École nationale de l'aviation civile
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|Motto||La référence aéronautique|
Motto in English
|The aeronautical reference|
|Location||Biscarosse, Carcassonne, Castelnaudary, Château-Arnoux-Saint-Auban, Grenoble, Melun, Montpellier, Muret, Saint-Yan and Toulouse, France
|Campus||Biscarrosse - Parentis Airport, Carcassonne Airport, Castelnaudary - Villeneuve Airport, Château-Arnoux-Saint-Auban Airport, Grenoble-Isère Airport, Melun Villaroche Aerodrome, Montpellier – Méditerranée Airport, Muret - Lherm Aerodrome, Saint-Yan Airport and Toulouse|
|Colours||Blue and Grey|
|Affiliations||3AF, Aerospace Valley, CDEFI, CESAER, CGE, CTI, Elles Bougent, Erasmus, EUR-ACE, France AEROTECH, GEA, IAAPS, ICAO, ISSAT, PEGASUS, Toulouse Tech, University of Toulouse|
The École nationale de l'aviation civile (ENAC) (French Civil Aviation University) is one of 210 French Engineering Establishments equipping students with an engineering degree. It belongs to the group of Grandes écoles in France and was founded on August 28, 1949 to provide initial and continuing education in the field of civil aviation. The university is an établissement public à caractère administratif (French administrative public body) under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development, Transport and Housing. It is a member of the Conférence des Grandes Écoles, University of Toulouse, Aerospace Valley and one of the five founders of France AEROTECH.
ENAC provides training in civil aeronautics and particularly in air transport, airlines, airports, manufacturers, and civil aviation authorities. The university offers about 25 courses, including those for aerospace engineers, technicians, Masters, Mastères Spécialisés, airline pilots, air traffic controllers, managers and flight instructors.
- 1 History
- 2 Administration
- 3 Campuses
- 4 Aircraft and simulators
- 5 Teaching and research
- 6 Notable alumni
- 7 Notes and references
- 8 Bibliography
- 9 See also
- 10 External links
In the period immediately following WWII, in 1945, France was facing an explosion of air transport. Safe air transport requires staff trained specifically for this activity. It also required a harmonization of the different sectors of the aviation world, and, consequently, a better mutual knowledge of those working in these areas. These were the motivations of the founders of ENAC. Among these founders, Max Hymans, who was secretary general of civil and commercial aviation, played a prominent role.
In the years following the Western Front, the lack of homogeneity of the staff of civil aviation was an obvious consequence of heterogeneous recruitment. This is often the result of personnel incorporated hastily and in a high quantity in emergency situations. In the field of air navigation and telecommunications, many training centers were created to provide trainings in this sector: a training center for airfield commanders at Orly and a training center, located at Le Bourget, for the technical staff of air navigation. The other service involved in training was the Department of Telecommunications and Signaling based at Orly which trained wireless operators and radio technicians. Technical managers have mostly been trained in engineering grandes écoles, including Arts et Métiers and the École nationale de la météorologie ; Some are issued from the University, Chairs of fluid mechanics have been created at the Sorbonne and Collège de France in 1930. The École spéciale des travaux aéronautiques also provides designers. Aircrew training is provided by the State or by private institutions. ENAC's mission is to bring together in one place all the training of aviation stakeholders.
Through Decree No. 49-970 of 7 June 1948 laying down the rules of French public Administration, a complete overhaul of the staff regulations of civil aviation official is organized, especially the technical staff. Several new corps of civil servants are well established: air traffic engineers, engineers of air navigation operations, aerial telecommunications civil engineers, air traffic controllers, telecommunications controller and air navigation agents. This creation was immediately followed by a ministerial decision on 12 August 1948 paving the way for a first civil service examination of all these bodies. The examinations themselves are organized in October 1948. Regardless of the foregoing, on 14 April 1948, the International Civil Aviation Organization establishes the conditions for air crew licensing, including the minimum number of flight hours required for each category of pilots.
That same year, ENAC is still lacking and is still only "service des écoles et des stages" of the General secretariat for civil and commercial aviation. This situation contrasts with that prevailing in other areas where there is a tradition that senior civil service are trained in higher education institutions with the title of "National Grande école" : The École nationale des ponts et chaussées, founded in 1747, the École Nationale des Chartes, founded in 1821, or the most recent École nationale d'administration (1945). At a period when air transport becomes a key economic sector, the existence of a "service des écoles et des stages" appears somewhat anachronistic. Jules Moch, Minister of Works, Transport and Tourism wants to name the university the "École nationale de l'aviation marchande", finally not chosen.
