Assamese alphabet

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For ancestral script, see Kamarupi script.
Assamese alphabet
Ôxômiya lipi
অসমীয়া লিপি
Oxomiya Lipi.svg
Type
Languages Assamese
Time period
8th century to the present
Parent systems
Proto-Sinaitic script

The Assamese script[1] is a writing system of the Assamese language. It used to be the script of choice in the Brahmaputra valley for Sanskrit as well as other languages such as Bodo (now Devanagari), Khasi (now Roman), Mising (now Roman) etc. The current form of the script has seen continuous development from the 5th-century Umachal/Nagajari-Khanikargaon rock inscriptions written in an eastern variety of the Gupta script, adopting significant traits from the Siddhaṃ script along the way. By the 17th century three styles of Assamese script could be identified (baminiya, kaitheli and garhgaya)[2] that converged to the standard script following typesetting required for printing. The present standard is identical to the Bengali alphabet except for three letters.[citation needed]

The Buranjis were written during the Ahom dynasty in the Assamese language using the Assamese alphabet. In the 14th century Madhava Kandali used Assamese script to compose the famous Saptakanda Ramayana, which is the first translation of Ramayana in a regional Indian language after Valmiki's Ramayana in Sanskrit. Later, Sankardev used it in the 15th and 16th centuries to compose his oeuvre in Assamese and Brajavali dialect, the literary language of the bhakti poems (borgeets) and dramas.

A coin with Assamese script from Ahom dynasty

The Ahom king Supangmung, (1663–1670) was the first ruler who started issuing Assamese coins for his kingdom. A similar script with minor differences is used to write Maithili, Bengali, Meithei and Sylheti.

History[edit]

Kanai-boroxiboa rock inscription, 1207 CE, shows proto-Assamese script

The Umachal rock inscription of the 5th century evidences the first use of a script in the region. The script was very similar to the one used in Samudragupta's Allahabad Pillar inscription. Rock and copper plate inscriptions from then onwards, and Xaansi bark manuscripts right up to the 18th–19th centuries show a steady development of the Assamese script. The script could be said to develop proto-Assamese shapes by the 13th century. In the 18th and 19th century, the Assamese script could be divided into three varieties: Kaitheli (also called Lakhari in Kamrup region, used by non-Brahmins), Bamuniya (used by Brahmins, for Sanskrit) and Garhgaya (used by state officials of the Ahom kingdom)—among which the Kaitheli style was the most popular, with medieval books (like the Hastir-vidyrnava) and sattras using this style.[3] In the early part of the 19th century, Atmaram Sarmah designed the first Assamese script for printing in Srerampore, and the Bengali and Assamese lithography converged to the present standard that is used today.

Assamese symbols[edit]

Vowels[edit]

The script presently has a total of 11 vowel letters, used to represent the eight main vowel sounds of Assamese, along with a number of vowel diphthongs. All of these are used in both Assamese and Bengali, the two main languages using the script. Some of the vowel letters have different sounds depending on the word, and a number of vowel distinctions preserved in the writing system are not pronounced as such in modern spoken Assamese or Bengali. For example, the Assamese script has two symbols for the vowel sound [i] and two symbols for the vowel sound [u]. This redundancy stems from the time when this script was used to write Sanskrit, a language that had a short [i] and a long [iː], and a short [u] and a long [uː]. These letters are preserved in the Assamese script with their traditional names of hôrswô i (lit. 'short i') and dirghô i (lit. 'long i'), etc., despite the fact that they are no longer pronounced differently in ordinary speech.

Vowel signs can be used in conjunction with consonants to modify the pronunciation of the consonant (here exemplified by , kô). When no vowel is written, the vowel (ô or o) is often assumed. To specifically denote the absence of a vowel, () may be written underneath the consonant.

Vowels
Letter Name of letter Vowel sign with [kɔ] () Name of vowel sign Transliteration IPA
ô (none) (none)
or অ' o (none) or ক' (none) ko ko
a কা akar ka ka
hôrswô i কি hôrswôikar ki ki
dirghô i কী dirghôikar ki ki
hôrswô u কু hôrswôukar ku ku
dirghô u কূ dirghôukar ku ku
ri কৃ rikar kri kri
e কে ekar kê and ke and ke
ôi কৈ ôikar kôi kɔj
û কো ûkar
ôu কৌ ôukar kôu kɔw

Consonants[edit]

The text says: "Sri Sri Môt Xiwô Xinghô Môharaza". The "" is used as "" in this 18th-century manuscript, just as in modern Mithilakshar.

