Şalgam

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A glass of şalgam

Şalgam or Şalgam Suyu[1].[2] It is pronounced "shal-gum"[3] (in translation: "turnip juice") is a popular and traditional [4] beverage from the southern Turkey cities Adana,[5][6] Hatay, Tarsus,[7] Mersin,[8] Kahramanmaras, İzmir [9][10] and the Çukurova region.[11] The name şalgam is Persian in origin;[12] in Persian it is written شلغم and means "turnip" (Brassica rapa). The French traveler, naturalist and writer Pierre Belon described the existence of the drink and the practice of its creation already in the 15th century.[13] It is either called turnip juice, turnip water,[14] shalgam juice,[15] or shalgam water.[16] There exists also a hot [17] version of the drink that is named acil [18] Studies have also shown that the juice of the purple carrot used in Salgam reduces the effects of high-carbohydrate diets.[19]

Besides Raki and Ayran it is drunk after eating Kebab.[20] Very often a slice of purple carrot is added just before drinking and other times wedges of paprica and garlic.[21][22][23][24] [25] [26] Şalgam is often served with the alcoholic drink rakı — not mixed, but rather in a separate glass as both complement the taste of the other drink.[27][28] It is also part of Armenian cuisine.[29] In some parts of Turkey both Ayran and Şalgam are mixed together [30] It is considered to be one of the most drunk beverages during winter in Turkey.[31] The renowned food critic Jim Leff compared its taste to the taste of sour cherries.[32] The Kanji (drink) is a similar drink that is consumed in the Indian subcontinent.[33]

Production[edit]

Although the Turkish word şalgam literally means "turnip", şalgam is made with the sour [34] and salty brine.[35] of red carrot pickles, salted, spiced and flavoured with aromatic turnip [36] (çelem) fermented in barrels [37] with the addition of ground bulgur and rock salt.[38][39] It is sometimes sold by street vendors who serve it from large goblets,[40] but there are also specialized shops that sell pickles called turşucu that sell non-industrial versions of Şalgam.[22][41] There is no standard production technique used by the industry,[42][43] but the traditional method uses sourdough fermentation and carrot fermentation.[44] Since 1996 there exist factories for large scale industrial production of Şalgam in Turkey [45] [46] The biggest producer of Salgam is the cooperation Doganay Gida, whose market share of the annual production is nearly 95%.[47] While the drink is exported to both Europe and Japan there exists no large scale importation into America, a company called Ersu tried to sell it as "Black miracle drink" but the campaign was eventually canceled.[48][49] While the industrial method</ref> takes 4–5 days, the traditional method takes 10 to 12 days.[16] The special taste of Şalgam comes from lactic acid [50] and ethanol [51][52] The special process is an adaption of yeast fermentation and spontananeous lactic acid fermentation. [53]

Health benefits[edit]

While şalgam is commonly recommended as a cure [54] for hangovers, consuming excess amounts may cause bloating according to some sources.[55] According to local Turkish custom it is drunk to help digestion. [56] It has been reported that the drink has positive health benefits,[57] because its anthocyanidic contents reduce health disease risks and the probability of carcinogenic occurrences.[58] Although some researchers believe that its high salt ratio could be dangerous for people with heart diseases.[59][60] It contains β-carotene, group B vitamins, calcium, potassium, and iron and is drunk for its antiseptic effects.[16]

It was reported in academic journals that it helps to remove toxins from the human body, can also help with reducing kidney stones. It is also used to treat pubertal acne, eczema, abscesses, whitlow, and hematomas.[61]

Şalgam is considered a functional food by some researchers, since it is a diuretic that also cleans lungs and bronchi.[16]

Events[edit]

