This article needs editing for compliance with Wikipedia's Manual of Style. (February 2020)
Şalgam or Şalgam Suyu (Turkish pronunciation: [ʃal̴ˈɡam (suˈju)]; lit. "turnip (juice)"), pronounced "shal-gam", is a popular traditional  beverage from the southern Turkish cities of Adana, Hatay, Tarsus, Mersin, Kahramanmaras, İzmir and the Çukurova region. The name şalgam is Persian in origin; in Persian it is written شلغم and means Turnip. It is either called turnip juice, turnip water, shalgam juice, or shalgam water. The French traveler, naturalist and writer Pierre Belon described its production method in the 15th century. Şalgam is produced by lactic acid fermentation. Studies have shown that the juice of the purple carrot used in Şalgam reduces the effects of high-carbohydrate, high-fat diets in rats. It is one of the most popular beverages during winter in Turkey.
A slice of purple carrot, wedges of paprika and/or garlic is often added just before drinking.   Alongside rakı and ayran, it is typically drunk after eating kebab. Şalgam is often served alongside the alcoholic drink rakı in a separate glass as they complement one another. In some parts of Turkey, ayran and şalgam are mixed.
Although the Turkish word şalgam literally means "turnip", şalgam is made with the sour  and salty brine of purple carrot pickles, salted, spiced and flavoured with aromatic turnip  (çelem) fermented in barrels  with the addition of ground bulgur and rock salt. It is sometimes sold by street vendors who serve it from large goblets, but there are also specialized shops that sell pickles called turşucu that sell non-industrial versions of şalgam. There is no standard production technique used by the industry, but the traditional method uses sourdough fermentation and carrot fermentation. Since 1996 there exist factories for large scale industrial production of şalgam in Turkey   The biggest producer of şalgam is the cooperation Doganay Gida, whose market share of the annual production is nearly 95%. While the drink is exported to both Europe and Japan there exists no large scale importation into America, a company called Ersu tried to sell it as "Black miracle drink" but the campaign was eventually canceled. While the industrial method takes 4–5 days, the traditional method takes 10 to 12 days. The special taste of şalgam comes from lactic acid  and ethanol  The special process is an adaption of yeast fermentation and spontaneous lactic acid fermentation. 
While şalgam is commonly recommended as a cure  for hangovers, consuming excess amounts may cause bloating according to some sources. According to local Turkish custom it is drunk to help digestion.  It has been reported that the drink has positive health benefits, because its anthocyanin content reduce health disease risks and the probability of carcinogenic occurrences. It has a high sodium content that some researchers believe could be dangerous for people with heart disease. It contains β-carotene, group B vitamins, calcium, potassium, and iron and is drunk for its antiseptic effects.
It was reported in academic journals that it helps to remove toxins from the human body, can also help with reducing kidney stones. It is also used to treat pubertal acne, eczema, abscesses, whitlow, and hematomas.
Şalgam, has been celebrated as a festival in Adana since 2010. The World Rakı Festival (aka Adana Kebap ve Şalgam Festivali), emerged from a hundred-year tradition of enjoying kebabs, with liver, şalgam and rakı. The event turned into a nationwide popular street festival; street musicians playing drums and zurna entertain visitors all night long on the second Saturday night of December.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Şalgam.|
- UTUS, D. 2008. The effect of black carrot (Daucus carota) size usage on the quality of shalgam production. MSc Thesis, p. 55, Cukurova University, Turkey (in Turkish).
- Erginkaya Z, Hammes WP (1992) Şalgam suyu fermantasyonu sırasında mikroorganizmalarin gelişimi ve izole edilen laktik asit bakterilerinin tanımlanmaları üzerine bir araştırma
- "Traditional Turkish drinks". All About Turkey. 2006-11-20. Retrieved 2018-07-29.
