Voiceless uvular fricative

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Voiceless uvular fricative
χ
IPA number 142
Encoding
Entity (decimal) χ
Unicode (hex) U+03C7
X-SAMPA X
Kirshenbaum X
Braille ⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠯ (braille pattern dots-12346)
Sound

The voiceless uvular fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is χ, or in broad transcription x although the latter technically represents a velar pronunciation. The sound is represented by (ex with underdot) in Americanist phonetic notation.

For a voiceless pre-uvular fricative (also called post-velar), see voiceless velar fricative.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiceless uvular fricative:

  • Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is uvular, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue (the dorsum) at the uvula.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996) note that "There is (...) a complication in the case of uvular fricatives in that the shape of the vocal tract may be such that the uvula vibrates."[1] See voiceless uvular raised non-sonorant trill for more information.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abkhaz хпа [χpa] 'three' Contrasts with labialized and palatalized forms. See Abkhaz phonology
Adyghe пхъэ About this sound [pχa]  'wood'
Archi хол [χol] 'arm'
Afrikaans[2][3] goed [χut] 'good' May be a voiceless trill [ʀ̥] when word-initial.[2] Some speakers realize it as velar [x].[2] See Afrikaans phonology
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic praхa [pra:χa:] 'flying'
Aleut Atkan dialect hati [hɑtiχ] 'ten'
Arabic Modern Standard[4] خضراء [χadˤraːʔ] 'green (f)' May be velar, post-velar or uvular, depending on dialect.[4] See Arabic phonology
Armenian Eastern[5] խոտ About this sound [χot]  ‘grass’
Avar орх [orχ] 'to lift' Contrasts with a tense form
Bashkir хат [χɑt] 'letter'
Berber Kabyle axxam [aχχam] 'house'
Chilcotin ? [ʔælaχ] 'I made it'
Danish Standard[6] pres [ˈpχæs] 'pressure' Before /ʁ/, aspiration in /pʰ, tˢ, kʰ/ is realized as devoicing of /ʁ/.[7] See Danish phonology
Dutch Netherlandic Scheveningen About this sound [ˈsχeɪ̯vənɪŋə(n)]  'Scheveningen' Many central and western dialects. Corresponds to /ɣ/ and /x/ in standard Netherlandic Dutch. See Dutch phonology
The Hague standaard [ˈstɑndaːχt] 'standard' Traditional allophone of /ʀ/, occurring after vowels before voiceless consonants.
English Many speakers of White South African English[3] gogga [ˈχɒχə] 'insect' Less commonly velar [x], occurs only in loanwords from Afrikaans and Khoisian.[3] See English phonology
Eyak da. [daːχ] 'and'
French proche [pχɔʃ] 'nearby' Allophone of /ʁ/ before or after voiceless obstruent. See French phonology
German Chemnitz dialect[8] Rock [χɔkʰ] 'skirt' In free variation with [ʁ̞], [ʁ], [ʀ̥] and [q].[8] Doesn't occur in the coda.[8] See Chemnitz dialect phonology
Lower Rhine[9] Wirte [ˈvɪχtə] 'hosts' In free variation with [ɐ] between a vowel and a voiceless coronal consonant.
Standard[10] Dach [daχ] 'roof' Appears only after certain back vowels. See German phonology
Swiss mich [mɪχ] 'me' (acc.) Some speakers, for others it's velar [x]. Swiss German makes no distinction between /x/ and /ç/.
Haida ḵ'aláaan [qʼʌlɑ́χʌn] 'fence'
Hebrew[11] אוכל [ʔo̞χe̞l] 'food' May be a trilled fricative instead.[11] See Modern Hebrew phonology
Kabardian хъарзынэ [χaːrzəna] 'well'
Klallam saʔqʷaʔ [sχaʔqʷaʔ] 'salmon backbone'
Lakota ȟóta [ˈχota] 'gray'
Lezgian хат [χatʰ] 'bead' Contrasts with a labialized form
Limburgish Hamont dialect[12] [jɔːχ¹] 'year' Word-final allophone of /ʀ/,[12] can be [ʀ̝̊] instead.[12] See Hamont dialect phonology
Ongota [χibiɾi] 'bat'
Oowekyala [tsʼkʼʷχttɬkt͡s] 'the invisible one here with me will be short'
Nez Perce [ˈχəχɑˑt͡s] 'grizzly bear'
Portuguese Fluminense anarquia [ɐ̃nɐ̞χˈki.ɐ] 'anarchy' In free variation with [x], [ʁ ~ ʀ], [ħ] and [h] before voiceless consonants.
General Brazilian[13] marrom [mɐ̞ˈχõː] 'the color brown' Some dialects, corresponds to rhotic consonant /ʁ/. See Portuguese phonology
Saanich wexes [wəχəs] 'small frogs' Contrasts with a labialized form
Scots nicht [nɪχt][citation needed] 'night'
Seri xeecoj [χɛːkox] 'wolf' Contrasts with a labialized form
Spanish European[14][15] ojo [ˈo̞χo̞] 'eye' May be post-velar instead.[14][16][17] It's also an allophone of /x/ before back vowels and [w][18] for speakers with a velar /x/. It corresponds to [x ~ h] in southern Spain and Latin America.[16] See Spanish phonology
Peruvian
Ponce dialect[19] perro [ˈpe̞χo̞] 'dog' This and [ʀ̥] are the primary realizations of /r/ in this dialect.[19] See Spanish phonology
Swedish Southern sjuk [χʉːk] 'sick' Dialectal. See Swedish phonology
Tlingit tlaxh [tɬʰɐχ] 'very' Contrasts with labialized, ejective and labialized ejective form
Ubykh [χɐpɬɨ́] 'pink' One of ten distinct uvular fricative phonemes. See Ubykh phonology
Uyghur یاخشی yaxshi [jɑχʃi] 'good'
Welsh carchar [ˈkarχar] 'jail' See Welsh phonology
West Frisian berch [bɛrχ] 'mountain' Never occurs in word-initial positions.
Yiddish בוך [bʊχ] 'book' See Yiddish phonology

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), p. 167.
  2. ^ a b c "John Wells's phonetic blog: velar or uvular?". 5 December 2011. Retrieved 30 April 2015. 
  3. ^ a b c Bowerman (2004:939): "White South African English is one of very few varieties to have a velar fricative phoneme /x/ (see Lass (2002:120)), but this is only in words borrowed from Afrikaans (...) and Khoisan (...). Many speakers use the Afrikaans uvular fricative [χ] rather than the velar."
  4. ^ a b Watson (2002), pp. 17, 19-20, 35-36 and 38.
  5. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009), p. 18.
  6. ^ Basbøll (2005:62 and 65–66)
  7. ^ Basbøll (2005:65–66)
  8. ^ a b c Khan & Weise (2013), p. 235.
  9. ^ Hall (1993), p. 89.
  10. ^ Hall (1993:100), footnote 7, citing Kohler (1990)
  11. ^ a b Laufer (1999), p. 98.
  12. ^ a b c Verhoeven (2007), p. 220.
  13. ^ Barbosa & Albano (2004), pp. 5–6.
  14. ^ a b Lyons (1981), p. 76.
  15. ^ Harris & Vincent (1988), p. 83.
  16. ^ a b Chen (2007), p. 13.
  17. ^ Hamond (2001:?), cited in Scipione & Sayahi (2005:128)
  18. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003), p. 258.
  19. ^ a b "ProQuest Document View - The Spanish of Ponce, Puerto Rico: A phonetic, phonological, and intonational analysis". 

Bibliography[edit]