Macron below

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◌̱
Macron below
Diacritics in Latin & Greek
accent
acute( ´ )
double acute( ˝ )
grave( ` )
double grave(  ̏ )
circumflex( ˆ )
caron, háček( ˇ )
breve( ˘ )
inverted breve(   ̑  )
cedilla( ¸ )
diaeresis, umlaut( ¨ )
dot( · )
palatal hook(   ̡ )
retroflex hook(   ̢ )
hook above, dấu hỏi(  ̉ )
horn(  ̛ )
iota subscript(  ͅ )
macron( ¯ )
ogonek, nosinė( ˛ )
perispomene(  ͂ )
overring( ˚ )
underring( ˳ )
rough breathing( )
smooth breathing( ᾿ )
Marks sometimes used as diacritics
apostrophe( )
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period( . )
hyphen( ˗ )
prime( )
tilde( ~ )
Diacritical marks in other scripts
Arabic diacritics
Early Cyrillic diacritics
kamora(  ҄ )
pokrytie(  ҇ )
titlo(  ҃ )
Gurmukhī diacritics
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chandrabindu( )
nukta( )
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handakuten( )
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Syriac diacritics
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Related
Dotted circle
Punctuation marks
Logic symbols
A̱a̱ḆḇC̱c̱

Macron below, U+0331 ◌̱ COMBINING MACRON BELOW, is a combining diacritical mark that is used in various orthographies.[1]

It is not to be confused with U+0320 ◌̠ COMBINING MINUS SIGN BELOW, U+0332 ◌̲ COMBINING LOW LINE and U+005F _ LOW LINE. The difference between "macron below" and "low line" is that the latter results in an unbroken underline when it is run together: compare a̱ḇc̱ and a̲b̲c̲ (only the latter should look like abc).[2]

Unicode[edit]

Macron below character[edit]

Unicode defines several characters for the macron below:

macron below
combining spacing
character Unicode HTML character Unicode HTML
◌̱
single
U+0331 ̱ ˍ
letter
U+02CD ˍ
◌͟◌
double
U+035F ͟

There are many similar marks covered elsewhere:

  • Spacing underscores, including
    • U+005F _ LOW LINE (HTML _)
    • U+2017 DOUBLE LOW LINE (HTML ‗)
  • Combining underlines, including
    • U+0332 ◌̲ COMBINING LOW LINE (HTML ̲)
    • U+0333 ◌̳ COMBINING DOUBLE LOW LINE (HTML ̳)
    • U+0347 ◌͇ COMBINING EQUALS SIGN BELOW (HTML ͇);
    • U+FE2B ◌︫ COMBINING MACRON LEFT HALF BELOW (HTML ︫)
    • U+FE2C ◌︬ COMBINING MACRON RIGHT HALF BELOW (HTML ︬)
    • U+FE2D ◌︭ COMBINING CONJOINING MACRON BELOW (HTML ︭)
  • International Phonetic Alphabet mark for retracted or backed articulation:[1]
    • U+0320 ◌̠ COMBINING MINUS SIGN BELOW (HTML ̠)
    • U+02D7 ˗ MODIFIER LETTER MINUS SIGN (HTML ˗)

Precomposed characters[edit]

Various precomposed letters with a macron below are defined in Unicode:

upper case lower case notes
letter Unicode HTML letter Unicode HTML
U+1E06 Ḇ U+1E07 ḇ Used in the transliteration of Biblical Hebrew into the Roman alphabet to show the fricative value of the letter beth (ב). representing [v], or perhaps [β].
U+1E0E Ḏ U+1E0F ḏ Used in the transliteration of Biblical Hebrew, Syriac and Arabic into the Roman alphabet to show the fricative value of the letter dalet (ד), [ð], and in the romanization of Pashto, it is used sometimes to represent retroflex D.
U+1E96 ẖ Sometimes used for Arabic خ ẖāʼ, Hebrew Heth (letter), Egyptian 𓄡.

There is no precomposed upper case equivalent of so it uses a combining macron below instead: .

U+1E34 Ḵ U+1E35 ḵ Used in Tlingit and Haida (among other Pacific Northwest languages) for the voiceless uvular stop [q]. Close to Korean ㄲ kk; closest English "shocking"
U+1E3A Ḻ U+1E3B ḻ One possible transliteration of the Tamil letter . Ḻ is used in the Seri language to represent [l], like English l, while unmodified "l" represents [ɬ], like Welsh ll. It is also used in the proposed Unified Alphabet for Mapudungun.
U+1E48 Ṉ U+1E49 ṉ Used in Pitjantjatjara to represent [ɳ], and in Saanich to represent both plain and glottalized [ɴ]. In the romanization of Pashto, it is used sometimes to represent retroflex N.
U+1E5E Ṟ U+1E5F ṟ Used in Pitjantjatjara to represent [ɻ], and sometimes in the romanization of Pashto to represent the retroflex R.
U+1E6E Ṯ U+1E6F ṯ Used in the proposed Unified Alphabet for Mapudungun language representing []. In the romanization of Pashto, it is used sometimes to represent retroflex T. In the romanization of Arabic this letter is used to transcribe the letter Ṯāʾ.
U+1E94 Ẕ U+1E95 ẕ
U+20AB ₫

Note that the Unicode character names of precomposed characters whose decompositions contain U+0331 ◌̱ COMBINING MACRON BELOW use "WITH LINE BELOW" rather than "WITH MACRON BELOW". Thus, U+1E07 LATIN SMALL LETTER B WITH LINE BELOW decomposes to U+0062 b LATIN SMALL LETTER B and U+0331 ◌̱ COMBINING MACRON BELOW.[3]

The Vietnamese đồng currency sign resembles a lower case d with a stroke and macron below: U+20AB DONG SIGN (HTML ₫) but is neither a letter nor decomposable.[4]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Combining Diacritical Marks Code Chart, Range: 0300–036F" (PDF). The Unicode Standard. Retrieved 2016-11-21.
  2. ^ "6.2 General Punctuation" (PDF). The Unicode Standard. Version 11.0.0. Mountain View, CA: The Unicode Consortium. 2018. p. 273. ISBN 978-1-936213-19-1. Retrieved 2018-12-12. Spacing Overscores and Underscores. U+203E OVERLINE is the above-the-line counterpart to U+005F low line. It is a spacing character, not to be confused with U+0305 COMBINING OVERLINE. As with all overscores and underscores, a sequence of these characters should connect in an unbroken line. The overscoring characters also must be distinguished from U+0304 COMBINING MACRON, which does not connect horizontally in this way.
  3. ^ "Latin Extended Additional Code Chart, Range: 1E00–1EFF" (PDF). The Unicode Standard. Retrieved 2016-11-21.
  4. ^ "Unicode character database". The Unicode Standard. Retrieved 2016-11-21.