|Balinese||Sundanese||Limbu||Tai Le||New Tai Lue|
|Tai Tham||Tai Viet||Kayah Li||Phags-pa||Siddhaṃ|
|ISCII code point:||BB (187)|
Jha is the ninth consonant of Indic abugidas. In modern Indic scripts, jha is derived from the Brahmi letter after having gone through the Gupta letter .
- झ [d͡ʒʱə] = 9 (९)
- झि [d͡ʒʱɪ] = 900 (९००)
- झु [d͡ʒʱʊ] = 90,000 (९० ०००)
- झृ [d͡ʒʱri] = 9,000,000 (९० ०० ०००)
- झॢ [d͡ʒlə] = 9×108 (९०८)
- झे [d͡ʒʱe] = 9×1010 (९०१०)
- झै [d͡ʒʱɛː] = 9×1012 (९०१२)
- झो [d͡ʒʱoː] = 9×1014 (९०१४)
- झौ [d͡ʒʱɔː] = 9×1016 (९०१६)
Jha (झ, Hindi: झकार, [d͡ʒʱkaːr]) is the ninth consonant of the Devanagari abugida. In many languages, झ is pronounced as [d͡ʒʱə] or [d͡ʒʱ] when appropriate. In Marathi, झ is sometimes pronounced as [d͡zʱə] or [d͡zʱ] in addition to [d͡ʒʱə] or [d͡ʒʱ]. is a variant of झ that also in use, particularly in older texts. Letters that derive from it are the Gujarati letter ઝ and the Modi letter 𑘖.
Ža (झ़) is the character jha (झ) combined with a nuqta. It is used to transcribe the voiced patalal fricative [ʒ] from Urdu (ژ) and English. Ža (झ़) should not be confused with za (ज़), which is used to denote the voiced alveolar sibilant [z] from Urdu, English, and other languages. Ža (झ़) should also not be confused zha (ॹ), which is used in Devanagari transcriptions of the Avestan letter zhe (𐬲) to denote the voiced post-alveolar fricative [ʒ]. An equivalent sound, in some Slavic languages, is ж ("zh").
Jha (ઝ) is the ninth consonant of the Gujarati script. It is possibly derived from a variant of 16th century Devanagari letter jha (झ) with the top bar (shiro rekha) removed.
Chajaa [t͡ʃə̀d͡ʒːɑ] (ਝ) is the fourteenth letter of the Gurmukhi alphabet. Its name is [t͡ʃə̀d͡ʒːɑ] and pronounced as /t͡ʃə̀/. To differentiate between consonants, the Punjabi tonal consonant t͡ʃə̀ is often transliterated in the way of the Hindi voiced aspirate consonants jha although Punjabi does not have this sound. It is derived from the Laṇḍā letter jha, and ultimately from the Brahmi jha. Gurmukhi chajaa does not have a special pairin or addha (reduced) form for making conjuncts, and in modern Punjabi texts do not take a half form or halant to indicate the bare consonant /t͡ʃ/, although Gurmukhi Sanskrit texts may use an explicit halant.
Cho choe (ฌ) is the twefth letter of the Thai script. It falls under the low class of Thai consonants. In IPA, cho choe is pronounced as [tɕʰ] at the beginning of a syllable and may not be used to close a syllable. The eighth letter of the alphabet, cho chan (จ), is also named cho and falls under the middle class of Thai consonants. The eighth letter of the alphabet, cho ching (ฉ), is also named cho and falls under the high class of Thai consonants. The tenth letter of the alphabet, cho chang (ช), is also named cho and falls under the low class of Thai consonants. Unlike many Indic scripts, Thai consonants do not form conjunct ligatures, and use the pinthu—an explicit virama with a dot shape—to indicate bare consonants. In the acrophony of the Thai script, choe (เฌอ) means ‘tree’. Cho choe corresponds to the Sanskrit character ‘झ’.
- Kurt Elfering: Die Mathematik des Aryabhata I. Text, Übersetzung aus dem Sanskrit und Kommentar. Wilhelm Fink Verlag, München, 1975, ISBN 3-7705-1326-6
- Georges Ifrah: The Universal History of Numbers. From Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2000, ISBN 0-471-39340-1.
- B. L. van der Waerden: Erwachende Wissenschaft. Ägyptische, babylonische und griechische Mathematik. Birkhäuser-Verlag, Basel Stuttgart, 1966, ISBN 3-7643-0399-9
- Fleet, J. F. (January 1911). "Aryabhata's System of Expressing Numbers". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland: 109–126. ISSN 0035-869X. JSTOR 25189823.
- Fleet, J. F. (1911). "Aryabhata's System of Expressing Numbers". The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 43: 109–126. doi:10.1017/S0035869X00040995. JSTOR 25189823.