University of aviation safety in Paris
ENAC was created on 28 August 1949 (Decree 49-1205) in Paris at the initiative of Max Hymans, Secretary General of Civil Aviation, and Jules Moch. in order to train all the professionals of civil aeronautics and harmonize all the air transport stakeholders, aircrew or not, commercial or technical, including the civil services of civil aviation. The university is located at Orly, south of Paris (ENAC's buildings at Orly served as an examination center until the early 1990s). René Lemaire considers ENAC as "a university of aviation safety". This priority given to aviation safety is somehow consubstantial with ENAC, being the first reason for the training of future technicians and future airmen in a single university. As noted in a report of the Inspection générale de l'aviation civile, "It was in the minds of the creators of the university, to develop between the aircrew and the ground staff a community of ideas, reciprocal knowledge, and esteem, that are essential for the teamwork required by air transport." However, it is doubtful that the "community of ideas" the author of the report wishes could be only expressed by the coexistence of different courses in the same university. Other factors work in opposite directions, including the very significant disparity of durations of the training cycles. Thus, air navigation civil engineers of the branch "telecommunications" stays 30 months in the university ; the students of the course "operations" are trained in 27 months ; the air navigation engineers in two years ; and finally, the air traffic controllers in nine months. To realize fully the chemistry that, in the minds of its founders, must proceed in the creation of ENAC, it is necessary that other conditions are met. The main is the consistency of the education provided to the students in different cycles. This need is reflected by the interpenetration of theoretical and practical training, "air" and "ground". The brand's most visible of such interpenetration is the development, whenever this is possible, of the teaching called "inter-specialization", that means, integrated programs of distinct cycles. It should be noted that these teachings, which have different promotions for a single design cost, results in significant savings, as well noticed by Rene Lemaire.
The decree of 13 October 1959 formalizes the first major partner of the university: Air France. It results in a sharing of tasks and establishes a recruitment for airline pilots students with no previous flight experience. Previously, on an experimental basis, the university hosted in 1958 the first airline pilots students. it was entrusted with the preparation of the Airline Transport Pilot Licence theory. As for the practical training in flight, it is realized at the SEFA center of Saint-Yan, created in 1949, until the commercial pilot licence, and at the Air France school for the advanced training. ENAC, in addition to his official duty related to the preparation of the Airline Transport Pilot Licence theory, has some tasks of theoretical training for pilots of various airlines. The question of the financial aspect of the training for airline pilots in private airlines arises. This training, which the cost is not paid by the French state, is too expensive for airlines and students, particularly because of the flight training part. Private airlines decided to pay the cost, which makes possible the free education for student pilots.
Meanwhile, in order to enable its students to acquire a thorough knowledge of the environment in which the air transport takes place, ENAC seeks to develop cooperation with the École nationale de la météorologie. A report dated 29 May 1950 invokes the obvious implications of meteorology in the air traffic and promotes the training of this subject for air traffic controllers. Also, many and close links traditionally exits between civil aviation and Air Force. After World War II, when civil aviation is developing, soldiers can help its expansion. A lot of pilots, but also radios, navigators and mechanics are coming from the army to airlines. ENAC seeks to be part of this movement, and help the conversion of military aircrew. It is in this spirit that is signed on 9 June 1951 a memorandum specifying its duties in the training of military pilots for civil aviation. The university is the general contractor of the operations and provides the theoretical training. The Service de l'aviation légère et sportive (SALS), under the decree of 31 March 1951, is providing for free the flight training for airline pilots candidates coming from the army.
From 1949 to 1959, the number of courses held increase from 6 to 64 and the number of students from 49 to 800. The causes of rapid enrollment growth are multiple. There is no doubt that ENAC has benefited from the spectacular development of air transport in the postwar years. But it would not have taken such an advantage if its teachings were not performing. Finally, one can not ignore the presence of a significant contingent of students from either foreign countries or – in even larger numbers – which territories would gain independence in the near future. In the early 1960s, the university is beginning to welcome its first students and trainees from foreign civil aviation authorities. Along with enrollment growth, new courses are created regularly. This creation is often a direct result of an administrative decision, as it is the case when a new rating is introduced. Thus, in 1956 was created the navigation instructor rating, with the opening of the corresponding training. Sometimes a course is simply set to meet a need. The same year 1956, for example, is introduced a speaking techniques course for instructors. Still in 1956, appears the first engineering students called "civilians", that is to say, not officials. The openings of new training graduate courses, of course, is much less frequent than those of new continuous training, which occurs fairly regularly. In 1958, the airline pilots theoretical training course is starting.
