# Arrow (symbol)

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Arrow
In UnicodeU+2190–U+21FF
Graphical variants
Right pointing arrow
Related

An arrow is a graphical symbol, such as ← or →, or a pictogram, used to point or indicate direction. In its simplest form, an arrow is a triangle, chevron, or concave kite, usually affixed to a line segment or rectangle,[1] and in more complex forms a representation of an actual arrow (e.g. ➵ U+27B5). The direction indicated by an arrow is the one along the length of the line or rectangle toward the single pointed end.

## History

An older (medieval) convention is the manicule (pointing hand, 👈). Pedro Reinel in c. 1504 first used the fleur-de-lis as indicating north in a compass rose; the convention of marking the eastern direction with a cross is older (medieval).[2] Use of the arrow symbol does not appear to pre-date the 18th century. An early arrow symbol is found in an illustration of Bernard Forest de Bélidor's treatise L'architecture hydraulique, printed in France in 1737. The arrow is here used to illustrate the direction of the flow of water and of the water wheel's rotation. At about the same time, arrow symbols were used to indicate the flow of rivers in maps.[3]

A trend toward abstraction, in which the arrow's fletching is removed, can be observed in the mid-to-late 19th century. The arrow can be seen in the work of Paul Klee. In a further abstraction of the symbol, John Richard Green's A Short History of the English People of 1874 contained maps by cartographer Emil Reich, which indicated army movements by curved lines, with solid triangular arrowheads placed intermittently along the lines.[4]

Use of arrow symbols in mathematical notation is still younger and developed in the first half of the 20th century.[5] David Hilbert in 1922 introduced the arrow symbol representing logical implication. The double-headed arrow representing logical equivalence was introduced by Albrecht Becker in Die Aristotelische Theorie der Möglichkeitsschlüsse, Berlin, 1933.[4]

## Usage

Arrows are universally recognised for indicating directions.[1] They are widely used on signage and for wayfinding,[1] and are often used in road surface markings.

Upward arrows are often used to indicate an increase in a numerical value, and downward arrows indicate a decrease.

In mathematical logic, a right-facing arrow indicates material conditional, and a left-right (bidirectional) arrow indicates if and only if, an upwards arrow indicates the NAND operator (negation of conjunction), an downwards arrow indicates the NOR operator (negation of disjunction).

## Graffiti

Arrows are regularly used in contemporary graffiti designs, incorporated as an element in both simplistic tags and complex wildstyle pieces. Arrows are used as a visual technique to make a graffito stand out or give it a sense of movement.[6] The graffiti theoretician RAMM:ΣLL:ZΣΣ described adornments, such as arrows, in wildstyle paintings as ornaments that ‘armed’ the letters of a piece.[7] The Philadelphia graffiti artist Cool Earl began using arrows in 1967,[8] although the New York graffiti writer SJK 171 may have been the first to do so.[9] The graffiti artist Mare139 is known for creating 3D sculptures of arrows.[10]

## Unicode

In Unicode, the block Arrows occupies the hexadecimal range U+2190–U+21FF, as described below.

