Ca (Indic)

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Devanagari Bengali Gurmukhi Gujarati Oriya
Ca Ca Ca
Tamil Telugu Kannada Malayalam Sinhala
Thai Lao Tibetan Burmese Khmer
Baybayin Hanunoo Buhid Tagbanwa Lontara
- - - -
Balinese Sundanese Limbu Tai Le New Tai Lue
Limbu 'Ca'
Lepcha Saurashtra Rejang Javanese Cham
Tai Tham Tai Viet Kayah Li Phags-pa Siddhaṃ
-   Siddhaṃ 'Ca'
Mahajani Khojki Khudabadi Syloti Meitei
𑅙 𑈎 𑋀
Modi Tirhuta Kaithi Sora Grantha
𑘓 𑒔 𑂒 𑃓 𑌚
Chakma Sharada Takri Kharoshthi Brahmi
𑄌 𑆖 𑚏 𐨕 Brahmi 'Ca'
Phonemic representation: /t͡ʃ/
IAST transliteration: ca
ISCII code point: B8 (184)

Ca is the sixth consonant of Indic abugidas. In modern Indic scripts, ca is derived from the Brahmi letter ng, which is probably derived from the North Semitic letter tsade (reflected in the Aramaic Sade 1.svg, "ts"), with an inversion seen in several other derivatives,[1] after having gone through the Gupta letter Gupta allahabad c.svg.

Āryabhaṭa numeration[edit]

Further information: Āryabhaṭa numeration

Aryabhata used Devanagari letters for numbers, very similar to the Greek numerals, even after the invention of Indian numerals. The values of the different forms of च are:[2]

Devanagari script[edit]

Ca () is the sixth consonant of the Devanagari abugida. In all languages, च is pronounced as [t͡ʃə] or [t͡ʃ] when appropriate. In Marathi, च is sometimes pronounced as [t͡sə] or [t͡s] in addition to [t͡ʃə] or [t͡ʃ]. Letters that derive from it are the Gujarati letter ચ and the Modi letter 𑘓.

Bengali script[edit]

চ is used as a basic consonant character in all of the major Bengali script orthographies, including Bengali and Assamese.

Gurmukhi script[edit]

Chachaa [t͡ʃət͡ʃːɑ] () is the eleventh letter of the Gurmukhi alphabet. Its name is [t͡ʃət͡ʃːɑ] and is pronounced as /t͡ʃ/ when used in words. It is derived from the Laṇḍā letter ca, and ultimately from the Brahmi ca. Gurmukhi chachaa does not have a special pairin or addha (reduced) form for making conjuncts, and in modern Punjabi texts do not take a half form or halant to indicate the bare consonant /t͡ʃ/, although Gurmukhi Sanskrit texts may use an explicit halant.

Gujarati script[edit]

Ca () is the sixth consonant of the Gujarati script. It is derived from 16th century Devanagari letter ca (च) with the top bar (shiro rekha) removed. Like most Gujarati letters, it forms conjunct clusters with a half-form, where the vertical stem on the right is dropped and the remaining letter body appended to the following letter. The Gujarati letter ca (ચ) should not be confused with the Gujarati vowel a (અ).

Thai script[edit]

Cho chan () is the eighth letter of the Thai script. It falls under the middle class of Thai consonants. In IPA, cho chan is pronounced as [tɕ] at the beginning of a syllable and is pronounced as [t̚] at the end of a syllable. The ninth letter of the alphabet, cho ching (ฉ), is also named cho and falls under the high class of Thai consonants. The tenth and twefth letters of the alphabet, cho chang (ช) and cho choe (ฌ), are also named cho, however, they all fall under the low class of Thai consonants. Unlike many Indic scripts, Thai consonants do not form conjunct ligatures, and use the pinthuan explicit virama with a dot shape—to indicate bare consonants. In the acrophony of the Thai script, chan (จาน) means ‘plate’. Cho chan corresponds to the Sanskrit character ‘च’.

Javanese script[edit]

Main article: Ca (Javanese)

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Bühler, Georg (1898). On the Origin of the Indian Brahma Alphabet. p. 68. 
  2. ^ Ifrah, Georges (2000). The Universal History of Numbers. From Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer. New York: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 447–450. ISBN 0-471-39340-1. 
  • Kurt Elfering: Die Mathematik des Aryabhata I. Text, Übersetzung aus dem Sanskrit und Kommentar. Wilhelm Fink Verlag, München, 1975, ISBN 3-7705-1326-6
  • Georges Ifrah: The Universal History of Numbers. From Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2000, ISBN 0-471-39340-1.
  • B. L. van der Waerden: Erwachende Wissenschaft. Ägyptische, babylonische und griechische Mathematik. Birkhäuser-Verlag, Basel Stuttgart, 1966, ISBN 3-7643-0399-9
  • Fleet, J. F. (January 1911). "Aryabhata's System of Expressing Numbers". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland: 109–126. ISSN 0035-869X. JSTOR 25189823. 
  • Fleet, J. F. (1911). "Aryabhata's System of Expressing Numbers". The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 43: 109–126. doi:10.1017/S0035869X00040995. JSTOR 25189823.