Life at ENAC Orly is then punctuated by the yearly trip for all the students, undoubtedly one of the highlights of the studies. It has its share of unexpected, but its rites, as the inevitable reception in full uniform of the university officials and the students by local authorities, on arrival at a new location.
Thinking to move
The period 1960–1975 is a transition period during which two major events occur: the move to Toulouse in 1968 where is now located the main campus and the change in status of the university, from external department of DGAC to a public Administration institution in 1970.
When it is created, the École nationale de l'aviation civile is located on the outskirts of the runways of Paris-Orly Airport. This location near the largest French airport offers many advantages. One of them is the ease of using the airplanes for a variety of activities – navigation flights, promotional trips, ... The other is the neighborhood of many airlines and aircraft manufacturers or related to the aviation industry, whose leaders are likely to be called for lectures, conferences, ...
However, the very rapid growth of traffic at Paris-Orly – the platform of Roissy Charles de Gaulle did not exist yet – results in various disadvantages, particularly the requirement, for the aircraft used by ENAC, to have to be used in an air traffic more and more dense. Therefore, Aéroports de Paris is increasingly reluctant to renew the lease of lands which are ideally located and on which the university operates. Since the early 1960s, there is no doubt that the facilities at Orly are condemned. In the mid-1950s the first projects to implement ENAC on a new location starts to born. All involve riverside cities of Parisian airports. Thus, between 1954 and 1957, are offered Thiais, Rungis, Issy-les-Moulineaux, Les Mureaux ... and even Le Bourget. That's not counting with the requirements of decentralization. In people's minds even before the famous book by Jean-François Gravier, Paris et le désert français (Paris and the French desert), the decentralization is necessary with tenfold strength. The plans for ENAC in the "first crown" of Paris are irremediably condemned, studies are moving towards more peripheral locations. The potential locations are all part of a 150 km radius around the capital, among other Melun, Pontoise, Coulommiers, Étampes, Reims, Évreux, Chartres, Orléans, etc.. Meanwhile, a report dated 20 May 1959, lists the disadvantages of a location too distant from Paris: difficulties of transporting personnel, the possible extension of duration of the courses, increased operating costs,.. It is in this context that René Lemaire analysis, in its report dated 14 June 1960, the possibility of a transfer to Toulouse. It is its aeronautical and university dimensions that have made the choice for this city as a new location (Toulouse 1 University Capitole, created in 1229, is one of the oldest in the world, ENSICA had settled in Toulouse since 1961 and SUPAERO was going to move from Paris to the city). It is on 15 June 1961 that the transfer of the university in Toulouse is the subject of an official decision of Prime Minister Michel Debré. It is confirmed by his successor Georges Pompidou in a letter dated 23 July 1963.
It was in April 1966 that began the construction of new buildings on the campus of Rangueil. The project ended on 19 August 1968 when the staff was invited to attend. The academic year started on 16 September 1968. Five hundred students were expected, including 325 who start their training. These are as follows: 15 air navigation engineering students, drawn largely from École Polytechnique, 70 engineering students in air navigation from classe préparatoire aux grandes écoles, 60 airline pilot students, 100 air traffic controllers students, 40 electronics students, 20 commercial pilot students and 20 flight dispatcher students.
Public administrative institution in Toulouse
Although it thought it is better not to decide about the status of ENAC before the university opened its doors to its new campus, the Commission permanente has taken into consideration the problem of an inadequate legal status. This problem is old : identified shortly after the creation of the university, he has resurfaced many times, as the numerous inspection reports that relate to the management of the institution shown. ENAC is closely followed by its supervisory authority. Inspection reports are occurring at a rapid pace, in average one every two years, sometimes more. The judgment focused on the management of the institution is sometimes severe. These same reports, in the mid-1950s, challenge the lifetime of the university, which was not the case in the previous years. As an example, the report (confidential) of Brancourt Controller dated 12 March 1952, based on the organization and operation of ENAC. We learn that the university has "a lack of doctrine", that "there is a certain tension with the training center of Air France", and even that "ENAC is madness".
In reality, the weaknesses can be largely explained by the difficulties caused by the mismatch between the status of ENAC and the nature of its business, which requires it to provide courses for students and trainees who are not all officials from its supervisory authority, or to use teaching staff from very different origin. The cumbersome process for allocating university budget is in trouble as soon as other types of income are reduced, such as non-public resources. This happens more in the years 1958–1964. In 1962, the management of ENAC is thinking about raising tuition fees, courses prices and fees for customers outside from the Directorate General for Civil Aviation. However, the status of the institution submits the necessary prices adjustments to an approval process so complex that finally leads to paralysis. That's why, another type of status, "public administrative institution", appears much more appropriate. The final decision is taken by Decree No. 70-347 of 13 April 1970, with application from 1 January 1971. Become a public administrative institution, ENAC is endowed with a board of directors. René Lemaire is the first president.
