Yery

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Ы)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Cyrillic letter Yery
Cyrillic letter Yery - uppercase and lowercase.svg
Phonetic usage:[ɨ]
[ɯ]
[ə]
The Cyrillic script
Slavic letters
АА́А̀А̄ӒБВГ
ҐДЂЃЕЕ́ЀЕ̄
ЁЄЄ́ЖЗЗ́ЅИ
ІІ́І̄І̀ЇИ́ЍӢ
ЙЈКЛЉМНЊ
ОО́О̀ŌӦПРС
С́ТЋЌУУ́У̀Ӯ
ЎӰФХЦЧЏШ
ЩЪЪ̀Ъ̈Ъ̄ЫЫ́Ь
ЭЭ́Э̀ЮЮ́Ю̀ЯЯ́
Я̀
Non-Slavic letters
ӐА̊А̃Ӓ̄А̨ӔӘӘ́
Ә̀Ә̃ӚӘ̄В̌ҒГ̑Г̣
Г̌ Г̂Г̆Г̈ҔӺҒ̌Ӷ
Д́Д̀Д̌Д̈Д̣Д̆ӖЕ̃
Ё̄Є̈ӁҖӜЖ̣ҘӞ
З̌З̣З̆ԐԐ́Ԑ̈ӠИ̃
ҊӤІ̄́І̨Ј̵ҚК̈Ӄ
ҠҞҜК̣ԚЛ́Л̀Ӆ
ԮԒЛ̈ӍН́Н̀Н̃Н̄
ӉҢԨӇҤО̆О̂О̃
Ӧ̄ӨӨ̄Ө́Ө̆ӪҨԤ
П̈Р́Р̌ҎС̀С̌ҪС̣
Т́Т̈Т̌Т̣ҬТ‍ЬУ̃Ӳ
У̊Ӱ̄ҮҮ́Ү̈ҰХ̣Х̱
Х̮Х̑Х̌ҲӼӾҺҺ̈
Һ̌ԦЦ́Ц̌Ц̈ҴЧ̀Ҷ
Ҷ̣ӴӋҸЧ̇Ч̣ҼҾ
Ш̆Ш̈Ш̣Ы̆Ы̄ӸҌЭ̆
Э̄Э̇ӬӬ́Ӭ̄Ю̆Ю̈Ю̈́
Ю̄Я̆Я̄Я̈Я̈́ԜӀ
Archaic letters
ҀѺОУ
ѠѼѾѢ
Ѣ́Ѣ̈Ѣ̆ѤѦ
ѪѨѬѮѰ
ѲѴѶԘ
Ԁ
ԔԖԠԢҦ
ԂԄԈ
ԊԌԎԆ
ԞԪԬБ̣Г̧Г̄К̂К̅
З̀Т̀

Yeru or Eru (Ы ы; italics: Ы ы), usually called Y [ɨ] in modern Russian or Yery or Ery historically and in modern Church Slavonic, is a letter in the Cyrillic script. It represents the close central unrounded vowel /ɨ/ (more rear or upper than i) after non-palatalised (hard) consonants in the Belarusian and Russian alphabets, and after any consonant in most of Rusyn standards, where it represents the unrounded close-mid back unrounded vowel sound.

The letter is usually romanised into English and most other West European languages as ⟨y⟩: Krylov (family name, Крылов). That spelling matches Polish, which uses ⟨y⟩ to represent a very similar sound. Russian ⟨ы⟩ is used to transliterate Polish ⟨y⟩ into Cyrillic: Maryla (Марыля). However, Latin ⟨y⟩ may be used for other purposes as well (such as for ⟨й⟩, or as part of digraphs, e.g. ⟨я⟩).

In most Turkic languages that use Cyrillic, ⟨ы⟩ represents the close back unrounded vowel /ɯ/, like in Kazakh, Kyrgyz, etc.

