Ja (Indic)

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Ja
Devanagari Bengali Gurmukhi Gujarati Oriya
Ja Ja Ja
Tamil Telugu Kannada Malayalam Sinhala
Thai Lao Tibetan Burmese Khmer
   
Baybayin Hanunoo Buhid Tagbanwa Lontara
- - - -
Balinese Sundanese Limbu Tai Le New Tai Lue
 
Lepcha Saurashtra Rejang Javanese Cham
Tai Tham Tai Viet Kayah Li Phags-pa Siddhaṃ
  -- -   Siddhaṃ 'Ja'
Mahajani Khojki Khudabadi Syloti Meitei
𑅛 𑈐 𑈑 𑋂 𑋃
Modi Tirhuta Kaithi Sora Grantha
𑘕 𑒖 𑂔 𑃠 𑌜
Chakma Sharada Takri Kharoshthi Brahmi
𑄎 𑆘 𑚑 𐨗 Brahmi 'Ja'
Phonemic representation: /d͡ʒ/
IAST transliteration: ja
ISCII code point: BA (186)

Ja is the eighth consonant of Indic abugidas. In modern Indic scripts, ja is derived from the Brahmi letter ng after having gone through the Gupta letter Gupta allahabad j.svg.

Āryabhaṭa numeration[edit]

Further information: Āryabhaṭa numeration

Aryabhata used Devanagari letters for numbers, very similar to the Greek numerals, even after the invention of Indian numerals.The values of the different forms of ज are:[1]

Devanagari script[edit]

Ja () is the eighth consonant of the Devanagari abugida. In many languages, ज is pronounced as [d͡ʒə] or [d͡ʒ] when appropriate. In Marathi, ज is sometimes pronounced as [d͡zə] or [d͡z] in addition to [d͡ʒə] or [d͡ʒ]. Letters that derive from it are the Gujarati letter જ and Modi letter 𑘕.

Devanagari Jja[edit]

Jja () is the character ज with an underbar to represent the voiced palatal implosive [ʄ] that occurs in Sindhi. This underbar is distinct from the Devanagari stress sign anudātta. The underbar is fused to the stem of the letter while the anudātta is a stress accent applied to the entire syllable. This underbar used for Sindhi implosives does not exist as a separate character in Unicode. When the ु or ू vowel sign is applied to jja (ॼ), the ु and ू vowel signs are drawn beneath jja. When the उ ( ु) vowel sign or ऊ ( ू) vowel sign is applied to ja with an anudātta (ज॒), the उ ( ु) vowel sign or ऊ ( ू) vowel sign is first placed under ja (ज) and then the anudātta is placed underneath the उ ( ु) vowel sign or ऊ ( ू) vowel sign.[2]

Character Name उ ( ु) vowel sign ऊ ( ू) vowel sign
ॼ (Implosive ja) ॼु ॼू
ज॒ (Ja with anudātta) जु॒ जू॒

An example of a Sindhi word that uses jja (ॼ) is ॼाण (ڄاڻَ), which is of the feminine grammatical gender and means information or knowledge.[3]

Devanagari Za[edit]

Za (ज़) is the character ज with a single dot underneath. It is used in Devanagari transcriptions of Urdu, English, and other languages to denote the voiced alveolar sibilant [z]. Za (ज़) should not be confused with ža (झ़), which is the character jha (झ) combined with a nuqta, and is used to transcribe the voiced post-alveolar fricative [ʒ] from Urdu (ژ) and English. Za (ज़) should also not be confused zha (ॹ), which is used in Devanagari transcriptions of the Avestan letter zhe (𐬲) to denote the voiced post-alveolar fricative [ʒ].

Devanagari Zha[edit]

Zha () is the character ज with three dots underneath. It is used in Devanagari transcriptions of the Avestan letter zhe (𐬲) to denote the voiced patalal fricative [ʒ]. An example of its usage is in Kavasji Edulji Kanga's Avesta, yazna 41.3 to write ईॹीम्.[4] Zha (ॹ) should not be confused with za (ज़), which is used to denote the voiced alveolar sibilant [z] from Urdu, English, and other languages. Zha (ॹ) should also not be confused with ža (झ़), which is the character jha (झ) combined with a nuqta, and is used to transcribe the voiced post-alveolar fricative [ʒ] from Urdu (ژ) and English.

Bengali script[edit]

জ is used as a basic consonant character in all of the major Bengali script orthographies, including Bengali and Assamese.

Gujarati script[edit]

Ja () is the eighth consonant of the Gujarati script. It is possibly derived from a variant of 16th century Devanagari letter ja (ज) with the top bar (shiro rekha) removed. Ja (જ) is visually similar to the corresponding Modi letter. When combined with certain vowels, the Gujarati Ja may assume unique forms (such as જા, જી, and જો):

J Ja Ji Ju Jr Jr̄ Jl Jl̄ Je Jai Jo Jau
જ્ જા જિ જી જુ જૂ જૃ જૄ જૢ જૣ જૈ જો જૌ

Gujarati Za[edit]

Za (જ઼) is the character ja (જ) with a single dot underneath. It corresponds to the Devanagari character Za (ज़). It is also used in Gujarati transcriptions of Avestan (𐬰),[5][6][7] Urdu (ژ), English, and other languages to denote the voiced alveolar sibilant [z].

