Macron below

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◌̱
Macron below
Diacritics in Latin & Greek
accent
acute( ´ )
double acute( ˝ )
grave( ` )
double grave(  ̏ )
breve( ˘ )
inverted breve(  ̑ )
caron, háček( ˇ )
cedilla( ¸ )
circumflex( ˆ )
diaeresis, umlaut( ¨ )
dot( · )
hook, hook above(   ̡   ̢  ̉ )
horn(  ̛ )
iota subscript(  ͅ  )
macron( ¯ )
ogonek, nosinė( ˛ )
perispomene(  ͂  )
ring( ˚, ˳ )
rough breathing( )
smooth breathing( ᾿ )
Marks sometimes used as diacritics
apostrophe( )
bar( ◌̸ )
colon( : )
comma( , )
hyphen( ˗ )
tilde( ~ )
Diacritical marks in other scripts
Arabic diacritics
Early Cyrillic diacritics
kamora(  ҄ )
pokrytie(  ҇ )
titlo(  ҃ )
Gurmukhī diacritics
Hebrew diacritics
Indic diacritics
anusvara( )
chandrabindu( )
nukta( )
virama( )
chandrakkala( )
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Syriac diacritics
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Related
Dotted circle
Punctuation marks
Logic symbols
A̱a̱ḆḇC̱c̱

Macron below, U+0331 ◌̱ COMBINING MACRON BELOW, is a combining diacritical mark used in various orthographies.[1]

It is not to be confused with U+0331 ◌̱ COMBINING MINUS SIGN BELOW, U+0332 ◌̲ COMBINING LOW LINE, and U+005F _ LOW LINE. The difference between "macron below" and "low line" is that the latter will result in an unbroken underline when run together, compare a̱ḇc̱ vs. a̲b̲c̲ (of which only the latter should look like abc).

Unicode[edit]

Macron below character[edit]

Unicode defines several characters for "macron below":

macron below
combining spacing
character Unicode HTML character Unicode HTML
◌̱
single
U+0331 ̱ ˍ
letter
U+02CD ˍ
◌͟◌
double
U+035F ͟

There are many similar marks covered elsewhere:

  • Spacing underscores, including
    • U+005F _ LOW LINE (HTML _)
    • U+2017 DOUBLE LOW LINE (HTML ‗)
  • Combining underlines, including
    • U+0332 ◌̲ COMBINING LOW LINE (HTML ̲)
    • U+0333 ◌̳ COMBINING DOUBLE LOW LINE (HTML ̳)
    • U+0347 ◌͇ COMBINING EQUALS SIGN BELOW (HTML ͇);
    • U+FE2B ◌︫ COMBINING MACRON LEFT HALF BELOW (HTML ︫)
    • U+FE2C ◌︬ COMBINING MACRON RIGHT HALF BELOW (HTML ︬)
    • U+FE2D ◌︭ COMBINING CONJOINING MACRON BELOW (HTML ︭)
  • International Phonetic Alphabet mark for retracted or backed articulation:[1]
    • U+0320 ◌̠ COMBINING MINUS SIGN BELOW (HTML ̠)
    • U+02D7 ˗ MODIFIER LETTER MINUS SIGN (HTML ˗)

Precomposed characters[edit]

Various precomposed letters with a macron below are defined in Unicode:

upper case lower case notes
letter Unicode HTML letter Unicode HTML
U+1E06 Ḇ U+1E07 ḇ Used in the transliteration of Biblical Hebrew into the Roman alphabet to show the fricative value of the letter beth (ב). representing [v], or perhaps [β].
U+1E0E Ḏ U+1E0F ḏ Used in the transliteration of Biblical Hebrew, Syriac and Arabic into the Roman alphabet to show the fricative value of the letter dalet (ד), [ð], and in the romanization of Pashto, it is used sometimes to represent retroflex D.
U+1E96 ẖ Sometimes used for Arabic خ ẖāʼ, Hebrew Heth (letter), second-uniliteral-ẖ Egyptian hieroglyph 𓄡. (There is no precomposed upper case equivalent of so it uses a combining macron below instead: .)
U+1E34 Ḵ U+1E35 ḵ Close to Korean ㄲ kk; closest English "shocking"
U+1E3A Ḻ U+1E3B ḻ One possible transliteration of the Tamil letter . Ḻ is used in the Seri language to represent [l], like English l, while unmodified "l" represents [ɬ], like Welsh ll. It is also used in the proposed Unified Alphabet for Mapudungun.
U+1E48 Ṉ U+1E49 ṉ Used in Pitjantjatjara to represent [ɳ], and in Saanich to represent both plain and glottalized [ɴ]. In the romanization of Pashto, it is used sometimes to represent retroflex N.
U+1E5E Ṟ U+1E5F ṟ Used in Pitjantjatjara to represent [ɻ], and sometimes in the romanization of Pashto to represent the retroflex R.
U+1E6E Ṯ U+1E6F ṯ Used in the proposed Unified Alphabet for Mapudungun language representing []. In the romanization of Pashto, it is used sometimes to represent retroflex T. In the romanization of Arabic this letter is used to transcribe the letter Ṯāʾ.
U+1E94 Ẕ U+1E95 ẕ

Note that the Unicode character names of precomposed characters whose decompositions contain U+0331 ◌̱ COMBINING MACRON BELOW use "WITH LINE BELOW" rather than "WITH MACRON BELOW". Thus, U+1E07 LATIN SMALL LETTER B WITH LINE BELOW decomposes to U+0062 b LATIN SMALL LETTER B and U+0331 ◌̱ COMBINING MACRON BELOW.[2]

The Vietnamese dong currency sign resembles a lower case d with a stroke and macron below: U+20AB DONG SIGN (HTML ₫) but is neither a letter nor decomposable.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Combining Diacritical Marks Code Chart, Range: 0300–036F" (PDF). The Unicode Standard. Retrieved 2016-11-21. 
  2. ^ "Latin Extended Additional Code Chart, Range: 1E00–1EFF" (PDF). The Unicode Standard. Retrieved 2016-11-21. 
  3. ^ "Unicode character database". The Unicode Standard. Retrieved 2016-11-21. 

See also[edit]