Symbol Name Symbol Name Symbol Name Symbol Name
Hex Hex Hex Hex
Picture of this symbol Picture of this symbol Picture of this symbol Picture of this symbol
Leftwards Arrow Rightwards Arrow With Loop Upwards Paired Arrows Leftwards Arrow To Bar
U+2190 U+21AC U+21C8 U+21E4
Upwards Arrow Left Right Wave Arrow Rightwards Paired Arrows Rightwards Arrow To Bar
Rightwards Arrow Left Right Arrow With Stroke Downwards Paired Arrows Leftwards Thick Arrow
U+2192 U+21AE U+21CA U+21E6
Downwards Arrow Downwards Zigzag Arrow Leftwards Harpoon Over Rightwards Harpoon Upwards Thick Arrow
U+2193 U+21AF U+21CB U+21E7
Left Right Arrow Upwards Arrow With Tip Leftwards Rightwards Harpoon Over Leftwards Harpoon Rightwards Thick Arrow
U+2194 U+21B0 U+21CC U+21E8
Up Down Arrow Upwards Arrow With Tip Rightwards Leftwards Double Arrow With Stroke Downwards Thick Arrow
U+2195 U+21B1 U+21CD U+21E9
North West Arrow Downwards Arrow With Tip Leftwards Left Right Double Arrow With Stroke Upwards Thick Arrow From Bar
U+2196 U+21B2 U+21CE U+21EA
North East Arrow Downwards Arrow With Tip Rightwards Rightwards Double Arrow With Stroke Upwards Thick Arrow On Pedestal
U+2197 U+21B3 U+21CF U+21EB
South East Arrow Rightwards Arrow With Corner Downwards Leftwards Double Arrow Upwards Thick Arrow On Pedestal With Horizontal Bar
U+2198 U+21B4 U+21D0 U+21EC
South West Arrow Downwards Arrow With Corner Leftwards Upwards Double Arrow Upwards Thick Arrow On Pedestal With Vertical Bar
U+2199 U+21B5 U+21D1 U+21ED
Leftwards Arrow With Stroke Anticlockwise Top Semicircle Arrow Rightwards Double Arrow Upwards Thick Double Arrow
U+219A U+21B6 U+21D2 U+21EE
Rightwards Arrow With Stroke Clockwise Top Semicircle Arrow Downwards Double Arrow Upwards Thick Double Arrow On Pedestal
U+219B U+21B7 U+21D3 U+21EF
Leftwards Wave Arrow North West Arrow To Long Bar Left Right Double Arrow Rightwards Thick Arrow From Wall
U+219C U+21B8 U+21D4 U+21F0
Rightwards Wave Arrow Leftwards Arrow To Bar Over Rightwards Arrow To Bar Up Down Double Arrow North West Arrow To Corner
U+219D U+21B9 U+21D5 U+21F1
Leftwards Two Headed Arrow Anticlockwise Open Circle Arrow North West Double Arrow South East Arrow To Corner
U+219E U+21BA U+21D6 U+21F2
Upwards Two Headed Arrow Clockwise Open Circle Arrow North East Double Arrow Up Down Thick Arrow
U+219F U+21BB U+21D7 U+21F3
Rightwards Two Headed Arrow Leftwards Harpoon With Barb Upwards South East Double Arrow Right Arrow With Small Circle
U+21A0 U+21BC U+21D8 U+21F4
Downwards Two Headed Arrow Leftwards Harpoon With Barb Downwards South West Double Arrow Downwards Arrow Leftwards Of Upwards Arrow
U+21A1 U+21BD U+21D9 U+21F5
Leftwards Arrow With Tail Upwards Harpoon With Barb Rightwards Leftwards Triple Arrow Three Rightwards Arrows
U+21A2 U+21BE U+21DA U+21F6
Rightwards Arrow With Tail Upwards Harpoon With Barb Leftwards Rightwards Triple Arrow Leftwards Arrow With Vertical Stroke
U+21A3 U+21BF U+21DB U+21F7
Leftwards Arrow From Bar Rightwards Harpoon With Barb Upwards Leftwards Squiggle Arrow Rightwards Arrow With Vertical Stroke
U+21A4 U+21C0 U+21DC U+21F8
Upwards Arrow From Bar Rightwards Harpoon With Barb Downwards Rightwards Squiggle Arrow Left Right Arrow With Vertical Stroke
U+21A5 U+21C1 U+21DD U+21F9
Rightwards Arrow From Bar Downwards Harpoon With Barb Rightwards Upwards Arrow With Double Stroke Leftwards Arrow With Double Vertical Stroke
U+21A6 U+21C2 U+21DE U+21FA
Downwards Arrow From Bar Downwards Harpoon With Barb Leftwards Downwards Arrow With Double Stroke Rightwards Arrow With Double Vertical Stroke
U+21A7 U+21C3 U+21DF U+21FB
Up Down Arrow With Base Rightwards Arrow Over Leftwards Arrow Leftwards Dashed Arrow Left Right Arrow With Double Vertical Stroke
U+21A8 U+21C4 U+21E0 U+21FC
Leftwards Arrow With Hook Upwards Arrow Leftwards Of Downwards Arrow Upwards Dashed Arrow Leftwards Open-Headed Arrow
U+21A9 U+21C5 U+21E1 U+21FD
Rightwards Arrow With Hook Leftwards Arrow Over Rightwards Arrow Rightwards Dashed Arrow Rightwards Open-Headed Arrow
U+21AA U+21C6 U+21E2 U+21FE
Leftwards Arrow With Loop Leftwards Paired Arrows Downwards Dashed Arrow Left Right Open-Headed Arrow
U+21AB U+21C7 U+21E3 U+21FF