The names of the consonant letters in Assamese are typically just the consonant's main pronunciation plus the inherent vowel ô. Since the inherent vowel is assumed and not written, most letters' names look identical to the letter itself (e.g. the name of the letter is itself ghô). Some letters that have lost their distinctive pronunciation in Modern Assamese are called by a more elaborate name. For example, since the consonant phoneme /n/ can be written , , or (depending on the spelling of the particular word), these letters are not simply called ; instead, they are called dôntiya nô ("dental n"), murdhôinnya nô ("retroflex n"), and niô. Similarly, the phoneme /x/ can be written as talôibbya xô ("palatal x"), murdhôinnya xô ("retroflex x"), or dôntiya xô ("dental x"), the phoneme /s/ can be written using prôthôm sô ("first s") or ditiyô sô ("second s"), and the phoneme /z/ can be written using bôrgiya zô ("row z" = "the z included in the five rows of stop consonants") or ôntôsthô zô ("z situated between" = "the z that comes between the five rows of stop consonants and the row of sibilants"), depending on the standard spelling of the particular word.

Consonants
Letter Name of Letter Transliteration IPA
k k
khô kh
g ɡ
ghô gh ɡʱ
ŋô ng ŋ
prôthôm sô s s
ditiyô sô sh ɕ
bôrgiya zô z z
zhô zh
niô y j
murdhôinnya tô t t
murdhôinnya thô th
murdhôinnya dô d d
murdhôinnya dhô dh
murdhôinnya nô n n
dôntiya tô t t
dôntiya thô th
dôntiya dô d d
dôntiya dhô dh
dôntiya nô n n
p p
phô ph and f ~f
b b
bhô bh and vh
m m
ôntôsthô zô z z
r ɹ
l l
w w
talôibbya xô x and s x~s
murdhôinnya xô x and s x~s
dôntiya xô x and s x~s
h ɦ~h
ক্ষ khyô khy kʱj
ড় dôre ṛô ɾ
ঢ় dhôre ṛô ɾ
য় ôntôsthô yô y j

Consonant clusters[edit]

According to Dr. G. C. Goswami the number of two-phoneme clusters is 143 symbolised by 174 conjunct letters. Three phoneme clusters are 21 in number, which are written by 27 conjunct clusters. A few of them are given hereafter as examples:

Conjunct letters Transliteration [Phoneme clusters (with phonetics)
ক + ক (kô + kô) ক্ক kkô
ঙ + ক (ŋô + kô) ঙ্ক ŋkô
ল + ক (lô + kô) ল্ক lkô
স + ক (xô + kô) স্ক skô
স + ফ (xô + phô) স্ফ sphô
ঙ + খ (ŋô + khô) ঙ্খ ŋkhô
স + খ (xô + khô) স্খ skhô
ঙ + গ (ŋô + gô) ঙ্গ ŋgô
ঙ + ঘ (ŋô + ghô) ঙ্ঘ ŋghô
দ + ঘ (dô + ghô) দ্ঘ dghô
শ + চ (xô + sô) শ্চ ssô
চ + ছ (sô + shô) চ্ছ sshô
ঞ + ছ (ñô + shô) ঞ্ছ ñshô
ঞ + জ (ñô + zô) ঞ্জ ñzô
জ + ঞ (zô + ñô) জ্ঞ zñô
ল + ট (lô + ṭô) ল্ট lṭô
ণ + ঠ (ṇô + ṭhô) ণ্ঠ ṇṭhô
ষ + ঠ (xô + ṭhô) ষ্ঠ ṣṭhô
ণ + ড (ṇô + ḍô) ণ্ড ṇḍô
ষ + ণ (xô + ṇô) ষ্ণ ṣṇô
হ + ন (hô + nô) hnô
ক + ষ (kô + xô) ক্ষ ksô
প + ত (pô + tô) প্ত ptô
স + ত (xô + tô) স্ত stô
ক + ত (kô + tô) ক্ত ktô
গ + ন (gô + nô) গ্ন gnô
ম + ন (mô + nô) ম্ন mnô
শ + ন (xô + nô) শ্ন snô
স + ন (xô + nô) স্ন snô
হ + ন (hô + nô) hnô
ত + থ (tô + thô) ত্থ tthô
ন + থ (nô + thô) ন্থ nthô
ষ + থ (xô + thô) ষ্থ sthô
ন + দ (nô + dô) ন্দ ndô
ব + দ (bô + dô) ব্দ bdô
ম + প (mô + pô) ম্প mpô
ল + প (lô + pô) ল্প lpô
ষ + প (xô + pô) ষ্প spô
স + প (xô + pô) স্প spô
ম + ফ (mô + phô) ম্ফ mphô
ষ + ফ (xô + phô) স্ফ sphô
দ + ব (dô + bô) দ্ব dbô
ম + ব (mô + bô) ম্ব mbô
হ + ব (hô + bô) হ্ব hbô
দ + ভ (dô + bhô) দ্ভ dbhô
ম + ভ (mô + bhô) ম্ভ mbhô
ক + ম (kô + mô) ক্ম kmô
দ + ম (dô + mô) দ্ম dmô
হ + ম (hô + mô) হ্ম hmô
ম + ম (mô + mô) ম্ম mmô

