Ż

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Ż, ż (Z with overdot) is a letter, consisting of the letter Z of the ISO basic Latin alphabet and an overdot.

Usage[edit]

Polish[edit]

Signage on Polish municipal police (Straż Miejska) cars uses both the standard form (Ż) and the variant with horizontal stroke (Ƶ)

In the Polish language, ż is the final, 32nd letter of the alphabet. It typically represents the voiced retroflex fricative ([ʐ]), somewhat similar to the pronunciation of ⟨g⟩ in "mirage"; however, in a word-final position or when followed by a voiceless obstruent, it is devoiced to the voiceless retroflex fricative ([ʂ]).

Its pronunciation is the same as that of the digraphrz⟩, except that ⟨rz⟩ (unlike ⟨ż⟩) also undergoes devoicing when preceded by a voiceless obstruent. The difference in spelling comes from their historical pronunciations: ż originates from a palatalized /ɡ/ or /z/, while ⟨rz⟩ evolved from a palatalized ⟨r⟩.[1]

The letter was originally introduced in 1513 by Stanisław Zaborowski in his book Ortographia[2]

Occasionally, the letter Ƶ ƶ (Z with a horizontal stroke) is used instead of Ż ż for aesthetic purposes, especially in all-caps text and handwriting.

Kashubian[edit]

Kashubian ż is a voiced fricative like in Polish, but it is postalveolar ([ʒ]) rather than retroflex.

Maltese[edit]

City limit sign of Żurrieq in Malta

In Maltese, ż represents the voiced alveolar sibilant, pronounced like "z" in English "maze". This contrasts with the letter ⟨z⟩, which represents the voiceless alveolar sibilant affricate, like in the word "pizza".

Emilian-Romagnol[edit]

Ż is used in Emilian-Romagnol to represent the voiced dental fricative [ð] (or, in some peripheral dialects, the affricates [dð~dz]), e.g. viażèr ([vjaˈðɛːr], "to travel").

Computing codes[edit]

character Ż ż
Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER
Z WITH DOT ABOVE
LATIN SMALL LETTER
Z WITH DOT ABOVE
character encoding decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 379 017B 380 017C
UTF-8 197 187 C5 BB 197 188 C5 BC
Numeric character reference Ż Ż ż ż
CP 852 189 BD 190 BE
CP 775 163 A3 164 A4
Mazovia 161 A1 167 A7
Windows-1250, ISO-8859-2 175 AF 191 BF
Windows-1257, ISO-8859-13 221 DD 253 FD
Mac Central European 251 FB 253 FD

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Corbett, Greville; Comrie, Bernard (2003). The Slavonic Languages. Routledge. p. 690. ISBN 978-1-136-86137-6. The spelling difference reflects the historical difference between a palatalization of /r/ (for rz) and of /g/ or /z/ (for ż).
  2. ^ Edward Polański. Reformy ortografii polskiej – wczoraj, dziś, jutro. Biuletyn Polskiego Towarzystwa Językoznawczego, vol. 60, p. 31. 2004. Warsaw. Energeia. ISSN 0032-3802.