Gujarati Zha[edit]

Zha (ૹ) is the character ja (જ) with three dots underneath. It is used in Gujarati transcriptions of the Avestan letter zhe (𐬲) to denote the voiced patalal fricative [ʒ] and is analogous to the Devanagari character zha (ॹ).[5][6] Zha (ૹ) was added to the Unicode Standard as a single character ljust like the Devanagari character zha (ॹ) with Unicode 8.0 on 17 June 2015. [7][8] An example of a word in the Gujarati script the uses zha (ૹ) is ચીૹ્દી.[9]

Gurmukhi script[edit]

Jajaa [d͡ʒəd͡ʒːɑ] () is the thirteenth letter of the Gurmukhi alphabet. Its name is [d͡ʒəd͡ʒːɑ] and is pronounced as /d͡ʒ/ when used in words. It is derived from the Laṇḍā letter ja, and ultimately from the Brahmi ja. Gurmukhi jajaa does not have a special pairin or addha (reduced) form for making conjuncts, and in modern Punjabi texts do not take a half form or halant to indicate the bare consonant /d͡ʒ/, although Gurmukhi Sanskrit texts may use an explicit halant.

Thai script[edit]

Cho chang () and so so () are the tenth and eleventh letters of the Thai script. They fall under the low class of Thai consonants. Unlike many Indic scripts, Thai consonants do not form conjunct ligatures, and use the pinthuan explicit virama with a dot shape—to indicate bare consonants.

Cho chang[edit]

In IPA, cho chang is pronounced as [tɕʰ] at the beginning of a syllable and are pronounced as [t̚] at the end of a syllable. The previous letter of the alphabet, cho ching (ฆ), is also named cho, however, it falls under the middle class of Thai consonants. In the acrophony of the Thai script, chang (ช้าง) means ‘elephant’. Kho khai corresponds to the Sanskrit character ‘ज’.

So so[edit]

In IPA, so so is pronounced as [s] at the beginning of a syllable and are pronounced as [t̚] at the end of a syllable. In the acrophony of the Thai script, so (โซ่) means ‘chain’. Old Thai had the voiced retroflex affricate sound /dʐ/. When the Thai script was developed, cho ching was slightly modified to create distinct letter for /dʐ/, which is now known as so so. During the Old Thai period, this sound merged into the aspirated stop /tɕʰ/. This is similar to how ज is sometimes pronounced as [d͡z] in addition to [d͡ʒ] in Marathi. However, Marathi uses the same letter for both sounds while Thai split the corresponding two sounds into the separate letters cho chang and so so. In modern Thai, the voicing of /dʐ/ became lost and thus is now pronounced as [s] at the beginning of a syllable.

Javanese script[edit]

Main article: Ja (Javanese)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ifrah, Georges (2000). The Universal History of Numbers. From Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer. New York: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 447–450. ISBN 0-471-39340-1. 
  2. ^ Everson, Michael (30 March 2005). "Proposal to add four characters for Sindhi to the BMP of the UCS" (PDF). Unicode.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 July 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2015. 
  3. ^ Lekhwani, Kanhaiyalal. 1987 (1909). An intensive course in Sindhi. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages; [New York]: Hippocrene Books. OCLC 18986594
  4. ^ "Proposal to encode 55 characters for Vedic Sanskrit in the BMP of the UCS" (PDF). Unicode.org. 18 October 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 June 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2015. 
  5. ^ a b Rajan, Vinod (16 July 2013). "Proposal to encode Gujarati Letter ZHA" (PDF). Unicode.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 July 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2015. 
  6. ^ a b Rajan, Vinodh (15 April 2013). "Proposal to encode Gujarati Sign Triple Nukta" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 July 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2015. 
  7. ^ a b Rajan, Vinodh (26 April 2013). "Recommendations to UTC on Script Proposals" (PDF). Unicode.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 July 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2015. 
  8. ^ West, Andrew (1 April 2015). "What's new in Unicode 8.0 ?". BabelStone. BabelStone. Archived from the original on 16 September 2016. Retrieved 2 November 2016. 
  9. ^ Kanga, Ervad Kavasji Edalji (1936). Kanga, Navroji Pestonji Kavasji, ed. Khordeh Avestâ (PDF). Bombay: Nirnaya Sagar Press. p. 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 October 2016 – via www.avesta.org. 
  • Kurt Elfering: Die Mathematik des Aryabhata I. Text, Übersetzung aus dem Sanskrit und Kommentar. Wilhelm Fink Verlag, München, 1975, ISBN 3-7705-1326-6
  • Georges Ifrah: The Universal History of Numbers. From Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2000, ISBN 0-471-39340-1.
  • B. L. van der Waerden: Erwachende Wissenschaft. Ägyptische, babylonische und griechische Mathematik. Birkhäuser-Verlag, Basel Stuttgart, 1966, ISBN 3-7643-0399-9
  • Fleet, J. F. (January 1911). "Aryabhata's System of Expressing Numbers". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland: 109–126. ISSN 0035-869X. JSTOR 25189823. 
  • Fleet, J. F. (1911). "Aryabhata's System of Expressing Numbers". The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 43: 109–126. doi:10.1017/S0035869X00040995. JSTOR 25189823.