Chandrabindu

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Chandrabindu
Diacritics in Latin & Greek
accent
acute( ´ )
double acute( ˝ )
grave( ` )
double grave(  ̏ )
breve( ˘ )
inverted breve(  ̑ )
caron, háček( ˇ )
cedilla( ¸ )
circumflex( ˆ )
diaeresis, umlaut( ¨ )
dot( · )
hook, hook above(   ̡   ̢  ̉ )
horn(  ̛ )
iota subscript(  ͅ  )
macron( ¯ )
ogonek, nosinė( ˛ )
perispomene(  ͂  )
ring( ˚, ˳ )
rough breathing( )
smooth breathing( ᾿ )
Marks sometimes used as diacritics
apostrophe( )
bar( ◌̸ )
colon( : )
comma( , )
hyphen( ˗ )
tilde( ~ )
Diacritical marks in other scripts
Arabic diacritics
Early Cyrillic diacritics
kamora(  ҄ )
pokrytie(  ҇ )
titlo(  ҃ )
Gurmukhī diacritics
Hebrew diacritics
Indic diacritics
anusvara( )
chandrabindu( )
nukta( )
virama( )
chandrakkala( )
IPA diacritics
Japanese diacritics
dakuten( )
handakuten( )
Khmer diacritics
Syriac diacritics
Thai diacritics
Related
Dotted circle
Punctuation marks
Logic symbols

Chandrabindu (meaning "moon-dot" in Sanskrit, alternatively spelled candrabindu, chandravindu, candravindu, or chôndrobindu) is a diacritic sign with the form of a dot inside the lower half of a circle. It is used in the Devanagari (ँ), Bengali (), Gujarati (ઁ), Oriya (ଁ), Telugu (ఁ), Javanese (ꦀ) and other scripts.

It usually means that the previous vowel is nasalized.

In Hindi, it is replaced in writing by anusvara when it is written above a consonant that carries a vowel symbol that extends above the top line.

In Classical Sanskrit, it seems to occur only over a lla conjunct consonant, to show that it is pronounced as a nasalized double l, which occurs if -nl- have become assimilated in sandhi.

In Vedic Sanskrit, it is used instead of anusvara to represent the sound anunaasika when the next word starts with a vowel. It usually occurs where in earlier times a word ended in -ans.

It should not be confused with another symbol, the fermata, which looks like an upside-down chandrabindu; it is an element of musical notation.

Unicode encodes chandrabindu and chandrabindu-like characters for a variety of scripts:

  • U+1B01 BALINESE SIGN ULU CANDRA
  • U+1B00 BALINESE SIGN ULU RICEM
  • U+0981 BENGALI SIGN CANDRABINDU
  • U+11C3C 𑰼 BHAIKSUKI SIGN CANDRABINDU
  • U+11000 𑀀 BRAHMI SIGN CANDRABINDU
  • U+0901 DEVANAGARI SIGN CANDRABINDU
  • U+A8F2 DEVANAGARI SIGN SPACING CANDRABINDU
  • U+A8F3 DEVANAGARI SIGN CANDRABINDU VIRAMA
  • U+0900 DEVANAGARI SIGN INVERTED CANDRABINDU
  • U+11301 𑌁 GRANTHA SIGN CANDRABINDU
  • U+0A81 GUJARATI SIGN CANDRABINDU
  • U+0A01 GURMUKHI SIGN ADAK BINDI
  • U+0A70 GURMUKHI TIPPI
  • U+A980 JAVANESE SIGN PANYANGGA
  • U+11080 𑂀 KAITHI SIGN CANDRABINDU
  • U+0C81 KANNADA SIGN CANDRABINDU
  • U+1C34 LEPCHA CONSONANT SIGN NYIN-DO
  • U+1C35 LEPCHA CONSONANT SIGN KANG
  • U+0D01 MALAYALAM SIGN CANDRABINDU
  • U+11CB6 𑲶 MARCHEN SIGN CANDRABINDU
  • U+11443 𑑃 NEWA SIGN CANDRABINDU
  • U+0B01 ORIYA SIGN CANDRABINDU
  • U+A873 PHAGS-PA LETTER CANDRABINDU
  • U+A8C5 SAURASHTRA SIGN CANDRABINDU
  • U+115BC 𑖼 SIDDHAM SIGN CANDRABINDU
  • U+0C01 TELUGU SIGN CANDRABINDU
  • U+0C00 TELUGU SIGN COMBINING CANDRABINDU ABOVE
  • U+0F82   ྂ TIBETAN SIGN NYI ZLA NAA DA
  • U+0F83   ྃ TIBETAN SIGN SNA LDAN
  • U+114BF 𑒿 TIRHUTA SIGN CANDRABINDU
  • U+11A35 𑨵 ZANABAZAR SQUARE SIGN CANDRABINDU
  • U+11A36 𑨶 ZANABAZAR SQUARE SIGN CANDRABINDU WITH ORNAMENT
  • U+11A37 𑨷 ZANABAZAR SQUARE SIGN CANDRA WITH ORNAMENT

There is also a general-purpose combining diacritical mark COMBINING CANDRABINDU code point U+0310 (◌̐), but that is intended for use with Latin letters in transliteration of Indic languages.

See also[edit]