Close-mid back unrounded vowel

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Close-mid back unrounded vowel
ɤ
IPA number 315
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɤ
Unicode (hex) U+0264
X-SAMPA 7
Kirshenbaum o-
Braille ⠲ (braille pattern dots-256) ⠕ (braille pattern dots-135)
Sound

The close-mid back unrounded vowel, or high-mid back unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. Acoustically it is a close-mid back-central unrounded vowel.[1] Its symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet is ⟨ɤ⟩, called "ram's horns". It is distinct from the symbol for the voiced velar fricative, ⟨ɣ⟩, which has a descender. Despite that, some writings[2] use this symbol for the voiced velar fricative.

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists,[who?] perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".[citation needed]

Before the 1989 IPA Convention, the symbol for the close-mid back unrounded vowel was ⟨Latin letter small capital Gamma.svg⟩, sometimes called "baby gamma", which has a flat top. The symbol was revised to be ⟨Ram's horns.svg⟩, "ram's horns", with a rounded top, in order to better differentiate it from the Latin gammaɣ⟩.[3] Unicode provides only U+0264 ɤ LATIN SMALL LETTER RAMS HORN (HTML ɤ), but in some fonts this character may appear as a "baby gamma" instead.

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
i • y
ɨ • ʉ
ɯ • u
ɪ • ʏ
ɪ̈ • ʊ̈
ɯ̽ • ʊ
e • ø
ɘ • ɵ
ɤ • o
 • ø̞
ə • ɵ̞
ɤ̞ • 
ɛ • œ
ɜ • ɞ
ʌ • ɔ
æ • 
ɐ • ɞ̞
a • ɶ
ä • ɒ̈
ɑ • ɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Alekano gamó [ɣɑmɤʔ] 'cucumber'
Chinese Mandarin /hē About this sound [xɤ˥]  'to drink' See Standard Chinese phonology
Southern Taiwanese /ô [ɤ˧] 'oyster'
English Cape Flats[4] foot [fɤt] 'foot' Possible realization of /ʊ/; may be [u] or [ʉ] instead.[4] See South African English phonology
Indian South African[5] Possible realization of /ʊ/; may be a weakly rounded [ʊ] instead.[5] See South African English phonology
New Zealand[6][7] treacle [ˈtɹ̝̊e̝kɤ] 'treacle' Possible realization of the unstressed vowel /ɯ/, which is variable in rounding and ranges from central to (more often) back and close to close-mid.[6][7] Corresponds to /əl/ in other accents. See New Zealand English phonology
Received Pronunciation[8] long ago [lɒŋ ɤ̟ˈɡəʊ̯] 'long ago' Near-back; possible allophone of /ə/ between velar consonants.[8] See English phonology
White South African[9] pill [pʰɤ̟ɫ] 'pill' Near-back; allophone of /ɪ/ before the velarised allophone of /l/.[9] Also described as close [ɯ̟].[10] See South African English phonology
Gayo[11] kule [kuˈlɤː] 'tiger' One of the possible allophones of /ə/.[11]
Irish Ulster[12] Uladh [ɤ̟l̪ˠu] 'Ulster' Near-back.[13] See Irish phonology
Kaingang[14] [ˈᵐbɤ] 'tail' Varies between back [ɤ] and central [ɘ][15]
Korean Gyeongsang dialect 거기/geogi [ˈkɤ̘ɡɪ] 'there' See Korean phonology
Mah Meri[16] [example needed] Allophone of /ə/; can be mid central [ə] or open-mid back [ʌ] instead.[16]
Northern Tiwa Taos dialect [ˌmã̀ˑˈpɤ̄u̯mã̄] 'it was squeezed' May be central [ɘ] instead. See Taos phonology
Önge önge [ˈɤŋe] 'man'
Scottish Gaelic doirbh [d̪̊ɤrʲɤv] 'difficult' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Sundanese ieu [iɤ] 'this'
Thai[17] ธอ/thoe [tʰɤ̟ː] 'you' Near-back[17]
Xumi Upper[18] [Htsɤ] 'crown of a head' Occasional realization of /o/.[18]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Geoff Lindsey (2013) The vowel space, Speech Talk
  2. ^ Such as Booij (1999) and Nowikow (2012).
  3. ^ Nicholas, Nick (2003). "Greek-derived IPA symbols". Greek Unicode Issues. University of California, Irvine. 
  4. ^ a b Finn (2004), p. 970.
  5. ^ a b Mesthrie (2004), p. 956.
  6. ^ a b "NZE Phonology" (PDF). Victoria University of Wellington. p. 3. 
  7. ^ a b Bauer & Warren (2004), p. 585.
  8. ^ a b Gimson (2014), p. 138.
  9. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 617.
  10. ^ Bowerman (2004), p. 936.
  11. ^ a b Eades & Hajek (2006), p. 111.
  12. ^ Ní Chasaide (1999:114–115)
  13. ^ Ní Chasaide (1999:114)
  14. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676–677, 682.
  15. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676, 682.
  16. ^ a b Kruspe & Hajek (2009), p. 245.
  17. ^ a b Tingsabadh & Abramson (1993), p. 25.
  18. ^ a b Chirkova, Chen & Kocjančič Antolík (2013), p. 389.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Bauer, Laurie; Warren, Paul (2004), "New Zealand English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive, A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 580–602, ISBN 3-11-017532-0 
  • Booij, Geert (1999), The phonology of Dutch, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-823869-X 
  • Bowerman, Sean (2004), "White South African English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive, A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 931–942, ISBN 3-11-017532-0 
  • Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya; Kocjančič Antolík, Tanja (2013), "Xumi, Part 2: Upper Xumi, the Variety of the Upper Reaches of the Shuiluo River" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (3): 381–396, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000169 
  • Eades, Domenyk; Hajek, John (2006), "Gayo", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (1): 107–115, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002416 
  • Finn, Peter (2004), "Cape Flats English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive, A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 934–984, ISBN 3-11-017532-0 
  • Gimson, Alfred Charles (2014), Cruttenden, Alan, ed., Gimson's Pronunciation of English (8th ed.), Routledge, ISBN 9781444183092 
  • Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho de Valhery (2009), "Fonologia e prosódia do Kaingáng falado em Cacique Doble", Anais do SETA, Campinas: Editora do IEL-UNICAMP, 3: 675–685 
  • Kruspe, Nicole; Hajek, John (2009), "Mah Meri", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 39 (2): 241–248, doi:10.1017/S0025100309003946 
  • Mesthrie, Rajend (2004), "Indian South African English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive, A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 953–963, ISBN 3-11-017532-0 
  • Ní Chasaide, Ailbhe (1999), "Irish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 111–16, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Nowikow, Wieczysław (2012) [First published 1992], Fonetyka hiszpańska (3rd ed.), Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, ISBN 978-83-01-16856-8 
  • Tingsabadh, M. R. Kalaya; Abramson, Arthur S. (1993), "Thai", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 23 (1): 24–28, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004746 
  • Wells, John C. (1982), Accents of English 3: Beyond The British Isles, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-28541-0