List of Cyrillic digraphs and trigraphs
The following digraphs (and trigraphs) are used in the Cyrillic script. The palatalized consonants of Russian and other languages written as C-⟨ь⟩ are mostly predictable and therefore not included here unless they are irregular. Likewise, in the languages of the Caucasus, there are numerous other predictable multigraphs that are not included. These include doubled letters (or whole digraphs) that indicate 'tense' ('strong') consonants and long vowels; sequences with ⟨в⟩, ⟨у⟩, ⟨ә⟩ for labialized consonants; and sequences with ⟨ӏ⟩ or ⟨ъ⟩ for ejective consonants or pharyngealized consonants and vowels. Tatar also has discontinuous digraphs. See Cyrillic digraphs for examples.
⟨гу⟩ is used in Adyghe and Kabardian to write the sound [ɡʷ]. A sequence гу with this sound value is found in several languages where ⟨у⟩ is used for labialization, but in both dialect its value is not predictable, as plain ⟨г⟩ represents /ɣ/.
⟨гў⟩ is used in Aleut language (Bering dialect).
⟨гъ⟩ is used in for a guttural fricative ([ʁ] or [ɣ], depending on language and dialect) in Adyghe, Avar, Archi, Kabardian, Tatar (word finally), Karachay-Balkar, and Ossetian. In Tabasaran, which uses ⟨гг⟩ for [ɣ], ⟨гъ⟩ is [ʕ].
⟨гӏ⟩ is used in various languages of the Caucasus to write a guttural fricative, further back than ⟨гъ⟩ if the language also has that digraph. In Avar and Archi it is [ʕ], whereas in Chechen and Ingush it is [ɣ] or [ʁ].
⟨дж⟩ is a digraph or sequence of letters, depending on the language. It is used in many languages, such as Bulgarian, Ukrainian and Belarusian, to write a sound [dʒ] or in Russian to write [dʐ] (In standard Russian pronunciation, this is two separate sounds rather than an affricate consonant.) In Karachay-Balkar it represents [dʒ] in the Karachay dialect and [dz] in the Balkar dialect.
⟨дз⟩ is a digraph or sequence of letters used in some languages such as Adyghe, Kabardian, Ossetian, Komi, Bulgarian, Ukrainian and Belarusian to write the affricate [dz]. In Ossetian, the letter ⟨ж⟩ occurs only in Russian loanwords, and ⟨з⟩ represents [ʒ] or [z], though a distinction exists between ⟨дж⟩ [dʒ] and ⟨дз⟩ [dz]. In Komi, the sound is always palatalized, so it does not require palatalizing vowels or ⟨ь⟩.
⟨жд⟩ is an uncommon digraph used in Russian to write the sound [ʐʐ] in the word дождь ('rain') and its derivatives (devoiced and palatalized to [ɕː] in the nominative singular of дождь). However, these words may also be pronounced with [ʐd] or [ʂt] as if ⟨жд⟩ were a simple sequence of letters, which is the case in all the other words with ⟨жд⟩.
⟨жж⟩ is an uncommon digraph used in Russian to write the sound [ʐʐ], which is also written as ⟨зж⟩. Examples are дрожжи ('yeast') and жужжать ('to hum'). Nowadays, this is a mere sequence of two phonemes /ʐʐ/; the conservative Moscow pronunciation [ʑː] is now somewhat obsolete.
⟨жч⟩ is a sequence of letters used in Russian to write a long voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative [ɕː], the same value as the letter ⟨щ⟩. However, since the sound value of ⟨жч⟩ is a predictable effect of assimilation, it is not a true digraph. An example is in the word мужчина ('man'), pronounced [mʊˈɕːinə]. Other sequences with the same result are ⟨сч⟩, ⟨шч⟩, ⟨зч⟩, ⟨ссч⟩, ⟨стч⟩, ⟨здч⟩ and ⟨сщ⟩.
⟨жь⟩ is used in Kabardian to write the palatalized sound [ʑ]. ⟨ь⟩ is commonly used for palatalized consonants like [ʑ] in other languages such as Abkhaz, where ⟨жь⟩ would not be considered a digraph, but this is not the case in Kabardian.
⟨жъ⟩ and ⟨жъу⟩ are used in Adyghe to write ⟨ʐ⟩ and ⟨ʒʷ⟩ sounds.
⟨зж⟩ is a sequence of letters used in Russian to write [ʐʐ], the same value as the digraph ⟨жж⟩, for example позже ("later"). However, since the latter sound value of ⟨зж⟩ is a predictable effect of assimilation, in this case it is not a true digraph like ⟨жж⟩.
⟨ку⟩ is used in Adyghe and Kabardian to write the sound [kʷ]. A sequence ⟨ку⟩ with this sound value is found in several languages where ⟨у⟩ is used for labialization, but in Kabardian its value is not so predictable, as plain ⟨к⟩ is only found in foreign loanwords.
⟨къ⟩ is used with different values in various languages. In Avar, it is used to write the "tense" ejective sound [qːʼ]; in Chechen, Archi, Adyghe and Kabardian it is plain ejective [qʼ]; in Ingush and Karachay-Balkar it is plain [q] (Ingush does not have ejective consonants); and in Tabasaran it is [qʰː] (⟨К⟩ is [kʰ]). It is used for word-final [q] in Tatar. ⟨Къ⟩ also occurs in Ossetian for [kʼ], but there it is not a true digraph, as ⟨ъ⟩ is used as a predictable mark of ejective consonants.
⟨кӏ⟩ is used in Kabardian and Adyghe to write the ejective consonant sounds [kʼ] or [t͡ʃʼ]. ⟨Кӏ⟩ is commonly used for ejective [kʼ] in the languages of the Caucasus, though as a predictable sequence of ⟨к⟩ and the ejective marker ⟨ӏ⟩, not a true digraph. However, in Kabardian there is no plain ⟨к⟩ apart from foreign loan words.
⟨нь⟩ is used when cyrillicizing Mandarin Chinese to write the sound [n] at the end of a syllable. It is equivalent to pinyin ⟨n⟩. (The letter ⟨н⟩ at the end of a syllable represents [ŋ], pinyin ⟨ng⟩.) ⟨Нь⟩ is also used in Yakut for the sound [ɲ]. This is a digraph rather than a predictable sequence in Yakut, which does not otherwise have the letter ⟨ь⟩.
⟨цу⟩ is used in Adyghe to write the [t͡sʷ] sound.
⟨ч’⟩ is used in Khanty.
The Abaza, Adyghe, and Kabardian languages use a number of trigraphs: гъв, гъь, гӏв, джв, джь, дзу, жъу, къу, кӏу, пӏу, тӏу, хъу (Abaza); гъу, дзъ, дзу, жъу, къу, кӏу, пӏу, тӏу, хъу (Adyghe); гъу, кхъ, къу, кӏу, хъу (Kabardian).