Digits[edit]

Digits
Hindu-Arabic numerals 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Assamese numerals ১০
Assamese names xunyô ek dui tini sari pas sôy xat ath dôx
শূণ্য এক দুই তিনি চাৰি পাচ ছয় সাত আঠ ন (নয়) দহ

Three distinct variations of Assamese script from the Bengali[edit]

Assamese unique characters
Letter Name of letter Transliteration IPA Bengali
r ɹ – bôesunnô rô
w w – (antasthya a)
ক্ষ khyô khy kʰj – juktokkhyô

Though ক্ষ is used in Bengali, it has a different pronunciation. Cha or chha too has different pronunciation

Assamese keyboard layout[edit]

  • Inscript keyboard layout:

Assamese keyboard layout (Inscript)

  • Phonetic keyboard layout:

1000pxAssamese phonetic keyboard layout

  • The unique alphabet identifiers:

The keyboard locations of three characters unique to the Assamese script are depicted below:

750pxThe 3 characters identifiers

  • ITRANS characterisation:

The "Indian languages TRANSliteration" (ITRANS) the ASCII transliteration scheme for Indic scripts here, Assamese; the characterisations are given below:

Keyboard sequence Character
k ক্
kh খ্
g গ্
gh ঘ্
~N ঙ্
N^ ঙ্
ch চ্
Ch ছ্
chh ছ্
j জ্
jh ঝ্
~n ঞ্
JN ঞ্
T ট্
Th ঠ্
D ড্
Dh ঢ্
N ণ্
t ত্
th থ্
d দ্
Keyboard sequence Character
dh ধ্
n ন্
p প্
ph ফ্
b ব্
bh ভ্
m ম্
y য্
r ৰ্
l ল্
v ৱ্
w ৱ্
sh শ্
Sh ষ্
shh ষ্
s স্
h হ্
.D ড়্
.Dh ঢ়্
Y য়্
yh য়্
Keyboard sequence Character
GY জ্ঞ্
dny জ্ঞ্
x ক্ষ্
a
aa
A
i
ii
I
u
uu
U
RRi
R^i
LLi
Keyboard sequence Character
L^i
e
ai
o
au
RRI
R^I
LLI
L^I
.N
.n
M
H
.h
Keyboard sequence Character
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
# ্ৰ
$ ৰ্
^ ত্ৰ
* শ্ৰ

Sample texts[edit]

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights[edit]

Assamese in Assamese alphabet
ধাৰা ১: সকলো মানুহে স্বাধীনভাৱে সমান মর্যদা আৰু অধিকাৰে জন্মগ্রহণ কৰে। সিহঁতৰ বিবেক আৰু বুদ্ধি আছে আৰু সিহঁতে পৰস্পৰ ভাতৃত্বৰে আচৰণ কৰিব লাগে।
Assamese in phonetic romanization
Dhara ek: Xôkôlû manuhê swadhinbhawê xôman môrzôda aru ôdhikarê zônmôgrôhôn kôrê. Xihôtôr bibêk aru buddhi ase aru xihôte pôrôspôr bhatritwôrê asôrôn kôribô lagê.
Assamese in IPA
/dʱaɹa ek | xɔkɔlʊ manuɦɛ sʷadʱinbʱawɛ xɔman mɔɹzɔda aru ɔdʱikaɹɛ zɔnmɔɡɹɔhɔn kɔɹɛ ‖ xihɔtɔɹ bibɛk aɹu buddʱi asɛ aɹu xihɔtɛ pɔɹɔspɔɹ bʱatɹittwɔɹɛ asɔɹɔn kɔɹibɔ laɡɛ/
Gloss
Clause 1: All human free-manner-in equal dignity and with-right birth-take do. Their reason and intelligence exist and they each-other with-brotherhood behave will-do should.
Translation
Article 1: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience. Therefore, they should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Unicode[edit]

The Bengali–Assamese script was added to the Unicode Standard in October 1991 with the release of version 1.0.

The Unicode block for Assamese and Bengali is U+0980–U+09FF:

Bengali[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+098x
U+099x
U+09Ax
U+09Bx ি
U+09Cx
U+09Dx
U+09Ex
U+09Fx
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 9.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The name ăcãmăkṣara first appears in Ahom coins and copperplates where the name denoted the Ahom script (Bora 1981:11–12)
  2. ^ (Bora 1981:53)
  3. ^ (Neog 1980, p. 308)

References[edit]

External links[edit]