Near-close central rounded vowel
|Near-close central rounded vowel|
|IPA number||321 415|
|Unicode (hex)||U+028A U+0308|
The near-close central rounded vowel, or near-high central rounded vowel, is a vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The International Phonetic Alphabet can represent this sound in a number of ways (see the box on the right), but the most common symbols are ⟨ʊ̈⟩ (centralized [ʊ]) and ⟨ʉ̞⟩ (lowered [ʉ]). The third edition of the OED adopted an unofficial extension of the IPA, ⟨ᵿ⟩, that is a conflation of ⟨ʊ⟩ and ⟨ʉ⟩, and represents either [ʊ̈] or free variation between [ʊ] and [ə].
The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".
|IPA vowel chart|
|Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded|
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IPA help • IPA key • chart • chart with audio • view
- Its vowel height is near-close, also known as near-high, which means the tongue is not quite so constricted as a close vowel (high vowel).
- Its vowel backness is central, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a front vowel and a back vowel.
- It's rounded, which means that the lips are rounded rather than spread or relaxed.
|Dutch||Standard Belgian||hut||[ɦʊ̈t] (help·info)||'hut'||The Belgian vowel is somewhat lower, is typically transcribed as /ʏ/ or /œ/, and it corresponds to [ɵ] in the Netherlands. The Netherlandic vowel is typically transcribed /y/, and it corresponds to [y] in Belgium. The latter has been also described as near-front [ʏ]. See Dutch phonology|
|English||Some speakers||euphoria||[jʊ̈ˈfɔə̯ɹiə]||'euphoria'||Reduced form of the vowel /uː/, though may also be realized as [uː] or [ə]. See English phonology.|
|Cockney||good||[ɡʊ̈d]||'good'||Only in some words, particularly good. Otherwise it's near-back [ʊ].|
|Younger, especially female speakers. Other speakers have a less front vowel [ʊ]|
|Southeastern English||May be unrounded [ɪ̈] instead; it corresponds to [ʊ] in other dialects. See English phonology|
|Ulster||Short allophone of /u/.|
|Irish||Munster||giobal||[ˈɟʊ̟bˠɰəɫ̪]||'rag'||Slightly retracted; allophone of /ʊ/ after a slender consonant. See Irish phonology|
|Norwegian||Standard Eastern||gull||[ɡʊ̈l]||'gold'||Somewhat fronted; can be transcribed /ʉ/. See Norwegian phonology|
|Stavanger||ond||[ʊ̈n]||'bad'||Corresponds to [ʊ] in Standard Eastern Norwegian. See Norwegian phonology|
|Russian||ютиться||[jʊ̈ˈtʲit̪͡s̪ə]||'to huddle'||Occurs only between palatalized consonants and in unstressed syllables. See Russian phonology|
- Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003), The Phonetics of English and Dutch, Fifth Revised Edition (PDF), ISBN 9004103406
- Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X
- Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press
- Lass, Roger (2002), "South African English", in Mesthrie, Rajend, Language in South Africa, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521791052
- Lodge, Ken (2009), A Critical Introduction to Phonetics
- Mott, Brian (2011), "Traditional Cockney and Popular London Speech" (PDF), Dialectologia 9: 69–94, ISSN 2013-2247
- Ó Sé, Diarmuid (2000), Gaeilge Chorca Dhuibhne (in Irish), Dublin: Institiúid Teangeolaíochta Éireann, ISBN 0-946452-97-0
- Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetik, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6
- Verhoeven, Jo (2005), "Belgian Standard Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (2): 245, doi:10.1017/S0025100305002173