Dot (diacritic)

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Dot
Diacritics
accent
acute( ´ )
double acute( ˝ )
grave( ` )
double grave(  ̏ )
breve( ˘ )
inverted breve(  ̑ )
caron, háček( ˇ )
cedilla( ¸ )
circumflex( ˆ )
diaeresis, umlaut( ¨ )
dot( · )
hook, hook above(   ̡   ̢  ̉ )
horn(  ̛ )
iota subscript(  ͅ  )
macron( ¯ )
ogonek, nosinė( ˛ )
perispomene(  ͂  )
ring( ˚, ˳ )
rough breathing( )
smooth breathing( ᾿ )
Marks sometimes used as diacritics
apostrophe( )
bar( ◌̸ )
colon( : )
comma( , )
hyphen( ˗ )
tilde( ~ )
Diacritical marks in other scripts
Arabic diacritics
Early Cyrillic diacritics
titlo(  ҃ )
Gurmukhī diacritics
Hebrew diacritics
Indic diacritics
anusvara( )
chandrabindu( )
nukta( )
virama( )
chandrakkala( )
IPA diacritics
Japanese diacritics
dakuten( )
handakuten( )
Khmer diacritics
Syriac diacritics
Thai diacritics
Related
Dotted circle
Punctuation marks
Logic symbols
Ȧ ȧ Ǡ ǡ
Ċ ċ
Ė ė
Ġ ġ
İ
Ȯ ȯ
Ȱ ȱ
ṡ ẛ
ṿ
Ż ż

When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the Interpunct ( · ), or to the glyphs 'combining dot above' ( ◌̇ ) and 'combining dot below' ( ◌̣ ) which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Central European languages and Vietnamese.

Overdot[edit]

See also: Anusvara

Language scripts or transcription schemes that use the dot above a letter as a diacritical mark:

The overdot is also used in the Devanagari script, where it is called anusvara.

In mathematics and physics, when using Newton's notation the dot denotes the time derivative as in v=\dot{x}. However, today this is more commonly written with a prime or using Leibniz's notation. In addition, the overdot is one way used to indicate an infinitely repeating set of numbers in decimal notation, as in 0.\dot{3}, which is equal to the fraction 13, and 0.\dot{1}\dot{4}\dot{2}\dot{8}\dot{5}\dot{7}, which is equal to 17.

Underdot[edit]

See also: Nukta
  • In Asturian, (underdotted double ll) represents the voiced retroflex plosive, and (underdotted h) the voiceless glottal fricative.
  • In academic notation of Old Latin, ẹ̄ (e with underdot and macron) represents the long vowel, probably //, that developed from the early Old Latin diphthong ei. This vowel usually became ī in Classical Latin.
  • In academic transcription of Vulgar Latin, used in describing the development of the Romance languages, ẹ and ọ represent the close-mid vowels /e/ and /o/, in contrast with the open-mid vowels /ɛ/ and /ɔ/, which were represented as e and o with ogonek (ę ǫ).
  • In O'odham language, (d with underdot) represents a voiced retroflex stop.
  • Vietnamese: The nặng tone (low, glottal) is represented with a dot below the base vowel: ạ ặ ậ ẹ ệ ị ọ ộ ợ ụ ự ỵ.
  • In Yoruba, the dot (or alternatively a small vertical line) is used below the o for an "open-o" sound, the e for an "open-e," and the s for an "sh" sound (ẹ, ọ, ṣ). The marking distinguishes these from the unmarked characters since the sound differences are meaningful.
  • In Igbo, an underdot can be used on i, o, and u to make , , and . The underdot symbolizes a reduction in the vowel height.
  • In Americanist phonetic notation, x with underdot represents a voiceless uvular fricative.
  • Underdots are used in the Rheinische Dokumenta phonetic writing system to denote a voiced s and special pronunciations of r and a.
  • In Marshallese, underdots on consonants represent velarization, such as the velarized bilabial nasal .

The underdot is also used in the Devanagari script, where it is called nukta.

Encoding[edit]

In Unicode, the dot is encoded at:

  • U+0307 combining dot above (HTML ̇)

and at:

  • U+0323 combining dot below (HTML ̣)

There is also:

  • U+02D9 dot above (HTML ˙)

See also[edit]

External links[edit]