamber on the west side. This small room was decorated resemble a garden bower entwined by rambling roses, though which various scenes set against broad landscapes may be glimpsed.

The most opulent interior in the Dining-Room which is also entered though the Vestibule to the left. Its walls entirely decorated with murals of the grotesque type executed by Plersh in 1777. This type of wall decoration, somewhat reminiscent of Raphael’s paintings in the Loggias of the Vatican was subsequently applied in many classicist residences. The Dining-Room was also graced by a statue of Venus standing in a niche – an original ancient statue acquired by Le Brun in Rome. On the first floor, on both sides of the vestibule adorned with bas-relief medallions depicting Eros, are two suites. Each consist of an anteroom, bedroom, small study and wardrobes. The walls of the west site were painted with highly original decoration in the form of rambling morning-glory vines densely surrounded by graphic portrayals of various mythological scene.

The Hermitage[edit]

Now situated beyond the enclosure of Łazienki Park on the opposite side of Agrykola street, this small building set in square is covered with a French roof concealing its little upstairs rooms. It once served Marshal Herakliusz Lubomirski as his place of seclusion. Destroyed in a fire at the start of Stanislaw August’s reign,[14] it was rebuilt in 1777. Madame Lhuiller, who had earlier predicted the crown for the marshal, lived here for a spell. For many years following the Second World War the building housed a kindergarten. At present, following restoration of its interior, it, is the venue of concerts, book promotions, meetings with authors and other social and cultural events.

The Old Guardhouse[edit]

This structure was designed by Kamsetzer’s and built in 1791–1792 for the guards guarding the approach to the palace. It is situated next to the north pond at the side of the road. The façade of the Old Guardhouse was embellished with a Doric stone with a partially balustrated attic. Although not big in size, the building conveys a majestic image. At present, it serves as a venue for temporary exhibitions.

The New Guardhouse[edit]

The new Guardhouse is situated near the west side of the Palace on the Islet. It came into being through the reconstruction of a little building erected in 1779–1780 for the then popular game Trou-Madame, and murals adorned both its exterior and interior walls. In 1782, the building was converted into a theatre called the Little Theatre, with portable wooden booths serving as the actors’ changing rooms. After a proper theatre was created in the Old Orangery, the Little Theatre lost its reason for existence. It was turned into a storage-room where statues were kept and was therefore referred to at that time as the Marble Supply-House.

In 1830, Jakub Kubicki rebuilt the structure in the classicist spirit. Between the segments added on the east side he introduced columns with partially grooved shafts. The external decorations incorporated cartouches with panoplies and masks of Mars, the god of war. Today the building houses a café known under the 18th-century name of Trou-Madame.

Stables and Coach-houses[edit]

This building was constructed in 1825–1826 in the grange area on the eastern side of Łazienki Gardens on the site of earlier wooden structures. It was designed along the lines of a simple horseshoe with a higher (one-storey) central portion used as staff quarters. The ground-floor wings directly adjoining the main (central) building were used as stables and the side wings served as coach-houses. The building was designed by Kulbicki and reflected a classicist architectural style, it contains conservators’ work-shops.

Invalids' Barracks[edit]

This structure was built in 1825–1826 in the portion of the grange found at the south side of Łazienki Gardens. The one-storey rectangular building stands out for the severity of its architecture. Its designer could have been Wilhelm Henryk Minter, who built no longer extant barracks for hussars, uhlans and cuirassiers in the vicinity. Today it is the home of the Hunters’ and Riders’ Museum

The House of Narutowicz[edit]

Between the Stables and the Invalids’ Barracks is a one-storey villa-type building. Its façade id adorned with round panels, whereas the back of the structure is marked by a pronounced, closed, three-side projection. It was built in the 1830s possibly as lodgings for senior army officers. After Poland regained its independence following the First World War, it served as the residence of Gabriel Narutowicz, the first president of the Republic of Poland, who was assassinated in 1922. Today the building serves as a nursery school.

The Bridge and monument of King Jan III Sobieski[edit]

A bridge with a monument to King Jan II Sobieski closes off the view from the north windows of the Palace on the Islet. The bridge, originally of the single-arcade type covered with stone panels, was erected in 1777–1780. In 1877, when the canal was winded, two new spans were added on the east side. The central section of the bridge was designed by Merlini.

The King Sobieski Monument was designed by Le Brun, who modeled it on the king’s equestrian statue at Wilanów, and excused by Pinck. The task was made easier by the fact that a roughly hewn stone block set aside for this purpose had lain at the Szydłowiec quarry since Sobieski’s times. The monument depicts a rider in knight’s amour astride of a rearing steed, whose hooves are trtampling two Turksunderfoot. The monument’s of Sobieski’s defeat of the Turks at the gates of Vienna.

Buildings near the Park[edit]

The Belweder[edit]

Main article: Belweder
Officer cadets' barracks, Łazienki Park

The noted, earlier, it came into being through the reconstruction of an older structure from about 1600. It was Krzysztof Zygmunt Pac, the Grand Chancellor of Lithuania, who erected in palatial villa at the edge of a tall escarpment for his wife, Klara Izabella de Lascaris, an attendant at the court of Queen Maria Ludwika. Owing to the beautiful scenery one could admire from the villa’s windows it was christened the Belvedere. In the 1730s, the old building was replaced with a new brick building of rectangular shape designed by Józef Fontana.