- Ercelebi, E.A.; Özkanli, O. A traditional fermented beverage: Shalgam juice. In Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Traditional Foods from Adriatic to Caucasus, Tekirdag, Turkey, 15–17 April 2010; pp. 1019–1020. (In Turkish)
- Güzeler, Nuray; Yıldırım Özbek, Çağla; Arıdıcı, Ayşe (2 December 2016). "The Culinary Culture and Traditional Foods of Adana Province". Journal of Agricultural Faculty of Uludağ University. 30: 538–545 – via ResearchGate.
- Erginkaya, Z.; Aksan, E. Adana province traditional beverage: Shalgam. In Proceedings of the Traditional Foods Symposium, Van, Turkey, 23–24 September 2004. (In Turkish)
- Gould, Kevin (23 March 2012). "Time travel in ancient Antioch, Turkey". the Guardian.
- Yener, D. A Research on the Physical, Chemical, Sensory and Microbiological Properties of Shalgam Taken from Different Sales Places in Mersin Province Center. Master’s Thesis, Trakya University, Tekirdag, Turkey, 1997. (In Turkish)
- Tanguler H, Erten H (2012b) Chemical and microbiological characteristics of shalgam (şalgam); a traditional Turkish lactic acid fermented beverage. J Food Quality 35: 298–306.
- Hui, Y. H.; Evranuz, E. Özgül (21 May 2012). Handbook of Fermented Food and Beverage Technology Two Volume Set, Second Edition. CRC Press. ISBN 9781482260700 – via Google Books.
- "Türk Dil Kurumu Ana Sayfası". Retrieved 3 January 2016.
- "THE TURKISH CUISINE". www.theturkishcuisine.com.
- Sengun, Ilkin Yucel (28 June 2017). Acetic Acid Bacteria: Fundamentals and Food Applications. CRC Press. ISBN 9781351649537 – via Google Books.
- "Info" (PDF). www.mdpi.com.
- Geschichte der Rübe (Beta) als Kulturpflanze: Von den Ältesten Zeiten a bis zum Erscheinen von Achard’s Hauptwerk 1809, Springer-Verlag, 8 Mar 2013, By Edmund O. von Lippmann, page 89
- Coskun, Fatma (October 2017). "A Traditional Turkish Fermented Non-Alcoholic Beverage, "Shalgam"". Beverages. 3 (4): 49. doi:10.3390/beverages3040049.
- "Abstract". S2CID 46082043. Cite journal requires
- Charles, Denys J. (27 November 2012). Antioxidant Properties of Spices, Herbs and Other Sources. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9781461443100 – via Google Books.
- Twisk, Karina van. "Using Salgam for your cocktail". www.cocktailsoftheworld.com.
- "Culinair ontdekt: Salgam suyu". www.bruzz.be.
- "Meet One of The Best Authentic Beverages in Turkey: Şalgam!".
- "The Best Turkish Drinks - AnTalia Restaurant". 26 September 2013.
- "Turkey's Special Beverages". 23 February 2017.
- "Şalgam Suyu". Istanbul Food. Retrieved 21 May 2018.
- "Berfend Ber: Türk Sokak Yiyecekleri " Şalgam Suyu " / Turkish Street Food " Turnip Juice"".
- Zat, Erdir. Rakı: Stets Neu, Stets Ganz BeI SIch (Almanca): Rakı: Stets Neu, Stets Ganz BeI SIch. Overteam Yayınları. ISBN 9786055058098 – via Google Books.
- "Give the Pickleback a José Andrés-Approved Update". 25 April 2018.
- "Das Nationalgetränk der Türkei ist mehr als nur ein billiger Schnaps". 8 May 2015.
- "Şalgam – Can't Live Without It". 17 April 2013.
- ERTEN, H., TANGULER, H. and CANBAS, A. 2008. A traditional Turkish lactic acid fermented beverage: Shalgam (Salgam). Food Rev. Int. 24, 352–359
- Katz, Sandor Ellix (2016). Wild Fermentation: The Flavor, Nutrition, and Craft of Live-Culture Foods. ISBN 9781603586283. Retrieved 21 May 2018.[dead link]
- CANBAS, A. and FENERCIOGLU, H. 1984. A study on the production of shalgam. Gida (Turk. Food J.) 9, 279–286 (in Turkish).
