Shandong people

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Shandongese
山東人
山东人
Regions with significant populations
Languages
Various forms of Mandarin
Religion
Ancestral worship, Taoism, Buddhism, Christianity, Atheism, etc.
Related ethnic groups
Ancient Dongyi† and other Han Chinese

The people of Shandong province or Shandong people (simplified Chinese: 山东人; traditional Chinese: 山東人; pinyin: Shāndōng rén) refers to those who are native to Shandong province, the majority (99%) of whom are Han Chinese. They speak various forms of Mandarin dialects such as Jilu, Jiaoliao, and Zhongyuan. There is a small Shandong community in Singapore and Malaysia.[1] Nine-tenths of the early overseas Chinese in Korea also came from Shandong.[2] Minority groups include the Hui and the Manchus. Shandong citizens are also known to have the tallest average height of any Chinese province.[3] As of 2010, 16-to 18-year-old male students in Yantai measured 176.4 cm (5'9.5), while female students measured 164 cm (5'4.5).[4]

History[edit]

Some researchers suggest that at least some of the early people of Shandong spoke an Austronesian language.[5]

Modern-day Shandong is the location of the Kingdom of Qi (state) During the Warring States Period. It was the first Kingdom to be annexed by the Qin (state) State prior to unification and the beginning of the Qin Dynasty. After the brief 15 year unification by the Qin Dynasty, the empire broke into Eighteen Kingdoms. Present day Shandong was split into two feudal states, Jiaodong and Jibei. The Han State, headed by Liu Bang, (comprising present day Sichuan province, Chongqing, and Southern Shaanxi) unified the kingdoms to form the Han Dynasty. After 400 years, the Han Dynasty fell and the empire scattered into the Three Kingdoms period. During this time, present day Shandong belonged to the Northern State of Cao Wei established by the Warlord Cao Cao. After the disintegration of the Cao Wei Dynasty, the area of present-day Shandong was ruled by the Tuoba Clan of the Xianbei Tribe during the Eastern Wei. The Eastern Wei eventually fell to the Northern Qi Dynasty which lasted 27 years before it was overtaken by the Northern Zhou of central China.Yang Jian was able to recapture ruling power to the Han Chinese from the Xianbei and establish the Sui Dynasty after centuries of Xianbei rule and division between different states, becoming Emperor Wen of Sui. After unifying the Northern and Southern Dynasties, the Sui Dynasty paved the way for the Tang Dynasty and many years of prosperity and peace. The Tang Dynasty fell about 300 years after its inception. The empire again, fragmented, this time into many different states whose borders are roughly the outline of the present day provinces. During this time Shandong was known as the Later Liang (Five Dynasties) Kingdom.

Throughout its history, the coastline of Shandong were particularly susceptible to Wokou Pirates. After the Second Opium War the Treaty of Tianjin (1858) forced the Qing Empire, ruled by the Manchu to open more ports to Western Nations. As a result, there was considerable foreign settlements by the British, Germans, Americans, and Russians in Shandong cities during the 18th Century. For 20 years prior to the end of World War I, the Germans controlled Shandong. After the defeat of Germany in WWI by the Allied forces, the cities of Yantai and Qingdao were handed to the Japanese who used the port cities for their summer fleets. This led to the Shandong Problem which added to the ignition of the May Fourth Movement and the New Culture Movement— paving the way for the birth of modern China.

Korean clans from Shandong[edit]

Major cities[edit]

  • Jinan 济南, Capital of Shandong Province, known as the “City of Springs” 泉城 for its great number of artesian wells.[6]
  • Qingdao 青岛, named one of China’s most beautiful and cleanest cities. Famous home of Tsingtao Brewery.[7]
  • Yantai 烟台, port city developing quickly. Home of Changyu winery.[8]
  • Qufu 曲阜, a town with more than 2,500 years of history. Birthplace of Confucius. As such, the Confucius related sites are UNESCO world heritage sites. A sizeable community of Hui Chinese reside here.[9]
  • Weihai 威海, major seaport and seaside resort city.[10]
  • Tai'an 泰安, a prefecture level city in Shandong. Famous for Mount Tai, an UNESCO World Heritage Site, and one of the five sacred Daoist mountains in China.
  • Penglai, Shandong 蓬莱, The smaller coastal town famous around China as being the landing site of the mythological Eight Immortals as well as beaches, entertainment, and wine.[11]

Cuisine[edit]

Shandong cuisine is one of the "8 Great Regional Cuisines" of China. It is noted for uses of seafood, vinegar, and garlic.[12]

Since Shandong is located in fertile plains, it is a main wheat-growing area in China. People in Shandong enjoy eating foods made of wheat flour as staple food. It is commonly said that Shandong people like to eat big pan-cakes stuffed with scallions or minced meat when they eat three meals a day.

