|Phonemic representation||sˤ (t͡s)|
|Position in alphabet||18|
|Alphabetic derivatives of the Phoenician|
Ṣade (also spelled Ṣādē, Tsade, Ṣaddi, Ṣad, Tzadi, Sadhe, Tzaddik) is the eighteenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Çādē , Hebrew Ṣādi צ, Aramaic Ṣāḏē , Syriac Ṣāḏē ܨ, and Arabic Ṣād ص. Its oldest sound value is probably /sˤ/, although there is a variety of pronunciation in different modern Semitic languages and their dialects. It represents the coalescence of three Proto-Semitic "emphatic consonants" in Canaanite. Arabic, which kept the phonemes separate, introduced variants of ṣād and ṭāʾ to express the three (see ḍād, ẓāʾ). In Aramaic, these emphatic consonants coalesced instead with ʿayin and ṭēt, respectively, thus Hebrew ereṣ ארץ (earth) is araʿ ארע in Aramaic.
The corresponding letter of the Ugaritic alphabet is 𐎕 ṣade.
The letter is named "tsadek" in Yiddish, and Hebrew speakers often give it that name as well. This name for the letter probably originated from a fast recitation of the alphabet (i.e., "tsadi, qoph" -> "tsadiq, qoph"), influenced by the Hebrew word tzadik, meaning 'righteous person'.
The origin of Ṣade is unclear. It may have come from a Middle Bronze Age glyph based on a pictogram of a plant, perhaps a papyrus plant, or a fish hook (in Modern Hebrew, צד tsad means "[he] hunt[ed]", and in Arabic صاد ṣād means "[he] hunted").
It is written in several ways depending in its position in the word:
In the Qur'an, chapter 38 is named after this letter, سورة ص.
|Position in word:||Isolated||Final||Medial||Initial|
|Various print fonts||Ashkenazi Cursive
Hebrew spelling: צָדִי
In modern Hebrew, the letter Tsadi is also named Ṣadi, though this is regarded by many speakers as incorrect. In transliteration, it may also be transliterated as "ts" instead of "ṣ", as Tsadi instead of Ṣadi.
In Modern Israeli Hebrew, Ṣadi represents a voiceless alveolar affricate /t͡s/. This is the same in Yiddish language. Historically, it likely represented a pharyngealized /t͡sˤ/; which became [t͡s] in Ashkenazi pronunciation and is preserved as [sˤ] amongst Yemenite Jews and other Jews from the Middle East.
As an abbreviation, it stands for ṣafon, North.
|Unicode name||HEBREW LETTER TSADI||HEBREW LETTER FINAL TSADI||ARABIC LETTER SAD||SYRIAC LETTER SADHE||SAMARITAN LETTER TSAADIY|
|UTF-8||215 166||D7 A6||215 165||D7 A5||216 181||D8 B5||220 168||DC A8||224 160 145||E0 A0 91|
|Numeric character reference||צ||צ||ץ||ץ||ص||ص||ܨ||ܨ||ࠑ||ࠑ|
|Unicode name||UGARITIC LETTER SADE||IMPERIAL ARAMAIC LETTER SADHE||PHOENICIAN LETTER SADE|
|UTF-8||240 144 142 149||F0 90 8E 95||240 144 161 145||F0 90 A1 91||240 144 164 145||F0 90 A4 91|
|UTF-16||55296 57237||D800 DF95||55298 56401||D802 DC51||55298 56593||D802 DD11|
|Numeric character reference||𐎕||𐎕||𐡑||𐡑||𐤑||𐤑|
- Weinreich, Uriel (1968). Modern English-Yiddish Yiddish-English Dictionary. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. p. 453. ISBN 07-0690380-3.
- "The Letter Tsade: Righteousness and Modesty" (in Hebrew). Retrieved 5 December 2010.
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