Şəmkir

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Coordinates: 40°49′47″N 46°01′08″E / 40.82972°N 46.01889°E / 40.82972; 46.01889

Shamkir
Şəmkir
Shamkir is located in Azerbaijan
Shamkir
Shamkir
Coordinates: 40°49′47″N 46°01′08″E / 40.82972°N 46.01889°E / 40.82972; 46.01889
Country  Azerbaijan
District Shamkir
Established 1944
Elevation 450 m (1,480 ft)
Population (2010)[1]
 • Total 67,200
Time zone AZT (UTC+4)
 • Summer (DST) AZT (UTC+5)
Area code(s) +994 241
Website Official website

Şəmkir is a city in and the capital of Shamkir District in western Azerbaijan, located in the northern foothills of the Lesser Caucasus, on the coast of the Chagirchay River on Tbilisi-Yevlakh highway, about 4 kilometers (2.5 mi) from Dallar railway station. It is the eighth largest city in Azerbaijan by population.

Etymology[edit]

One theory is that the name derives from the dialectal Azerbaijani word sham, meaning a place covered in green.[2][3]

History[edit]

Pottery dish of the 16th or 15th century BCE, found during excavations near Shamkir

The historical Shamkur (also known as Shamkhor and Shamkir[2]) has been known since the 5th century as a merchant and craft center of Persia.[3] In 652, the city was seized by Arabs.[4] In 737, Khazars settled in Shamkir after the Arabian commander Mervan's campaign to the Volga.[4] In 752, the city was destroyed by the Sabir people, who lived nearby and rebelled against the Arabs.[4] In 854, the Muslim Khazars took refuge in Shamkir.[4] Later, the city was under the reign of Ganja amirs from the Kurdish dynasty of Shaddadids.[4] In the 12th century and in the beginning of the 13th century, Shamkir was under the Georgian reign.[4] In 1195, the Georgian Queen Tamar's commanders destroyed the troops of Azerbaijan's Atabey Abu-Bakr, who was from Seljuk dynasty of the Ildegizids.[4] In 1235, Shamkir was destroyed by Mongols.[4] From the first quarter of the 16th century till the beginning of the 19th century Shamkir was governed by hereditary rulers of Azerbaijani (Qizilbash) tribe called Shamsaddinli-Zulgadar.[4] In 1803, during the military actions against Ganja Khanate, Shamkir was taken up by Russian troops and annexed to Russia.[4]

In 1817–1818, colony of Germans resettled from Wurttemberg, was established on the site of Shamkir under the name Annenfeld.[2] On September 3, 1826, during the Russo-Iran war, the Shah's guard consisting of 10,000 soldiers was destroyed near Annenfeld.[4] In 1915, Assyrians from Turkey and Iran were resettled here and still lived here as of the 1930s.[5]

Annenfeld in the early 20th century

Following World War I, Annenfeld was given the Russian name of Annino (Russian: Аннино).[2] In 1938, it was granted urban-type settlement and renamed Shamkhor (Шамхор), after the nearby railway station and the historical Shamkir.[2][3] In 1944, two years after the German population was deported as part of the population transfer in the Soviet Union, it was granted town status.[3] In 1991, the name was changed to Shamkir.[2]

Economy[edit]

There are cognac and wine plants and also a plant of local industry functioning in the city.

Transportation[edit]

Public transport[edit]

Shamkir has a large urban transport system, mostly managed by the Ministry of Transportation.

Sports[edit]

The city has one professional football team, Shamkir, currently competing in the second-flight of Azerbaijani football, the Azerbaijan First Division.[6] The club has two Azerbaijani league titles.

As of 2014, city's home of Shamkir Chess a category 22 event and one of the highest rated tournaments of all time.[7]

Notable people[edit]

For more details on this topic, see Category:People from Shamkir.

Some of the city's many prestigious residents include: poets Molla Vali Vidadi and Ahmad Javad, footballer Javid Imamverdiyev and archer Zinyat Valiyeva.

Twin towns and Sister cities[edit]

Shamkir is twinned with:

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The state statistical committee of the Azerbaijan Republic
  2. ^ a b c d e f Pospelov, pp. 27–28
  3. ^ a b c d Kotlyakov, entry on "Shamkir"
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Soviet Historical Encyclopedia, entry on "Shamkhor" (Russian)
  5. ^ Краткая история появления в России ассирийскиx поселений. HOLY APOSTOLIC CATHOLIC ASSYRIAN CHURCH OF THE EAST.
  6. ^ ФК "Шамкир" возвращается в профессиональный футбол (in Russian). Retrieved 19 August 2011. 
  7. ^ "Carlsen beats Nakamura for perfect 2/2 start in the Gashimov Memorial". www.theweekinchess.com. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  8. ^ "Azerbaijan`s Shamkir, Lithuania`s Siauliai to become sister cities". azertag.az. Retrieved February 10, 2015. 

Sources[edit]

  • Е. М. Поспелов (Ye. M. Pospelov). "Имена городов: вчера и сегодня (1917–1992). Топонимический словарь." (City Names: Yesterday and Today (1917–1992). Toponymic Dictionary.) Москва, "Русские словари", 1993.
  • "Словарь современных географических названий" (Dictionary of Modern Geographic Names). Под. ред. В. М. Котлякова (ed. V. M. Kotlyakov), 2006.
  • "Советская историческая энциклопедия" (Soviet Historical Encyclopedia). Под ред. Е. М. Жукова (ed. Ye. M. Zhukov), 1973–1982.

External links[edit]