The integral symbol:
The notation was introduced by the German mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in 1675 in his private writings; it first appeared publicly in the paper "De Geometria Recondita et analysi indivisibilium atque infinitorum" (On a hidden geometry and analysis of indivisibles and infinites), published in Acta Eruditorum in June 1686. The symbol was based on the ſ (long s) character, and was chosen because Leibniz thought of the integral as an infinite sum of infinitesimal summands.
Typography in Unicode and LaTeX
The original IBM PC code page 437 character set included a couple of characters ⌠ and ⌡ (codes 244 and 245, respectively) to build the integral symbol. These were deprecated in subsequent MS-DOS code pages, but they still remain in Unicode (U+2320 and U+2321, respectively) for compatibility.
Extensions of the symbol
Meaning Unicode LaTeX Double integral ∬ U+222C
Triple integral ∭ U+222D
Contour integral ∮ U+222E
Clockwise integral ∱ U+2231 Anticlockwise integral ⨑ U+2A11 Clockwise contour integral ∲ U+2232
Anticlockwise contour integral ∳ U+2233
Closed surface integral ∯ U+222F
Closed volume integral ∰ U+2230
Typography in other languages
In other languages, the shape of the integral symbol differs slightly from the shape commonly seen in English-language textbooks. While the English integral symbol leans to the right, the German symbol (used throughout Central Europe) is upright, and the Russian variant leans to the left.
- Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Sämtliche Schriften und Briefe, Reihe VII: Mathematische Schriften, vol. 5: Infinitesimalmathematik 1674-1676, Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 2008, pp. 288–295 ("Analyseos tetragonisticae pars secunda", October 29, 1675) and 321–331 ("Methodi tangentium inversae exempla", November 11, 1675).
- Aldrich, John. "Earliest Uses of Symbols of Calculus". Retrieved 20 April 2017.
- Swetz, Frank J., Mathematical Treasure: Leibniz's Papers on Calculus - Integral Calculus, Convergence, Mathematical Association of America, retrieved February 11, 2017
- Stillwell, John (1989). Mathematics and its History. Springer. p. 110.
- "Mathematical Operators – Unicode" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-04-26.
- "Supplemental Mathematical Operators – Unicode" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-05-05.
- In the current font, ∫ doesn't have the same style as the others, although on (Mathematical Operators – Unicode), with the font they are using, all the other integrals have the same nice style as ∫. Furthermore ∫ doesn't have the same vertical alignment.
Integral symbols shown in
HTML+CSS (font-size: 2em)
∫ ∬ ∭ ∮ int iint iiint oint ∲ ∳ ∯ ∰ varointclockwise ointctrclockwise oiint oiiint
font-style: oblique;to the int symbol ∫ has no effect in Firefox or Safari, it remains upright (whereas it does have an effect on all the other integral symbols), e.g.
<span style="font-style: italic;">∫ ∬ ∭ ∮ ∲ ∳ ∯ ∰</span>yields ∫ ∬ ∭ ∮ ∲ ∳ ∯ ∰;
<span style="font-style: oblique;">∫ ∬ ∭ ∮ ∲ ∳ ∯ ∰</span>yields ∫ ∬ ∭ ∮ ∲ ∳ ∯ ∰.
- Stewart, James (2003). "Integrals". Single Variable Calculus: Early Transcendentals (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole. p. 381. ISBN 0-534-39330-6.
- Zaitcev, V.; Janishewsky, A.; Berdnikov, A. (1999), "Russian Typographical Traditions in Mathematical Literature" (PDF), Russian Typographical Traditions in Mathematical Literature, EuroTeX'99 Proceedings