From 1975 a phenomenon is growing. It consists of a slow but inexorable increase of the proportion of engineering students called "civilians" in opposition to the "officials" (civil servants) engineering students. ENAC is becoming a major player in the training for aerospace industry (civilian personnel), while its primary purpose was only the training of officials for direction générale de l'aviation civile. It is true that the existence of students for the private sector is not new at the university : it was in 1956 that are off the first of them. At the end of the 1950s, however, this recruitment is subsidiary and affects only a minority of students. It is primarily intended to offset the disadvantage which consists of the highly fluctuating number of students to serve in the Administration and to prevent the size of successive promotions with a too great disparity. However, this second source tends to become more and more important, to finally become dominant. This results in an overhaul of the teachings. ENAC engineering education, particularly that of the specialty called "facilities" – it focuses on electronics – convince the industrial sectors of electronics and information technology. Without having particularly desired, the university is gradually invested with the role of National Grande Ecole of Engineers.
Industry oriented university, research appeared in 1984, following the law on Higher education which provides that "engineering education [...] has a research activity, basic or applied, " and is organized around four areas: electronics, automation, computer and air transport economy. The university then feels interest for future engineers to learn research methods: while the method of deductive reasoning, for a long time favored by teachers in the classe préparatoire aux grandes écoles and grandes écoles, shows its limitations, the method of inductive reasoning, characteristic of research, appears increasingly better adapted to highly scalable nature of functions performed by nowadays engineers. The most recent manifestation of the growing interest in research at ENAC is the creation of the air transport economics laboratory, which designation reflects the desire to study, in addition to air transport itself, certain related activities such as air navigation.
The mid-1980s saw the emergence of mastères spécialisés programs. They are born for most of them from an industrial demand, including the groupement des industries françaises aéronautiques et spatiales, keen to support the export contracts by training. Indeed, while filling the needs of many French students or professionals, they can train in a relatively short period some foreign executives. The same period saw the diversification of continuing education at the university. The continuing education courses are organized in five main areas: air traffic systems, electronics, computer, aeronautics and languages/humanities.
The international dimension of the university is growing significantly over the 1990s. Its development, however, faces an internal obstacle. It is the heavy burden imposed in the early 1990s : the design and implementation of the new cycle for air traffic controllers. The effort required by the university unables it to develop its international dimension. A novelty in the international activities of ENAC holds in the emergence of a specifically European component. It consists first in the participation in European projects such as EATCHIP (European Air Traffic control Harmonization and Integration Program), then in joining mobility programs for students such as Erasmus or Socrates. Under these programs, the university welcomes a growing number of foreign students. In doing so, it forges close ties with foreign universities, including those of Berlin and Darmstadt in Germany, as well as the one of Tampere in Finland. It is also at that time that ENAC creates the groupement des écoles d'aéronautique (GEA France, in English French aeronautical universities network) with ISAE and ENSMA. The three grandes écoles of this network, in partnership with DGAC and French companies (EADS, Airbus, Thales, Eurocopter, Safran), have created in 2007 the Institut sino-européen d'ingénierie de l'aviation (Chinese European aviation engineering Institute) of Tianjin which provides Masters and Mastères Spécialisés courses for Chinese people. Since 1990, new missions have emerged. Thus, ENAC negotiates new contracts for studies and research abroad. The 2000s are the years of the creation of courses entirely taught in English language and the development of activities focused on air navigation. In 2009, the university and its alumni association organize the first edition of the aeronautical literary festival in Toulouse. In December 2010, ENAC becomes an ICAO center for training in aviation security.
Meanwhile, the university develops new teaching facilities : the air traffic control simulator "CAUTRA", the aerodrome control simulator "AERSIM", an Airbus A320 flight management system simulator, a static model of the CFM 56-5B engine that equips the A321 and the laboratory of telecom networks.