- CANBAS, A. and DERYAOGLU, A. 1993. A research on the processing techniques and characteristics of shalgam beverage. Doga-Turk. J. Agric. For. 17, 119–129 (in Turkish).
- Kristbergsson, Kristberg; Otles, Semih (18 April 2016). Functional Properties of Traditional Foods. Springer. ISBN 9781489976628 – via Google Books.
- "Take a sip: salgam suyu". Chicago Reader. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
- "festives : drink turkey". festives.org. Retrieved 2020-05-22.
- "Five staples for a traditional Turkish pantry".
- OZTURK, O. 2009. A research on the composition of shalgam beverages obtained from Adana Market. MSc thesis, p. 43, Cukurova University, Turkey (in Turkish).
- Erten, Huseyin; Tanguler, Hasan; Canbaş, Ahmet (30 May 2008). "A Traditional Turkish Lactic Acid Fermented Beverage: Shalgam (Salgam)". Food Reviews International. 24 (3): 352–359. doi:10.1080/87559120802089324. S2CID 85143324.
- Kelebek, H. Phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of shalgam: Traditional beverage from southern Turkey’s cities. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Traditional Foods from Adriatic to Caucasus, Struga, Macedonia, 24–26 October 2013; p. 551
- "Doganay constructs the best facility for Salgam - Food Turkey". 17 January 2015.
- "Japanese to get a taste for Turkey's 'şalgam'". Hürriyet Daily News.
- KHS. "The world's first company to promote the innovative KHS Plasmax technology to consumers".
- Friedland, Susan R. (29 July 2018). Vegetables: Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Food and Cooking 2008. Oxford Symposium. ISBN 9781903018668 – via Google Books.
- Denker, Joel S. (1 October 2015). The Carrot Purple and Other Curious Stories of the Food We Eat. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9781442248861 – via Google Books.
- AYDAR, A. 2003. The influence of Lactobacillus plantarum addition on the composition and quality of shalgam. MSc Thesis, p. 35, Trakya University, Turkey (in Turkish).
- ANONYMOUS. 2003. TS 11149 Standard of Shalgam Beverage. Turkish Standards Institute, Ankara..
- GUNES, G. 2008. A study on the determination of the most suitable quantity of black carrot (Daucus carota) for the production of shalgam. MSc Thesis, p. 48, Cukurova University, Turkey (in Turkish).
- Redaktion (14 January 2004). "Microbiological and chemical properties of a drink called Salgam".
- Ayin Tarihi, 1937, Issues 37-38, Page 563
- "Data" (PDF). www.mezze.com.tr.
- "Drink Turkey's Answer to the Brooklyn Pickleback". 16 February 2016.
- ARICI, M. 2004. Microbiological and chemical properties of a drink called shalgam. Ernahrungs-Umschau 51, 10–11 (in German)
- Erginkaya, Z.; Hammes, W.P. A research on the identification of isolated lactic acid bacteria and on the developing microorganisms during the fermentation of shalgam juice. Gida 1992, 17, 311–314. (In Turkish)
- "Kalp ve tansiyon hastalarına şalgam suyu uyarısı". NTV. 2017-06-28. Retrieved 2018-07-29.
- Functional Properties of Traditional Foods, edited by Kristberg Kristbergsson, Semih Otles, page 101
- Miszczak, Izabela (15 February 2016). Around Ephesus and Kuşadası: TAN Travel Guide. ASLAN Publishing House. ISBN 9788394426903 – via Google Books.
- "Rakıcılar bir kez daha Dünya Rakı Gününde buluşuyor". CNN Türk. 27 November 2014. Retrieved 3 January 2016.