Origin[edit]

The letter Yery in several fonts
Cursive Yery

Like many other Cyrillic letters, it was originally from a ligature (which is represented in Unicode as Yeru with Back Yer), formed from Yer ⟨ъ⟩ and ⟨і⟩ (formerly written either dotless or with two dots) or Izhe (⟨и⟩ which formerly resembled ⟨н⟩). In Medieval manuscripts, it is almost always found as ⟨ъі⟩ or ⟨ъи⟩.[citation needed] The modern form ⟨ы⟩ first occurred in South Slavic manuscripts following the loss of palatalization of word-final and preconsonantal consonants, so the letters ⟨ъ⟩ and ⟨ь⟩ became confused; since the end of the 14th century, ⟨ы⟩ came to be used in East Slavic manuscripts.[citation needed]

Usage[edit]

While vowel letters in the Cyrillic alphabet may be divided into iotated and non-iotated pairs (for example, ⟨а⟩ and ⟨я⟩ both represent /a/, the latter denoting a preceding palatalised consonant), ⟨ы⟩ is more complicated. It appears only after hard consonants, its phonetic value differs from ⟨и⟩, and there is some scholarly disagreement as to whether or not ⟨ы⟩ and ⟨и⟩ denote different phonemes.[citation needed]

In Russian[edit]

There are no native Russian words that begin with ⟨ы⟩ (except for the specific verb ыкать: "to say the ⟨ы⟩-sound"), but there are many proper and common nouns of non-Russian origin (including some geographical names in Russia) that begin with it: Kim Jong-un (Ким Чен Ын) and Eulji Mundeok (Ыльчи Мундок), a Korean military leader; and Ytyk-Kyuyol (Ытык-Кюёль), Ygyatta (Ыгыатта), a village and a river in Sakha (Yakutia) Republic respectively.

In Ukrainian[edit]

In the Ukrainian alphabet, yery is not used since the language lacks the sound /ɨ/.[1] In the Ukrainian alphabet, yery merged with [i] and was phased out in the second half of the 19th century.[2] According to the Ukrainian academician Hryhoriy Pivtorak, the letter was replaced with so called "Cyrillic i" ⟨и⟩, which in Ukrainian represents the sound [ɪ], which appeared by the merger of the earlier sounds [ɨ] and [i]. Ukrainian also had newly developed the sound [i] from various origins, which is represented by ⟨i⟩ ("Cyrillic dotted i").[1] Yery could be found in several earlier versions of the Ukrainian writing system that were introduced in the 19th century among which were "Pavlovsky writing system", "Slobda Ukraine (New) writing system", and "Yaryzhka".[3]

In Rusyn[edit]

In Rusyn, it denotes a sound that is a bit harder[clarification needed] than [ɨ] and similar to the Romanian sound î, which is also written â. In some cases, the letter may occur after palatalised consonants (синьый "blue", which never happens in Russian), and it often follows ⟨к⟩, ⟨г⟩, ⟨ґ⟩ and ⟨х⟩.

In Turkic languages[edit]

The letter ⟨ы⟩ is also used in Cyrillic-based alphabets of several Turkic and Mongolic languages (see the list) for a darker vowel [ɯ]. The corresponding letter in Latin-based scripts are ⟨ı⟩ (dotless I), and I with bowl (Ь ь).

In Tuvan, the Cyrillic letter can be written as a double vowel.[4][5]

Related letters and other similar characters[edit]

Computing codes[edit]

Character information
Preview Ы ы
Unicode name CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER YERU CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER YERU CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER YERU
WITH BACK YER
CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER YERU
WITH BACK YER
Encodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex dec hex
Unicode 1067 U+042B 1099 U+044B 42576 U+A650 42577 U+A651
UTF-8 208 171 D0 AB 209 139 D1 8B 234 153 144 EA 99 90 234 153 145 EA 99 91
Numeric character reference Ы Ы ы ы Ꙑ Ꙑ ꙑ ꙑ
Named character reference Ы ы
KOI8-R and KOI8-U 249 F9 217 D9
Code page 855 242 F2 241 F1
Code page 866 155 9B 235 EB
Windows-1251 219 DB 251 FB
ISO-8859-5 203 CB 235 EB
Macintosh Cyrillic 155 9B 251 FB

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Larysa Pavlenko Historical grammar of the Ukrainian language (Історична граматика української мови). The editorial and publishing department of the Volyn National University of Lesia Ukrainka. Lutsk, 2010. pages 47-48
  2. ^ Hlushchenko, V. Yer, yery (ЄР, ЄРИ). Ukrainian Language. Encyclopedia (Izbornik).
  3. ^ Hryhoriy Pivtorak. Orthography (ПРАВОПИС). Izbornik.
  4. ^ "Tuvan language, alphabet and pronunciation". omniglot.com. Retrieved 14 June 2016.
  5. ^ Campbell, George L.; King, Gareth (24 July 2013). Compendium of the World's Languages. Routledge. ISBN 9781136258459. Retrieved 14 June 2016 – via Google Books.

External links[edit]

  • The dictionary definition of Ы at Wiktionary
  • The dictionary definition of ы at Wiktionary