The current director of the university is Marc Houalla, who was SEFA director from 2006 till 1 January 2011. It is the seventh person to be director since the establishment of the university. He was elected in 2008 after the resignation of Gérard Rozenknop, his predecessor. The various directors since inception are given in the following table.
|Guy du Merle (1908–1993)||1948 to 1951||Aerospace engineer, test pilot and writer|
|Gilbert Manuel (1913–2010)||1951 to 1967||Telecommunication engineer · |
|Louis Pailhas (Born in 1926)||1967 to 1982||Aerospace engineer ·  · |
|André Sarreméjean||1982 to 1990||Aerospace engineer|
|Alain Soucheleau||1990 to 1999||Aerospace engineer|
|Gérard Rozenknop (Born in 1950)||1999 to 2008||Aerospace engineer · |
|Marc Houalla (Born in 1961)||since 2008||Aerospace engineer and manager · |
The university is managed by an elected president. The president administers through three councils; the Training and research council, Flight training council and an International relations and development council.
The university has a budget of 126 million euros in 2011, which was an increase of 61% compared to 2010 as a result of its merger with the SEFA and consists of 24 million euros from its own resources and a 102 million euro subsidy.
In consideration for several months, a corporate foundation has been established in September 2011. It aims to guide the training and research council on the changes to be made to the training Ingénieur ENAC (ENAC engineer) and to the corporate partnerships. It consists of technical and human resources managers from aerospace companies such as Air France, Airbus, Aéroport de Paris, Rockwell Collins, Thalès, Aéroconseil,....
- A gliding center at Château-Arnoux-Saint-Auban Airport. · ;
- A maintenance center for the ENAC fleet at Castelnaudary - Villeneuve Airport;
- A campus at the Carcassonne Airport for airline pilot and aerobatics studies;
- A campus at the Grenoble-Isère Airport for VFR and flight instructor training;
- A campus at the Biscarrosse - Parentis Airport for VFR flight training and air traffic controller training;
- A campus at the Saint-Yan Airport which teaches IFR and Multi-engine pilots ·  · ;
- A campus at the Montpellier – Méditerranée Airport for airline pilot and air traffic controller training.;
- A campus at Muret - Lherm Aerodrome for airline pilot and air traffic controller training;
- Melun Villaroche Aerodrome for training of DGAC staff.
The university can provide accommodation. It also has a canteen, cafeteria, library, computer rooms, sports halls including a fitness room, a sports field, a rugby field, five tennis courts, a beach volleyball and a golf driving range.
Aircraft and simulators
- CAP-10 for aerobatics;
- Socata TB-10, Socata TB-20 and Beechcraft Baron 58 for basic and instrument flying. The TB-20 is to be replaced by the Diamond DA40 and Diamond DA42 to replace the Beechcraft Baron 58, but not in a near future.;
- Beechcraft Super King Air and ATR 42 used for calibration.
The Toulouse campus has a number of fixed and full flight simulators (Robin DR400, Socata TB-20, Airbus A320 and Airbus A340). The air navigation department has control tower simulators (at 120 or 360 degrees), a ground-controlled approach and an area control center simulator.
Teaching and research
ENAC provide theoretical training for airline pilot students (EPL) in eight months in its campus of Toulouse, and the practical training of 16 months, is given in the other campuses of the university in Montpellier, Carcassonne, Saint-Yan or Muret. Since 1992, graduates of this training are represented by an alumni association called AGEPAC. In parallel, the university propose a preparation for the Airline Transport Pilot Licence theory (CPATPL) distinguished by its vocation, allow high school students from low income families to become airline pilot, and its level of recruitment (Baccalauréat). After graduation, students can prepare the Commercial pilot licence or going to the course technicien aéronautique d'exploitation (TAE, in English aeronautical operations technician), training also accessible from two other recruitment. With a similar name but preparing for a different job, the curriculum technicien supérieur de l'aviation (TSA, in English higher aviation Technician) allows the integration of the techniciens supérieurs des études et de l'exploitation de l'aviation civile (TSEEAC, in English higher civil aviation operations Technicians) civil servant department or the one of the techniciens supérieurs de l'aviation civils (TSA civils, in English civilian higher aviation Technician).
Going exclusively to the Directorate General for Civil Aviation, the courses of ingénieur du contrôle de la navigation aérienne (ICNA, in English Air traffic controller) and ingénieur électronicien des systèmes de la sécurité aérienne (IESSA, in English Air Traffic Safety Electronics Personnel) are done by the university. the Ingénieur ENAC (IENAC) course trains aerospace engineer in three sectors : electronics and aeronautical telecommunications (L), computer systems and air traffic (S) and aeronautical engineering (T). A small part (10 %), are civil servant engineering students. They become ingénieurs des études et de l'exploitation de l'aviation civile (civil aviation operations engineer) after graduation. Since 1949, ENAC is a specialization university for École Polytechnique graduates. Thus, since 16 April 2002 and the merger of the corps des ingénieurs de l'aviation civile (IAC) (civil aviation engineer department) and thus of géographie et de la météorologie (geography and meteorology) into the Corps of Bridges and Roads, the training of managers of the Directorate General for Civil Aviation has changed. The Corps of Bridges and Roads are trained at the École des Ponts ParisTech and part of the course (about 300 hours) is organized in cooperation with ENAC for students who wants to join the DGAC. Furthermore, the university has created in 2007 a Master's degree in International Air Transport Opération Management (IATOM), in 2011 the course Master's degree in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) supported by the European Commission ·  and in 2012 the training Master's degree in Air Traffic Management (ATM) in partnership with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The Master's degree in Human–computer interaction (IHM) is realized in cooperation with the Paul Sabatier University.
