Macron below

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◌̱
Macron below
Diacritics in Latin & Greek
accent
acute´
double acute˝
grave`
double grave ̏
circumflexˆ
caron, háčekˇ
breve˘
inverted breve  ̑  
cedilla¸
diaeresis, umlaut¨
dot·
palatal hook  ̡
retroflex hook  ̢
hook above, dấu hỏi ̉
horn ̛
iota subscript ͅ 
macronˉ
ogonek, nosinė˛
perispomene ͂ 
overring˚
underring˳
rough breathing
smooth breathing᾿
Marks sometimes used as diacritics
apostrophe
bar◌̸
colon:
comma,
full stop/period.
hyphen˗
prime
tilde~
Diacritical marks in other scripts
Arabic diacritics
Early Cyrillic diacritics
kamora ҄
pokrytie ҇
titlo ҃
Gurmukhī diacritics
Hebrew diacritics
Indic diacritics
anusvara
chandrabindu
nukta
virama
visarga
IPA diacritics
Japanese diacritics
dakuten
handakuten
Khmer diacritics
Syriac diacritics
Thai diacritics
Related
Dotted circle
Punctuation marks
Logic symbols
A̱a̱ḆḇC̱c̱

Macron below, U+0331 ◌̱ COMBINING MACRON BELOW, is a combining diacritical mark that is used in various orthographies.[1]

It is not to be confused with U+0320 ◌̠ COMBINING MINUS SIGN BELOW, U+0332 ◌̲ COMBINING LOW LINE and U+005F _ LOW LINE. The difference between "macron below" and "low line" is that the latter results in an unbroken underline when it is run together: compare a̱ḇc̱ and a̲b̲c̲ (only the latter should look like abc).[2]

Unicode[edit]

Macron below character[edit]

Unicode defines several characters for the macron below:

macron below
combining spacing
character Unicode HTML character Unicode HTML
◌̱
single
U+0331 ̱ ˍ
letter
U+02CD ˍ
◌͟◌
double
U+035F ͟

There are many similar marks covered elsewhere:

  • Spacing underscores, including
    • U+005F _ LOW LINE (HTML _)
    • U+2017 DOUBLE LOW LINE (HTML ‗)
  • Combining underlines, including
    • U+0332 ◌̲ COMBINING LOW LINE (HTML ̲)
    • U+0333 ◌̳ COMBINING DOUBLE LOW LINE (HTML ̳)
    • U+0347 ◌͇ COMBINING EQUALS SIGN BELOW (HTML ͇);
    • U+FE2B ◌︫ COMBINING MACRON LEFT HALF BELOW (HTML ︫)
    • U+FE2C ◌︬ COMBINING MACRON RIGHT HALF BELOW (HTML ︬)
    • U+FE2D ◌︭ COMBINING CONJOINING MACRON BELOW (HTML ︭)
  • International Phonetic Alphabet mark for retracted or backed articulation:[1]
    • U+0320 ◌̠ COMBINING MINUS SIGN BELOW (HTML ̠)
    • U+02D7 ˗ MODIFIER LETTER MINUS SIGN (HTML ˗)

Precomposed characters[edit]

Various precomposed letters with a macron below are defined in Unicode:

upper case lower case notes
letter Unicode HTML letter Unicode HTML
U+1E06 Ḇ U+1E07 ḇ Used in the transliteration of Biblical Hebrew into the Roman alphabet to show the fricative value of the letter beth (ב). representing [v], or perhaps [β].
U+1E0E Ḏ U+1E0F ḏ Used in the transliteration of Biblical Hebrew, Syriac and Arabic into the Roman alphabet to show the fricative value of the letter dalet (ד), [ð], and in the romanization of Pashto, it is used sometimes to represent retroflex D.
U+1E96 ẖ Sometimes used for Arabic خ ẖāʼ, Hebrew Heth (letter), Egyptian 𓄡.

There is no precomposed upper case equivalent of so it uses a combining macron below instead: .

U+1E34 Ḵ U+1E35 ḵ Used in Tlingit and Haida (among other Pacific Northwest languages) for the voiceless uvular stop [q]. Close to Korean ㄲ kk; closest English "shocking"
U+1E3A Ḻ U+1E3B ḻ One possible transliteration of the Tamil letter . Ḻ is used in the Seri language to represent [l], like English l, while unmodified "l" represents [ɬ], like Welsh ll. It is also used in the proposed Unified Alphabet for Mapudungun.
U+1E48 Ṉ U+1E49 ṉ Used in Pitjantjatjara to represent [ɳ], and in Saanich to represent both plain and glottalized [ɴ]. In the romanization of Pashto, it is used sometimes to represent retroflex N.
U+1E5E Ṟ U+1E5F ṟ Used in Pitjantjatjara to represent [ɻ], and sometimes in the romanization of Pashto to represent the retroflex R.
U+1E6E Ṯ U+1E6F ṯ Used in the proposed Unified Alphabet for Mapudungun language representing []. In the romanization of Pashto, it is used sometimes to represent retroflex T. In the romanization of Arabic this letter is used to transcribe the letter Ṯāʾ.
U+1E94 Ẕ U+1E95 ẕ
U+20AB ₫

Note that the Unicode character names of precomposed characters whose decompositions contain U+0331 ◌̱ COMBINING MACRON BELOW use "WITH LINE BELOW" rather than "WITH MACRON BELOW". Thus, U+1E07 LATIN SMALL LETTER B WITH LINE BELOW decomposes to U+0062 b LATIN SMALL LETTER B and U+0331 ◌̱ COMBINING MACRON BELOW.[3]

The Vietnamese đồng currency sign resembles a lower case d with a stroke and macron below: U+20AB DONG SIGN (HTML ₫) but is neither a letter nor decomposable.[4]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Combining Diacritical Marks Code Chart, Range: 0300–036F" (PDF). The Unicode Standard. Retrieved 2016-11-21.
  2. ^ "6.2 General Punctuation" (PDF). The Unicode Standard. Version 11.0.0. Mountain View, CA: The Unicode Consortium. 2018. p. 273. ISBN 978-1-936213-19-1. Retrieved 2018-12-12. Spacing Overscores and Underscores. U+203E OVERLINE is the above-the-line counterpart to U+005F low line. It is a spacing character, not to be confused with U+0305 COMBINING OVERLINE. As with all overscores and underscores, a sequence of these characters should connect in an unbroken line. The overscoring characters also must be distinguished from U+0304 COMBINING MACRON, which does not connect horizontally in this way.
  3. ^ "Latin Extended Additional Code Chart, Range: 1E00–1EFF" (PDF). The Unicode Standard. Retrieved 2016-11-21.
  4. ^ "Unicode character database". The Unicode Standard. Retrieved 2016-11-21.