### By block

 Arrows.mw-parser-output .citation{word-wrap:break-word}.mw-parser-output .citation:target{background-color:rgba(0,127,255,0.133)}[1]Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F U+219x ← ↑ → ↓ ↔ ↕ ↖ ↗ ↘ ↙ ↚ ↛ ↜ ↝ ↞ ↟ U+21Ax ↠ ↡ ↢ ↣ ↤ ↥ ↦ ↧ ↨ ↩ ↪ ↫ ↬ ↭ ↮ ↯ U+21Bx ↰ ↱ ↲ ↳ ↴ ↵ ↶ ↷ ↸ ↹ ↺ ↻ ↼ ↽ ↾ ↿ U+21Cx ⇀ ⇁ ⇂ ⇃ ⇄ ⇅ ⇆ ⇇ ⇈ ⇉ ⇊ ⇋ ⇌ ⇍ ⇎ ⇏ U+21Dx ⇐ ⇑ ⇒ ⇓ ⇔ ⇕ ⇖ ⇗ ⇘ ⇙ ⇚ ⇛ ⇜ ⇝ ⇞ ⇟ U+21Ex ⇠ ⇡ ⇢ ⇣ ⇤ ⇥ ⇦ ⇧ ⇨ ⇩ ⇪ ⇫ ⇬ ⇭ ⇮ ⇯ U+21Fx ⇰ ⇱ ⇲ ⇳ ⇴ ⇵ ⇶ ⇷ ⇸ ⇹ ⇺ ⇻ ⇼ ⇽ ⇾ ⇿ Notes 1.^ As of Unicode version 15.1
 Dingbats[1]Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F U+270x ✀ ✁ ✂ ✃ ✄ ✅ ✆ ✇ ✈ ✉ ✊ ✋ ✌ ✍ ✎ ✏ U+271x ✐ ✑ ✒ ✓ ✔ ✕ ✖ ✗ ✘ ✙ ✚ ✛ ✜ ✝ ✞ ✟ U+272x ✠ ✡ ✢ ✣ ✤ ✥ ✦ ✧ ✨ ✩ ✪ ✫ ✬ ✭ ✮ ✯ U+273x ✰ ✱ ✲ ✳ ✴ ✵ ✶ ✷ ✸ ✹ ✺ ✻ ✼ ✽ ✾ ✿ U+274x ❀ ❁ ❂ ❃ ❄ ❅ ❆ ❇ ❈ ❉ ❊ ❋ ❌ ❍ ❎ ❏ U+275x ❐ ❑ ❒ ❓ ❔ ❕ ❖ ❗ ❘ ❙ ❚ ❛ ❜ ❝ ❞ ❟ U+276x ❠ ❡ ❢ ❣ ❤ ❥ ❦ ❧ ❨ ❩ ❪ ❫ ❬ ❭ ❮ ❯ U+277x ❰ ❱ ❲ ❳ ❴ ❵ ❶ ❷ ❸ ❹ ❺ ❻ ❼ ❽ ❾ ❿ U+278x ➀ ➁ ➂ ➃ ➄ ➅ ➆ ➇ ➈ ➉ ➊ ➋ ➌ ➍ ➎ ➏ U+279x ➐ ➑ ➒ ➓ ➔ ➕ ➖ ➗ ➘ ➙ ➚ ➛ ➜ ➝ ➞ ➟ U+27Ax ➠ ➡ ➢ ➣ ➤ ➥ ➦ ➧ ➨ ➩ ➪ ➫ ➬ ➭ ➮ ➯ U+27Bx ➰ ➱ ➲ ➳ ➴ ➵ ➶ ➷ ➸ ➹ ➺ ➻ ➼ ➽ ➾ ➿ Notes 1.^ As of Unicode version 15.1