Finally, the École nationale de l'aviation civile provides seven Mastères Spécialisés courses in the fields : airport management (MA), air transport management (MTA) (in partnership with Toulouse Business School), communication – navigation – surveillance and satellite applications for aviation (CNSSAA), aviation safety aircraft airworthiness (ASAA) (in partnership with the Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace and the École de l'Air), air-ground collaborative systems engineering (AGCSE), aviation and air traffic management (AATM) and aerospace project management (APM) (in partnership with the Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace and the École de l'Air).
The alumni of the three Master programs, the Ingénieur ENAC course, as well as those of the Corps of Bridges and Roads and those of the Mastères Spécialisés courses was represented by an association, INGENAC, created in 1988, member of the Conseil national des ingénieurs et scientifiques de France (French scientific and engineer council) and located in Toulouse. On 16 March 2012, INGENAC decided to represent all the alumni of the university and changes its name to « ENAC Alumni ».
By hosting each year more than 7,500 students who participate to more than 600 courses annually organized by the university, with a turnover of 15 million of euros, ENAC is now the largest organization in Europe for aeronautical continuing education. The continuing education of ENAC has been developed in areas which ENAC is well recognized : air traffic, electronics, computer science, aeronautical engineering, aircraft control (instructor), ... These activities are for French and foreign businesses and for personnel of the direction générale de l'aviation civile.
Students of the IENAC course can study at the Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace and at the École nationale supérieure de mécanique et d'aérotechnique as part of the groupement des écoles d'aéronautique, and also at the INPT and at Audencia. Moreover, as part of France AEROTECH, an exchange of third year engineering students is under consideration with Centrale Lyon, Centrale Nantes, ENSEIRB-MATMECA and Arts et Métiers ParisTech.
Abroad, students have access to the Erasmus programme and to Pegasus. In the aerospace engineer course (Ingénieur ENAC course), the university welcomes 8% of foreign students in 2011. Considering all the courses, this rate is 46% in 2010.
The university has also several bilateral agreements, in particular with : Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Florida Institute of Technology, University of California, University of Washington, École africaine de la météorologie et de l'aviation civile. It also trains the staff of the Agence pour la sécurité de la navigation aérienne en Afrique et à Madagascar.
Also, ENAC is a founder of the Institut sino-européen d'ingénierie de l'aviation of Tianjin. On this city, the university provides four Mastères Spécialisés courses at the Civil Aviation University of China ·  only for Chinese students : airport management, aviation safety management – airworthiness, aviation safety management – flight opérations (in partnership with the Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace) and aviation safety management – aeronautical maintenance (in partnership with the Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace).
Finally, in December 2011, the university has signed a partnership with the École des Ponts ParisTech and the Académie internationale Mohammed VI de l'aviation civile to launch, in March 2012 at Casablanca, an Executive MBA in aviation management for aerospace middle management.
Research is a growing business at ENAC. Industry oriented university, it appears in 1984, following the law on higher education which provides that « la formation des ingénieurs...comporte une activité de recherche, fondamentale ou appliquée » (engineer training...contains a research activity, pure or applied). It was originally organized around four areas : electronics, automation, computer and air transport economy. Mid-2009, the research teams was in the following laboratories : automatique – recherche opérationnelle (LARA) (automation – operational research), économie – d'économétrie de l'aérien (LÉÉA) (economy – air econometrics), étude – d'optimisation des architectures des réseaux de télécommunications (LÉOPART) (study – optimization of telecommunications networks architectures) · , électromagnétisme pour les télécommunications aéronautiques (LÉTA) (electromagnetism for aeronautical telecommunications), informatique interactive (LII) (interactive computer), mathématiques appliquées (LMA) (applied mathematics), optimisation du trafic aérien (LOTA) (air traffic optimization) and traitement du signal pour les télécommunications aéronautiques (LTST) (signal processing for the aeronautical telecommunications).
