Vaal–Orange language

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Vaal–Orange, also known as Seroa, is an extinct ǃKwi language of South Africa and Lesotho. It comprised the ǂUngkue dialect (also rendered ǂKunkwe) of the Warrenton area, recorded by Carl Meinhof, and the ǁŨǁ’e dialect (also rendered ǁKu-ǁ’e or ǁKuǁe),[1] spoken near Theunissen and Bethany in South Africa and into Lesotho, recorded by Dorothea Bleek.[2]

The name "Vaal–Orange" comes from the Vaal and Orange Rivers, which converge where ǂUngkue dialect was spoken. Seroa is the Sesotho name, literally "language of the Baroa (Bushmen)".

Like ǀXam, ǂUngkue used 'inclusory' pronouns for compound subjects:

ǃhoeti nan koro nan tuē n a ‖’a
lion and jackal and ostrich they ?PAST go
'The lion and jackal and ostrich, they went'. (Meinhof 1929)


  1. ^ Distinguish ǁNg ǃ’e, a form of Nǁng, and Nǀhuǁéi, which is a variety of Taa.
  2. ^ Tom Güldemann (2011) "The Lower Nossob varieties of Tuu: ǃUi, Taa or neither?"