Ż

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Ż, ż (Z with overdot) is a letter, consisting of the letter Z of the ISO basic Latin alphabet and an overdot.

Polish[edit]

Signage on Polish municipal police (Straż Miejska) cars uses both the standard form (Ż) and the variant with horizontal stroke (Ƶ)

Ż represents the voiced retroflex fricative [ʐ], somewhat similar to the pronunciation of ⟨g⟩ in "mirage". It usually corresponds to Ж or Ž in most other Slavic languages.

Its pronunciation is the same as the rz digraph, the only difference being that ⟨rz⟩ evolved from a palatalized ⟨r⟩. Ż originates from a palatalized /g/ or /z/.[1]

Ż occasionally devoices to the voiceless retroflex fricative [ʂ], particularly in final position.

Ż should not be confused with ⟨Ź⟩ (or ⟨z⟩ followed by ⟨i⟩), termed "soft zh"[citation needed], the voiced alveolopalatal fricative ([ʑ]).

Examples of ż[edit]

About this sound żółty  (‘yellow’)
About this sound żona  (‘wife’)

Compare ź (z with acute accent):

About this sound źle  (‘wrongly, badly’)
About this sound źrebię  (‘foal’)

Occasionally, capital Ƶ (Z with horizontal stroke) is used instead of capital Ż for aesthetic purposes, especially in all-caps text and handwriting.

Emilian-Romagnol[edit]

Ż is used in Emilian-Romagnol to represent the voiced dental fricative [ð] (or, in some peripheral dialects, the affricates [dð~dz]), e.g. viażèr ([vjaˈðɛːr], "to travel").

Kashubian[edit]

Kashubian ż is a voiced fricative like in Polish, but it is postalveolar ([ʒ]) rather than retroflex.

Maltese[edit]

City limit sign of Żurrieq in Malta

In Maltese, ż is pronounced like "z" in English "maze".

Tunisian Arabic[edit]

It is used in Tunisian Arabic transliteration[which?] for /ð/ (based on Maltese with additional letters).

Computing codes[edit]

character Ż ż
Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER
Z WITH DOT ABOVE
LATIN SMALL LETTER
Z WITH DOT ABOVE
character encoding decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 379 017B 380 017C
UTF-8 197 187 C5 BB 197 188 C5 BC
Numeric character reference Ż Ż ż ż
CP 852 189 BD 190 BE
CP 775 163 A3 164 A4
Mazovia 161 A1 167 A7
Windows-1250, ISO-8859-2 175 AF 191 BF
Windows-1257, ISO-8859-13 221 DD 253 FD
Mac Central European 251 FB 253 FD

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Corbett, Greville; Comrie, Bernard (2003). The Slavonic Languages. Routledge. p. 690. ISBN 978-1-136-86137-6. The spelling difference reflects the historical difference between a palatalization of /r/ (for rz) and of /g/ or /z/ (for ż).