ENAC also has, since 2005, a team specializing in UAVs that maintains and develops "Paparazzi", a free system for automatic control of UAVs, unmanned aerial vehicle laboratory. The infrastructure includes also a planetarium and an air traffic control simulator. ENAC is a founding member of the European academy for aviation safety (EAFAS), network of the key training organizations in the field of air safety. During the Paris Air Show of 2005, the university announces a partnership with ONERA in the fields of air traffic management, air safety, satellite navigation, sustainable development and air transport economy.
End of 2011, the university has established a new research organization that are six transverse programs : UAVs and air traffic management, airports, aircraft and air operations, human-computer interaction, air/ground communications and sustainable development, everything is now based on four laboratories : applied mathematics – optimization – optimal control – control engineering operations research (MAIAA), signal processing – satellite positioning system – electromagnetism – networks (TELECOM), architecture – modeling – engineering of interactive systems (LII) and economics – air transport econometrics (LEEA).
Notes and references
- "Bienvenue sur le site de l' Ecole Nationale de l'Aviation Civile – Formation aéronautique (Ingénieur, Aiguilleur du ciel, Pilote de ligne,...) | ENAC". Enac.fr. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- GEA - Groupement des Grandes Ecoles Aéronautiques et Spatiales
- (French)ENAC Ecole Nationale de l'Aviation Civile
- (French)"Avis n° 2011/04-03 relatif à l'habilitation de l'Ecole nationale de l'aviation civile (ENAC) à délivrer un titre d'ingénieur diplômé" (PDF).
- (French)La formation Ingénieur ENAC reçoit le label EUR-ACE
- (French)"Elargissement du réseau FRANCE AEROTECH et signature d'une charte de gouvernance" (PDF).
- "IAAPS || International Association of Aviation Personnel Schools". Iaaps.info. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- (French)Décret numéro 2007-651 du 30 avril 2007 portant statut de l'École nationale de l'aviation civile
- (French)France Aérotech, un nouveau réseau pour l’aéronautique et le spatial
- (French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.13
- (French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.14
- (French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.15
- (French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.18
- Speech on 3 March 1951
- (French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.25
- René LEMAIRE, 1952
- (French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.28
- (French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.32
- (French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.33
- (French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.34
- (French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.35
- (French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.36
- (French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.45
- "Plaquette de présentation de l'ENAC".
- (French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.55
- (French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.56
- (French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.57
- (French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.58
- (French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.59
- (French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.61
- (French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.62
- (French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.63
- (French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.79
- (French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.81
- (French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.87
- (French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.88
- (French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.89
- (French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.91
- (French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.101
- (French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.102
- (French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.125
- (French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.127
- (French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.130
- (French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.129
- (French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.131
- (French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.133
- (French)Le réseau GEA France
- (French)L'aéronautique forme des cadets en Chine et en Libye
- (French)SAFRAN, PARTENAIRE DES UNIVERSITÉS CHINOISES
- (French)Les formations en partenariat
- (French)Mastères spécialisés
- (French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.146
- (French)Le livre prend son envol au salon de l'ENAC
- (French)Le Centre de formation à la sûreté de l'ENAC agréé par l'OACI
- (French)Book 50 ans d'Énac p.143
- (French)"La France dispose de la plus grande école d'aviation européenne" (PDF).
- (French)Marc Houalla le pilote du changement
- (French)Marc HOUALLA
- Annuaire INGENAC 2010 page 9
- (French)Construction des avions: par Guy Du Merle,... Préface de Paul Dumanois,...
- (French)"La lettre d'information mensuelle de l'École Nationale de l'Aviation Civile" (PDF).
- (French)PAILHAS Louis
- (French)Monsieur Louis PAILHAS
- (French)"L' ÉNAC à ORLY" (PDF).