Shandong cuisine is generally salty, with a prevalence of light-color sauces, and features adept skill in slicing. Shandong cuisine is representative of Northern Chinese cooking and its techniques have been widely absorbed by the imperial dishes of Ming and Qing Dynasties.

Notable dishes[edit]

  • Dezhou Braised (Grilled) Chicken (simplified Chinese: 德州扒鸡 Dézhōu pá jī) also known as "Dezhou Five-fragrant Boneless Braised Chicken" from the city of Dezhou.
  • Clay Pot Braised Pork Belly (simplified Chinese: 坛子肉 tánzi ròu) the original Red braised pork belly which has now spread all over China, and is more popularly known as Chairman Mao's favorite dish. Different provinces have different variations of this dish. Tanzi Rou, literally means brewed pork in jar, as the dish is cooked in a porcelain or clay pot. It is said that the dish originated in the Jinan Fengjilou Hotel during the Qing Dynasty.
  • Eight Immortal Soup a seafood soup popular in overseas Chinese communities.
  • Fluffy Scallion Pan-Cake (simplified Chinese: 山东大饼) is a version of a scallion pancake that is much more dense, fluffier, and thicker than the more widespread southern style, Green-Scallion Oil Pancake. This type of bread can come either plain topped with sesame seeds, or stuffed with meat filling or glass-noodle or eggs and Chinese chives. Different variations exist.
  • Shandong Fried Oyster
  • Braised Sea Cucumber with Scallion
  • Pulled-Caramelized Sweet Potato (simplified Chinese: 拔丝地瓜 básī dìguā)
  • Shandong Dumplings Shandong style dumplings are notably plumper and traditionally made with Pork and Cabbage. They are noted for their Gold-nugget like appearance that is accomplished via a particular squeezing technique instead of the more common folding technique.

Culture[edit]

Evidence of the Beixin culture (5300 BC to 4100 BC), the Dawenkou culture (4100 BC to 2600 BC) and the Longshan Culture (3000 BC to 2000 BC) was found in Shandong province, which provides evidence that comparatively advanced handcraft industry, agriculture and animal husbandry was prevalent in Shandong 4000 to 7000 years ago.[13][14] Additionally, Shandong is home to the oldest Chinese inscriptions: Dawenkou Pottery Inscription and Longshan Pottery Inscription; the largest prehistoric settlement found to date: Chengziya (城子崖) Archeological Site; the oldest section of the Great Wall in China: the Great Wall of Qi State; and the oldest Oracle Bone Script: Huantai County Oracle Bone Script, were all found in Shandong. According to the research of archaeologists, Shandong was the main place for silk manufacture from the Han Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty, and it was the origin of the ancient Silk Road.[15]

Heritage sites[edit]

Notable people[edit]

Mathematicians[edit]

  • Liu Hui - invented the Gaussian elimination method considered to be one of the two most greatest mathematicians in Ancient China.
  • Zhan Tao - Chinese mathematician and president of Jilin University.

Scientists[edit]

Samuel C. C. Ting - Nobel Prize in Physics laureate.

Philosophers[edit]

Literati[edit]

Entertainers[edit]

Athletes[edit]

Statesmen[edit]

Businesspeople[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tan 2004, p. 92–93
  2. ^ Rhee 2009, p. 113
  3. ^ "Skeletons of 5,000-year-old 'giant' humans found in China". Independent.co.uk. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  4. ^ "Average height, Yantai". Chuansong.me. 2012.
  5. ^ Stevens, Chris; Fuller, Dorian (2017-01-01). "The spread of agriculture in eastern Asia: Archaeological bases for hypothetical farmer/language dispersals". Language Dynamics and Change. 7: 152–186. doi:10.1163/22105832-00702001.
  6. ^ "Jinan: a veritable City of Springs[1]- Shandong Culture". Chinadaily.com.cn. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  7. ^ "Qingdao, China – MobyTrip". MobyTrip.com. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  8. ^ "Yantai Changyu Pioneer Wine Company Limited: Private Company Information - Bloomberg". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  9. ^ Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Temple and Cemetery of Confucius and the Kong Family Mansion in Qufu". Whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  10. ^ "South Koreans in Weihai". english.cri.cn. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  11. ^ "Penglai, Land of Fairy Tales «  Shanghai China Website". Shanghai.ws. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  12. ^ "Shandong Cuisine". China.org.cn. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  13. ^ Liu, Li (2004). The Chinese Neolithic: Trajectories to Early States. Cambridge University Press. pp. 193–194. ISBN 1139441701.
  14. ^ Maisel, Charles Keith (1999). Early Civilizations of the Old World: The Formative Histories of Egypt, the Levant, Mesopotamia, India and China. Psychology Press. p. 283. ISBN 978-0-4151-0975-8.
  15. ^ "Shandong - province, China". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2 June 2018.

Bibliography[edit]