 Miscellaneous Symbols and Arrows[1][2]Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F U+2B0x ⬀ ⬁ ⬂ ⬃ ⬄ ⬅ ⬆ ⬇ ⬈ ⬉ ⬊ ⬋ ⬌ ⬍ ⬎ ⬏ U+2B1x ⬐ ⬑ ⬒ ⬓ ⬔ ⬕ ⬖ ⬗ ⬘ ⬙ ⬚ ⬛ ⬜ ⬝ ⬞ ⬟ U+2B2x ⬠ ⬡ ⬢ ⬣ ⬤ ⬥ ⬦ ⬧ ⬨ ⬩ ⬪ ⬫ ⬬ ⬭ ⬮ ⬯ U+2B3x ⬰ ⬱ ⬲ ⬳ ⬴ ⬵ ⬶ ⬷ ⬸ ⬹ ⬺ ⬻ ⬼ ⬽ ⬾ ⬿ U+2B4x ⭀ ⭁ ⭂ ⭃ ⭄ ⭅ ⭆ ⭇ ⭈ ⭉ ⭊ ⭋ ⭌ ⭍ ⭎ ⭏ U+2B5x ⭐ ⭑ ⭒ ⭓ ⭔ ⭕ ⭖ ⭗ ⭘ ⭙ ⭚ ⭛ ⭜ ⭝ ⭞ ⭟ U+2B6x ⭠ ⭡ ⭢ ⭣ ⭤ ⭥ ⭦ ⭧ ⭨ ⭩ ⭪ ⭫ ⭬ ⭭ ⭮ ⭯ U+2B7x ⭰ ⭱ ⭲ ⭳ ⭶ ⭷ ⭸ ⭹ ⭺ ⭻ ⭼ ⭽ ⭾ ⭿ U+2B8x ⮀ ⮁ ⮂ ⮃ ⮄ ⮅ ⮆ ⮇ ⮈ ⮉ ⮊ ⮋ ⮌ ⮍ ⮎ ⮏ U+2B9x ⮐ ⮑ ⮒ ⮓ ⮔ ⮕ ⮗ ⮘ ⮙ ⮚ ⮛ ⮜ ⮝ ⮞ ⮟ U+2BAx ⮠ ⮡ ⮢ ⮣ ⮤ ⮥ ⮦ ⮧ ⮨ ⮩ ⮪ ⮫ ⮬ ⮭ ⮮ ⮯ U+2BBx ⮰ ⮱ ⮲ ⮳ ⮴ ⮵ ⮶ ⮷ ⮸ ⮹ ⮺ ⮻ ⮼ ⮽ ⮾ ⮿ U+2BCx ⯀ ⯁ ⯂ ⯃ ⯄ ⯅ ⯆ ⯇ ⯈ ⯉ ⯊ ⯋ ⯌ ⯍ ⯎ ⯏ U+2BDx ⯐ ⯑ ⯒ ⯓ ⯔ ⯕ ⯖ ⯗ ⯘ ⯙ ⯚ ⯛ ⯜ ⯝ ⯞ ⯟ U+2BEx ⯠ ⯡ ⯢ ⯣ ⯤ ⯥ ⯦ ⯧ ⯨ ⯩ ⯪ ⯫ ⯬ ⯭ ⯮ ⯯ U+2BFx ⯰ ⯱ ⯲ ⯳ ⯴ ⯵ ⯶ ⯷ ⯸ ⯹ ⯺ ⯻ ⯼ ⯽ ⯾ ⯿ Notes 1.^ As of Unicode version 15.1 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points
 Supplemental Arrows-A[1]Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F U+27Fx ⟰ ⟱ ⟲ ⟳ ⟴ ⟵ ⟶ ⟷ ⟸ ⟹ ⟺ ⟻ ⟼ ⟽ ⟾ ⟿ Notes 1.^ As of Unicode version 15.1
 Supplemental Arrows-B[1]Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F U+290x ⤀ ⤁ ⤂ ⤃ ⤄ ⤅ ⤆ ⤇ ⤈ ⤉ ⤊ ⤋ ⤌ ⤍ ⤎ ⤏ U+291x ⤐ ⤑ ⤒ ⤓ ⤔ ⤕ ⤖ ⤗ ⤘ ⤙ ⤚ ⤛ ⤜ ⤝ ⤞ ⤟ U+292x ⤠ ⤡ ⤢ ⤣ ⤤ ⤥ ⤦ ⤧ ⤨ ⤩ ⤪ ⤫ ⤬ ⤭ ⤮ ⤯ U+293x ⤰ ⤱ ⤲ ⤳ ⤴ ⤵ ⤶ ⤷ ⤸ ⤹ ⤺ ⤻ ⤼ ⤽ ⤾ ⤿ U+294x ⥀ ⥁ ⥂ ⥃ ⥄ ⥅ ⥆ ⥇ ⥈ ⥉ ⥊ ⥋ ⥌ ⥍ ⥎ ⥏ U+295x ⥐ ⥑ ⥒ ⥓ ⥔ ⥕ ⥖ ⥗ ⥘ ⥙ ⥚ ⥛ ⥜ ⥝ ⥞ ⥟ U+296x ⥠ ⥡ ⥢ ⥣ ⥤ ⥥ ⥦ ⥧ ⥨ ⥩ ⥪ ⥫ ⥬ ⥭ ⥮ ⥯ U+297x ⥰ ⥱ ⥲ ⥳ ⥴ ⥵ ⥶ ⥷ ⥸ ⥹ ⥺ ⥻ ⥼ ⥽ ⥾ ⥿ Notes 1.^ As of Unicode version 15.1