- (French)L'Énac fête ses cinquante ans
- (French)Gérard ROZENKNOP
- (French)Gérard ROZENKNOP
- (French)Marc Houalla le pilote du changement
- (French)Marc Houalla : un nouveau pilote pour l'École de l'aviation civile
- (French)Organigramme général
- (French)Avis présenté au nom de la commission du développement durable et de l'aménagement du territoire sur la loi de finances pour 2011 (n° 2824), tome IV, écologie, développement et améngament durables : transports aériens
- (French)"Ecologie, développement et aménagement durables" et comptes spéciaux
- (French)Enac : L'école cherche à se doter d'une fondation
- (French)Newsletter ENAC – n°97 / Septembre 2011
- (French)Travaux. Rangueil : l'Enac rénove son campus
- (French)Enac / SEFA : La fusion opérationnelle pour le 1er janvier 2011
- (French)Les cadets Air France dans la nature
- (French)De la voltige de haut niveau
- (French)Formation FI
- (French)L'École nationale d'aviation civile ouvre ses portes
- (French)SEFA 60 Ans au Sommet
- (French)Les 60 ans de Saint Yan
- (French)L'AEROPORT DE SAINT YAN
- (French)Montpellier, entre ciel et mer
- (French)Melun-Villaroche – L'aérodrome restera occupé toute la semaine
- (French)École Nationale de l’Aviation Civile ENAC – Toulouse
- (French)La France dispose de la plus grande école d'aviation européenne
- (French)Tout est bon dans le Salon
- (French)Un simulateur de vol à prix discount
- (French)Lettre mensuelle DSNA numéro 29 – avril 2010
- (French)L'ENAC met en réseau ses simulateurs de vol et de contrôle pour répondre aux besoins de formation et de recherche des entreprises aéronautiques
- (French)Page d'accueil
- (French)Plaquette de présentation de la formation ingénieur ÉNAC
- (French)Décret n°2002-523 du 16 avril 2002 portant statut particulier du corps des ingénieurs des ponts et chaussées.
- (French)Nouveau MASTER Global Navigation Satellite System, (GNSS)
- (French)Création du Master GNSS
- (French)Les formations ingénieur ENAC
- Master of Science in Air Traffic Management
- (French)Master IHM
- (French)ENAC Ecole nationale de l'aviation civile
- (French)La Conférence des Grandes Écoles accrédite le nouveau Mastère Spécialisé AVIATION & AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT de l’ENAC
- (French)Mastère Spécialisé : Aerospace Project Management Mastère Spécialisé : Aerospace Project Management
- (French)Page d'accueil
- Assemblée générale d'ENAC Alumni
- (French)Calendrier des recrutements ÉNAC 2012
- (French)Master IT parcours SIGL
- (French)Enac : Partenariat avec l'Ecole de Commerce de Nantes
- (French)Élargissement du réseau FRANCE AEROTECH et signature d’une charte de gouvernance
- (French)Page des échanges internationaux
- (French)ÉNAC Toulouse dans le palmarès l'Étudiant 2012
- (French)OBJECTIF n° 2 : Faire de l’ENAC une école de référence dans le domaine du transport aérien en France et à l’étranger
- (French)Plaquette de présentation de l'ÉNAC
- (French)L'ÉNAC dans le monde
- Students graduate from Airbus aviation program
- (French)UN NOUVEL EXECUTIVE MBA POUR L’AVIATION
- (French)L'AIAC lance un Executive MBA in Aviation Management
- (French)Book 50 and d'Enac page 125
- (French)Laboratoire de recherche opérationnelle et automatique
- (French)Laboratoire d'économie et d'économétrie de l'aérien
- (French)Présentation (succincte) du LEOPART
- (French)Développement d'algorithmes de planification tactique de trajectoires avion.
- (French)Laboratoire d'Électromagnétisme pour les Télécommunications Aéronautiques (LETA)
- (French)Le laboratoire d'informatique interactive
- (French)Laboratoire de Traitement du Signal pour les Télécommunications Aéronautiques (LTST)
- (French)Page d'accueil
- (French)Page principale
- (French)Partenariat stratégique ÉNAC-ONÉRA dans le domaine de la recherche
- (French)L’ENAC et l’ONERA mettent leurs compétences en commun afin de promouvoir une recherche d’excellence et apporter des solutions à des clients français et étrangers
- (French)Newsletter ENAC – n°98 / Novembre 2011
- Ariane Gilotte, Jean-Philippe Husson and Cyril Lazerge, 50 ans d'Énac au service de l'aviation, Édition S.E.E.P.P, 1999
- Académie nationale de l'air et de l'espace and Lucien Robineau, Les français du ciel, dictionnaire historique, June 2005, 782 p. (ISBN 2-7491-0415-7), p. 626, « Les écoles d'ingénieurs aéronautiques »
- Sandrine Banessy, Le rêve d'Icare – Histoire de l'aviation à Toulouse, Labége, éditions TME, 2006, 95 p. (ISBN 2-7491-0415-7), p. 80 et 81 « Du rêve à la réalité »
- [PDF] Agence d'évaluation de la recherche et de l'enseignement supérieur, « Rapport d'évaluation de l'École nationale de l'aviation civile », September 2010
- GIFAS, Ouvrez grand vos ailes : une formation pour un métier dans l'industrie aéronautique et spatiale, Paris, GIFAS, 2011, 62 p., p. 41
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