Having purchased the Belvedere to add to his estates in 1767, Stanisław August had originally planned to reconstruct it. That, however, never came about. Instead, he had it used for officials ‘ the servants ‘ quarters and set up a manufactory of faience vessels which came to be known as ‘ belvederes ‘ in the north annexe. The Belvedere first underwent major reconstruction in 1819–1822, when Grand Duke Constantine, the tsarist viceroy in Russian-occupied Poland, decided to make it his residence. The baroque structure was remodelled in the classicist style. To the building’s main hull two one-floor perpendicular wings were added, riming both sides of its forecourt. The façade and garden wall were enhanced with monumental columned porticoes. Elements of the original décor have survived to this day in the palace’s interior, particularly in the Blue Room, known as the Pompeii Room, and the Drawing-Room. Many pieces of furniture and other smaller historic items have also survived. Until recently, the Belvedere was the seat of the President of Poland.

In the garden stretching directly beneath the Belvedere escarpment, two pavilions were erected in 1822, most likely designed by Jakub Kubicki: the Temple of Diana (also known as the Temple of Sibyl) and the Egyptian Temple. The former, situated in thegarden’s northern section, reflected the classical architecture of ancient Greece. It was built entirely of wood, and muralswith floral motifs adorned its interior. Lying cast-iron lions guarded its entrance. The other pavilion was built in the garden’s south section atop the embankment of former trenches(datind from 1771) that had encircled Warsaw and were known as Lubomirski’s Ramparts. The pavilion’s roof, topped with an attic, was also a terrace though which a road ran. Initially, the terrace was adorned by a tall wooden obelisk covered with red hieroglyphics . The central portion of the buildings opens on the water canal outside through four lotus columns. Below are the busts of lions squirting water into the pool running along the temple.

Ujazdów Castle[edit]

Main article: Ujazdów Castle

The current building was constructed in 1975 after a 1944 fire during the Warsaw Uprising destroyed the previous stone construction, but castles have existed on the spot since around the 13th century. In 1624 construction began on a stone castle under order of King Sigismund III Vasa, with remodeling by subsequent owners Stanisław Herakliusz Lubomirski and Stanisław August Poniatowski, the latter of whom donated the property to the Polish Army in 1784. In the 18th century the castle was included in the Stanislavian Axis, a line of parks and palaces planned in the southern outskirts of Warsaw much like the Saxon Axis in the city center. Since 1981 it has been the home of the Center for Contemporary Art.

Astronomical Observatory[edit]

Warsaw University Astronomical Observatory

Along was escarpment in Aleje Ujazdowskie, within the Botanical Gardens, stands the Astronomical Observatory. It was built in 1824 by Chrystian Piotr Aigner and Kado and Hilary Szpilkowski in the late classicist style. Adjoining it in the south are the buildings of Stanislaw August’s hothouse, which was built in about 1790. Surviving down to the present are the royal salon with a triple entranceway, the gardener’s cottage, a part of the coach-house and the hothouse proper, where figs and pineapples were raised. The salon, in which the king received guests, was originally decorated by the murals of Jan Jerzy Plersch. This buildings is Warsaw’s only surviving example of this type of 18th-century architecture. The hothouse was designed by Jan Chrystian Kamsetzer.

Chopin monument[edit]

Main article: Chopin Statue, Warsaw

The park is also home to the Chopin Statue, a monument to Frédéric Chopin. It was designed in 1907 by Wacław Szymanowski for planned erection on the centenary of Chopin's birth in 1910, but its execution was delayed by controversy about the design, then by the outbreak of World War I. The statue was finally cast and erected in 1926.[15]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Park". Muzeum Łazienki Królewskie (in Polish). Retrieved 2008-02-09. 
  2. ^ "Kalendarium". Muzeum Łazienki Królewskie (in Polish). Retrieved 2008-02-09. 
  3. ^ "Łazienki Królewskie". Encyklopedia Warszawy (in Polish). Retrieved 2008-02-09. 
  4. ^ "Royal Łazienki Park-Palace Complex". eGuide / Treasures of Warsaw on-line. Retrieved 2009-02-09. 
  5. ^ "History". www.lazienki-krolewskie.pl. Retrieved 2009-02-09. 
  6. ^ Mark Salter, Jonathan Bousfield (2002). Poland. Rough Guides. ISBN 1-85828-849-5. 
  7. ^ "Lazienki Palace". warsaw-life.com. Retrieved 2008-02-16. 
  8. ^ a b c d "Biały Dom". lazienki-krolewskie.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 2008-02-16. 
  9. ^ a b c "Nowa Pomarańczarnia". ePrzewodnik / Perełki Warszawy on-line (in Polish). 9 March 2005. Retrieved 2009-03-09. 
  10. ^ a b c "Nowa Pomarańczarnia - Palmiarnia". www.pascal.pl (in Polish). 9 March 2005. Retrieved 2009-03-09. 
  11. ^ http://www.warsawtour.pl/en/tourist-attractions/azienki-kr-lewskie-museum-muzeum-azienki-kr-lewskie-3347.html
  12. ^ "LAZIENKI KROLEWSKIE (ROYAL BATHS) MUSEUM". www.culture.pl. Retrieved 2009-03-09. 
  13. ^ "Wodozbiór". ePrzewodnik / Perełki Warszawy on-line (in Polish). Retrieved 2009-03-09. 
  14. ^ http://www.warsawtour.pl/en/tourist-attractions/azienki-kr-lewskie-museum-muzeum-azienki-kr-lewskie-3347.html
  15. ^ Encyklopedia powszechna PWN (1976), vol. 4, p. 372.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

Gallery[edit]

Historic images

By Vogel (1800s)

Garden features

Coordinates: 52°12′46″N 21°01′58″E / 52.21278°N 21.03278°E / 52.21278; 21.03278