Voiced uvular stop

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For technical reasons, "g (IPA)" redirects here. For the consonant written as [ɡ], see Voiced velar stop.
Voiced uvular stop
ɢ
IPA number 112
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɢ
Unicode (hex) U+0262
X-SAMPA G\
Kirshenbaum G
Braille ⠔ (braille pattern dots-35) ⠛ (braille pattern dots-1245)
Sound

The voiced uvular stop or voiced uvular plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is 〈ɢ〉, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is G\.

[ɢ] is a rare sound, even compared to other uvulars. Vaux (1999)[1] proposes a phonological explanation: uvular consonants normally involve a neutral or a retracted tongue root, whereas voiced stops often involve advanced tongue root: two articulations that cannot physically co-occur. This leads many languages of the world to have a voiced uvular fricative [ʁ] instead as the voiced counterpart of the voiceless uvular stop. Examples are Inuit; several Turkic languages such as Uyghur and Yakut; several Northwest Caucasian languages such as Abkhaz; and several Northeast Caucasian languages such as Ingush.

For a voiced pre-uvular stop (also called post-velar), see voiced velar stop.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiced uvular stop:

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Arabic Sudanese بقرة [bɑɢɑrɑ] 'cow' Corresponds to /q/ in Standard Arabic. See Arabic phonology
Yemeni[2] قات About this sound [ɢɑːt]  'Khat' Some dialects.[2] Corresponds to /q/ in Standard Arabic. See Arabic phonology
Ket[3] báŋquk [baŋ˩˧ɢuk˧˩] 'cave in the ground'

Allophone of /q/ after /ŋ/.[3]

Kwak'wala ǥilakas'la [ɢilakasʔla] 'thank you'
Mongolian Монгол [mɔŋɢɔ̆ɮ] 'Mongolian'
Nivkh ньыӈ ӷан [ɲɤŋ ɢæn] 'our dog' Allophone of /q/.
Persian غذا About this sound [ɢæˈzɒː]  'food' Allophone of /ɣ/. See Persian phonology
Shor қарға [qɑrˈɢɑ] 'crow' Allophone of /g/.
Somali Muqdisho [muɢdiʃɔ] 'Mogadishu' Allophone of /q/. See Somali phonology
Tabasaran дугу [d̪uɢu] 'he' (ergative)
Tsakhur ? [ɢajɛ] 'stone'
!Xóõ ? [nǀɢɑɑ̃] 'to be spread out'
Xumi Lower[4] [Rɢʶo] 'to stew' Somewhat affricated; occurs only in a few words.[5] Corresponds to the cluster /Nɡ/ in Upper Xumi.[6]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Vaux, Bert (1999). "A Note on Pharyngeal Features". Harvard Working Papers in Linguistics. 
  2. ^ a b Watson (2002), p. 13.
  3. ^ a b Georg (2007), pp. 49, 67 and 77.
  4. ^ Chirkova & Chen (2013), p. 365.
  5. ^ Chirkova & Chen (2013), pp. 365–366.
  6. ^ Chirkova, Chen & Kocjančič Antolík (2013), pp. 383, 387.

Bibliography[edit]