 Supplemental Arrows-C[1][2]Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F U+1F80x 🠀 🠁 🠂 🠃 🠄 🠅 🠆 🠇 🠈 🠉 🠊 🠋 U+1F81x 🠐 🠑 🠒 🠓 🠔 🠕 🠖 🠗 🠘 🠙 🠚 🠛 🠜 🠝 🠞 🠟 U+1F82x 🠠 🠡 🠢 🠣 🠤 🠥 🠦 🠧 🠨 🠩 🠪 🠫 🠬 🠭 🠮 🠯 U+1F83x 🠰 🠱 🠲 🠳 🠴 🠵 🠶 🠷 🠸 🠹 🠺 🠻 🠼 🠽 🠾 🠿 U+1F84x 🡀 🡁 🡂 🡃 🡄 🡅 🡆 🡇 U+1F85x 🡐 🡑 🡒 🡓 🡔 🡕 🡖 🡗 🡘 🡙 U+1F86x 🡠 🡡 🡢 🡣 🡤 🡥 🡦 🡧 🡨 🡩 🡪 🡫 🡬 🡭 🡮 🡯 U+1F87x 🡰 🡱 🡲 🡳 🡴 🡵 🡶 🡷 🡸 🡹 🡺 🡻 🡼 🡽 🡾 🡿 U+1F88x 🢀 🢁 🢂 🢃 🢄 🢅 🢆 🢇 U+1F89x 🢐 🢑 🢒 🢓 🢔 🢕 🢖 🢗 🢘 🢙 🢚 🢛 🢜 🢝 🢞 🢟 U+1F8Ax 🢠 🢡 🢢 🢣 🢤 🢥 🢦 🢧 🢨 🢩 🢪 🢫 🢬 🢭 U+1F8Bx 🢰 🢱 U+1F8Cx U+1F8Dx U+1F8Ex U+1F8Fx Notes 1.^ As of Unicode version 15.1 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points
 Symbols for Legacy Computing[1][2]Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F U+1FB0x 🬀 🬁 🬂 🬃 🬄 🬅 🬆 🬇 🬈 🬉 🬊 🬋 🬌 🬍 🬎 🬏 U+1FB1x 🬐 🬑 🬒 🬓 🬔 🬕 🬖 🬗 🬘 🬙 🬚 🬛 🬜 🬝 🬞 🬟 U+1FB2x 🬠 🬡 🬢 🬣 🬤 🬥 🬦 🬧 🬨 🬩 🬪 🬫 🬬 🬭 🬮 🬯 U+1FB3x 🬰 🬱 🬲 🬳 🬴 🬵 🬶 🬷 🬸 🬹 🬺 🬻 🬼 🬽 🬾 🬿 U+1FB4x 🭀 🭁 🭂 🭃 🭄 🭅 🭆 🭇 🭈 🭉 🭊 🭋 🭌 🭍 🭎 🭏 U+1FB5x 🭐 🭑 🭒 🭓 🭔 🭕 🭖 🭗 🭘 🭙 🭚 🭛 🭜 🭝 🭞 🭟 U+1FB6x 🭠 🭡 🭢 🭣 🭤 🭥 🭦 🭧 🭨 🭩 🭪 🭫 🭬 🭭 🭮 🭯 U+1FB7x 🭰 🭱 🭲 🭳 🭴 🭵 🭶 🭷 🭸 🭹 🭺 🭻 🭼 🭽 🭾 🭿 U+1FB8x 🮀 🮁 🮂 🮃 🮄 🮅 🮆 🮇 🮈 🮉 🮊 🮋 🮌 🮍 🮎 🮏 U+1FB9x 🮐 🮑 🮒 🮔 🮕 🮖 🮗 🮘 🮙 🮚 🮛 🮜 🮝 🮞 🮟 U+1FBAx 🮠 🮡 🮢 🮣 🮤 🮥 🮦 🮧 🮨 🮩 🮪 🮫 🮬 🮭 🮮 🮯 U+1FBBx 🮰 🮱 🮲 🮳 🮴 🮵 🮶 🮷 🮸 🮹 🮺 🮻 🮼 🮽 🮾 🮿 U+1FBCx 🯀 🯁 🯂 🯃 🯄 🯅 🯆 🯇 🯈 🯉 🯊 U+1FBDx U+1FBEx U+1FBFx 🯰 🯱 🯲 🯳 🯴 🯵 🯶 🯷 🯸 🯹 Notes 1.^ As of Unicode version 15.1 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