Şalgam, has been celebrated as a festival in Adana since 2010. The World Rakı Festival (aka Adana Kebap ve Şalgam Festival), emerged from a hundred-year tradition of enjoying kebabs, with liver, şalgam and rakı. The event turned into a nationwide popular street festival; street musicians playing drums and zurna entertain visitors all night long on the second Saturday night of December.[62]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ UTUS, D. 2008. The effect of black carrot (Daucus carota) size usage on the quality of shalgam production. MSc Thesis, p. 55, Cukurova University, Turkey (in Turkish).
  2. ^ Erginkaya Z, Hammes WP (1992) Şalgam suyu fermantasyonu sırasında mikroorganizmalarin gelişimi ve izole edilen laktik asit bakterilerinin tanımlanmaları üzerine bir araştırma
  3. ^ "Traditional Turkish drinks". All About Turkey. 2006-11-20. Retrieved 2018-07-29.
  4. ^ Ercelebi, E.A.; Özkanli, O. A traditional fermented beverage: Shalgam juice. In Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Traditional Foods from Adriatic to Caucasus, Tekirdag, Turkey, 15–17 April 2010; pp. 1019–1020. (In Turkish)
  5. ^ Güzeler, Nuray; Yıldırım Özbek, Çağla; Arıdıcı, Ayşe (2 December 2016). "The Culinary Culture and Traditional Foods of Adana Province". Journal of Agricultural Faculty of Uludağ University. 30: 538–545 – via ResearchGate.
  6. ^ Erginkaya, Z.; Aksan, E. Adana province traditional beverage: Shalgam. In Proceedings of the Traditional Foods Symposium, Van, Turkey, 23–24 September 2004. (In Turkish)
  7. ^ Gould, Kevin (23 March 2012). "Time travel in ancient Antioch, Turkey". the Guardian.
  8. ^ Yener, D. A Research on the Physical, Chemical, Sensory and Microbiological Properties of Shalgam Taken from Different Sales Places in Mersin Province Center. Master’s Thesis, Trakya University, Tekirdag, Turkey, 1997. (In Turkish)
  9. ^ Tanguler H, Erten H (2012b) Chemical and microbiological characteristics of shalgam (şalgam); a traditional Turkish lactic acid fermented beverage. J Food Quality 35: 298–306.
  10. ^ Hui, Y. H.; Evranuz, E. Özgül (21 May 2012). "Handbook of Fermented Food and Beverage Technology Two Volume Set, Second Edition". CRC Press – via Google Books.
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  12. ^ "Türk Dil Kurumu Ana Sayfası". Retrieved 3 January 2016.
  13. ^ Geschichte der Rübe (Beta) als Kulturpflanze: Von den Ältesten Zeiten a bis zum Erscheinen von Achard’s Hauptwerk 1809, Springer-Verlag, 8 Mar 2013, By Edmund O. von Lippmann, page 89
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  15. ^ Sengun, Ilkin Yucel (28 June 2017). "Acetic Acid Bacteria: Fundamentals and Food Applications". CRC Press – via Google Books.
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  22. ^ a b "Meet One of The Best Authentic Beverages in Turkey: Şalgam!".
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  24. ^ "Turkey's Special Beverages". 23 February 2017.
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  27. ^ "Give the Pickleback a José Andrés-Approved Update". 25 April 2018.
  28. ^ "Das Nationalgetränk der Türkei ist mehr als nur ein billiger Schnaps". 8 May 2015.
  29. ^ "Annual Armenian festival raises funds for steeple renovation, operation costs".
  30. ^ "Şalgam – Can't Live Without It". 17 April 2013.
  31. ^ Twisk, Karina van. "Using Salgam for your cocktail". www.cocktailsoftheworld.com.
  32. ^ The Eclectic Gourmet Guide to Greater New York City, by Jim Leff. 1998, page 82
  33. ^ "The alternative drink". 5 March 2015.
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  35. ^ "Wild Fermentation: The Flavor, Nutrition, and Craft of Live-Culture Foods". Retrieved 21 May 2018.[dead link]
  36. ^ CANBAS, A. and FENERCIOGLU, H. 1984. A study on the production of shalgam. Gida (Turk. Food J.) 9, 279–286 (in Turkish).
  37. ^ CANBAS, A. and DERYAOGLU, A. 1993. A research on the processing techniques and characteristics of shalgam beverage. Doga-Turk. J. Agric. For. 17, 119–129 (in Turkish).
  38. ^ Kristbergsson, Kristberg; Otles, Semih (18 April 2016). "Functional Properties of Traditional Foods". Springer – via Google Books.
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  40. ^ M. Mesbah et F. Ploye. "fiesta : drink turkey". Fourmirouge.org. Retrieved 2018-07-29.
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  42. ^ OZTURK, O. 2009. A research on the composition of shalgam beverages obtained from Adana Market. MSc thesis, p. 43, Cukurova University, Turkey (in Turkish).
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  44. ^ Kelebek, H. Phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of shalgam: Traditional beverage from southern Turkey’s cities. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Traditional Foods from Adriatic to Caucasus, Struga, Macedonia, 24–26 October 2013; p. 551
  45. ^ "Doganay constructs the best facility for Salgam - Food Turkey". 17 January 2015.
  46. ^ "Japanese to get a taste for Turkey's 'şalgam'". Hürriyet Daily News.
  47. ^ KHS. "The world's first company to promote the innovative KHS Plasmax technology to consumers".
  48. ^ Friedland, Susan R. (29 July 2018). "Vegetables: Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Food and Cooking 2008". Oxford Symposium – via Google Books.
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  50. ^ AYDAR, A. 2003. The influence of Lactobacillus plantarum addition on the composition and quality of shalgam. MSc Thesis, p. 35, Trakya University, Turkey (in Turkish).
  51. ^ ANONYMOUS. 2003. TS 11149 Standard of Shalgam Beverage. Turkish Standards Institute, Ankara..
  52. ^ GUNES, G. 2008. A study on the determination of the most suitable quantity of black carrot (Daucus carota) for the production of shalgam. MSc Thesis, p. 48, Cukurova University, Turkey (in Turkish).
  53. ^ Redaktion (14 January 2004). "Microbiological and chemical properties of a drink called Salgam".
  54. ^ Ayin Tarihi, 1937, Issues 37-38, Page 563
  55. ^ "Data" (PDF). www.mezze.com.tr.
  56. ^ "Drink Turkey's Answer to the Brooklyn Pickleback". 16 February 2016.
  57. ^ ARICI, M. 2004. Microbiological and chemical properties of a drink called shalgam. Ernahrungs-Umschau 51, 10–11 (in German)
  58. ^ Erginkaya, Z.; Hammes, W.P. A research on the identification of isolated lactic acid bacteria and on the developing microorganisms during the fermentation of shalgam juice. Gida 1992, 17, 311–314. (In Turkish)
  59. ^ "Kalp ve tansiyon hastalarına şalgam suyu uyarısı". NTV. 2017-06-28. Retrieved 2018-07-29.
  60. ^ Functional Properties of Traditional Foods, edited by Kristberg Kristbergsson, Semih Otles, page 101
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