Şehzade Ahmet

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Şehzade Ahmet
شہزادہ احمد
Bornc. 1466 (1466)
Amasya, Ottoman Empire
Died24 April 1513(1513-04-24) (aged 46–47)
Yenişehir, Bursa, Ottoman Empire
Burial
SpouseSittişah Hatun
Gülçiçek Hatun
Full name
Turkish: Şehzade Ahmet
English: Shahzada Ahmad
Ottoman Turkish: شہزادہ احمد
DynastyOttoman
FatherBayezid II
MotherBülbül Hatun
ReligionIslam

Şehzade Ahmet (Ottoman Turkish: شہزادہ احمد‎; c. 1466 – 24 April 1513) was an Ottoman prince who fought to gain the throne of the Ottoman Empire in 1512–13. (Şehzade means prince in Turkish and Persian)

Background[edit]

Ahmet was the oldest living son of Beyazıt II; his mother was Bülbül Hatun. In Ottoman tradition, all princes (Turkish: şehzade) were required to serve as provincial (sanjak) governors in Anatolia (Asiatic part of modern Turkey) as a part of their training. Ahmet was the governor of Amasya, an important Anatolian city. Although the status was not official, he was usually considered as the crown prince during the last years of his father's reign, in part because of the support of the grand vizier, Hadim Ali Pasha.

Siblings[edit]

Ahmet had two living brothers. Of the two, Korkut was governing in Antalya and Selim (future sultan Selim I) in Trabzon. Custom dictated that whoever first reached Istanbul after the death of the previous sultan had the right to ascend to throne (although disagreements over who had arrived first very often led to civil wars between the brothers, most prominently displayed in the Ottoman Interregnum), so the distances from the sanjaks to Istanbul more or less determined the succession and usually whoever the previous sultan favored the most as his successor. In this respect, Ahmet was the most fortunate because his sanjak was the closest to Istanbul.

Although Selim's son Süleyman had been assigned to Bolu, a small sanjak closer to Istanbul, upon Ahmet's objection, he was relocated to Kaffa in Crimea. Selim saw this as an unofficial display of support for his older brother and asked for a sanjak in Rumeli (the European portion of the empire). Although he was initially refused on the ground that Rumeli sanjaks were not offered to princes, with the support of the vassal Crimean khan Meñli I Giray (who was his father-in-law), he was able to receive the sanjak of Semendire (modern Smederevo in Serbia), which, although it was technically in Rumeli, was quite far from Istanbul nevertheless. Consequently, Selim chose to stay close to Istanbul instead of going to his new sanjak. His father Beyazıt thought this disobedience insurrectionist; he defeated Selim's forces in battle in August 1511, and Selim escaped to Crimea.[1]

Şahkulu Rebellion[edit]

While Beyazıt was fighting against Selim, Ahmet was tasked with suppressing the Şahkulu Rebellion in Anatolia. However, instead of fighting, Ahmet tried to win over the soldiers to his cause for winning the Ottoman throne and left the battlefield. His attitude caused unease among the soldiers; more importantly, his main supporter, Hadim Ali Pasha, lost his life during the rebellion.

Capturing Konya[edit]

Hearing about Selim's defeat by their father, Ahmet declared himself as the sultan of Anatolia and began fighting against one of his nephews (whose father had already been dead). He captured Konya, and although his father Beyazıt asked him to return to his sanjak, he insisted on ruling in Konya. He also attempted to capture the capital; but he failed because the soldiers blocked his way, declaring their preference for a more able sultan. Selim then returned from Crimea, forced Bayezit to abdicate the throne in favor of himself, and was crowned as Selim I.[2][3]

Battle against Selim[edit]

Ahmet continued to control a part of Anatolia in the first few months of Selim's reign. Finally, the forces of Selim and Ahmet fought a battle near Yenişehir, Bursa on April 24, 1513. Ahmet's forces were defeated; he was arrested and executed shortly after.

Popular culture[edit]

Şehzade Ahmet is the main antagonist in the video game Assassin's Creed Revelations and was portrayed as the villain whom the protagonist Ezio Auditore da Firenze wanted to kill. Instead of being executed by Selim I, the latter starts to strangle Ahmet, then throws him off a cliff to his death.

Family[edit]

Consorts

Ahmed had two known consorts:

  • Sittişah Hatun, mother of Şehzade Osman;[4][5]
  • Gülçiçek Hatun (buried in Amasya);[6][7]
Sons

Ahmet had five sons;

  • Şehzade Süleyman (died of Plaque, 24 April 1513, Cairo, buried in Havşi Sultan Mosque), governor of Koca, married and had two daughters;
  • Şehzade Alaeddin Ali (died of Plaque, 14 May 1513, Cairo, buried in Havşi Sultan Mosque), governor of Bolu, married and had one daughter;
  • Şehzade Murad (died of natural causes, c. 1519, Ardabil, buried near Shaykh Safi al-Din Ardabili), governor of Bolu, married and had one daughter;
  • Şehzade Kasım (c. 1501 – killed 30 January 1518, Cairo, buried in Havşi Sultan Mosque);
  • Şehzade Osman (killed by Selim I, 15 April 1513, buried in Sultan Bayezid Mosque, Amasya);
Daughters

Ahmet had three daughters:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Prof. Yaşar Yüce-Prof. Ali Sevim: Türkiye tarihi Cilt II, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, İstanbul, 1991 pp 226-231
  2. ^ Joseph von Hammer: Geschichte der osmanischen Dichtkunst (condensation Mehmet Ata) Millitet yayınları, İstanbul pp 229-236
  3. ^ NicolaeJorga:Geschichte des Osmanischen, (trans. by Nilüfer Epçeli), Yeditepe yayınevi, İstanbul, ISBN 975-6480-19-X, p.263-264
  4. ^ Yardımcı, İlhan (1976). Bursa tarihinden çizgiler ve Bursa evliyaları. Yürdav Basım, Yayım. p. 38.
  5. ^ Demirel, Hâle (2006). MAHKEME SİCİLLERİNE GÖRE XVI. YÜZYIL İLK YARISINDA BURSA VAKIFLARI. p. 17.
  6. ^ Tarih incelemeleri dergisi - Volumes 11-12. Ege Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi. 1996. p. 98.
  7. ^ Yasar, Hüseyin Hüsameddin; Yılmaz, Ali; Akkuş, Mehmet (1986). Amasya tarihi, Volume 1. Amasya Belediyesi kültür yayınları. pp. 99, 170.
  8. ^ a b Uluçay, M. Çağatay (1985). Padişahların kadınları ve kızları. Türk Tarih Kurumu. pp. 51 n. 24, 46 n.16.
  9. ^ a b c Turan, Ebru (2009). The marriage of Ibrahim Pasha (ca. 1495-1536) - The rise of Sultan Süleyman's favourite to the grand vizierate and the politics of the elites in the early sixteenth-century Ottoman Empire. pp. 18–9.