## References

1. ^ a b c "How to Design and Use Arrows on Signage for Wayfinding". Travel wayfinding. 7 April 2019. Key Point 5; Key Point 9. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
2. ^ The American Revolution, 1775-1783: An Atlas of 18th Century Maps and Charts, Theatres of Operations, United States Naval History Division (1972), 14f.
3. ^ E. H. Dobrich, "Pictorial Instructions" in: H. Barlow et al. (eds.), Images and understanding, Cambridge University Press (1990).
4. ^ a b History of the Arrow, American Printing History Society (2015).
5. ^ Green, J.J, Rossberg, M., and Ebert, P.A., : The Convenience of the Typesetter; Notation and Typography in Frege’s Grundgesetze der Arithmetik, Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 21 (2015): 13-30, fn. 17 [1] | DOI
6. ^ Spiegel, Ilyse (22 May 2022). "The History and Evolution of Arrows in Graffiti Art". panic39.com.
7. ^ Gopinath, Gabrielle (2015). "Ornament as Armament: Playing Defence in Wildstyle Graffiti". In Lovata, Troy; Olton, Elizabeth (eds.). Understanding Graffiti: Multidisciplinary Studies from Prehistory to the Present. United States of America: Left Coast Press. p. 126. ISBN 978-1-61132-868-4.
8. ^ Pope, Alex; Riva, Giulia ‘BLocal’ (1 April 2021). "History of graffiti and street art: the 1960s and the 1970s". STRAAT Museum.