|The user below has requested that an edit be made to this article for which that user has an actual or apparent conflict of interest.
There are currently 49 requests waiting for review.
Please review the request below and make the edit if it is well sourced, neutral, and follows other Wikipedia guidelines and policies.
Please consider reading the instructions on how to review and submit edit requests, including the parameters used by this template for accepting and declining them.
|The Otaibah Tribe (Arabic: عتيبة)|
|Location||Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Palestine and Syria|
|Descended from||Otaibah b. Guzayah b. D̲j̲usham b. Muʿāwiya b. Bakr B. Hawāzin b. Manṣūr b. ʿIkrima b. K̲h̲aṣafa b. Ḳays b. ʿAylān|
|Parent tribe||Hawazin, Qays|
The Otaibah tribe (Arabic: عتيبة; also spelled Otaiba, Utaybah) is a powerful and great tribe originating from Central Arabia, second only in importance to the tribe ofʿAnazzah, and playing a significant role in the history of Arabia. The Otaibah are traced back to Mudar and belong to the Qays ʿAylān. The modern tribe of Otaibah have replaced older tribal groups such as Hawāzin.
The name Hawzan is the name of a noble tribe answering and corresponding to the modern tribe of Otaibah. The Hawazin are reckoned to the Qays, and, as usual, the fact that they were properly a nation made up of various ancestries disguised by a genealogy in which Hawazin is one of the posterity of Qays ʿAylān.
The large confederacy of Otaibah is a closely knit amalgamation consisting of several original components which probably first came together not more than five or six centuries ago.
According to various studies of genealogy and oral tradition, the Otaibah tribe are the descendants of an ancient tribe in Arabia; the Pre-Islamic tribe of Hawazin. These are descendants of the Qays ʿAylān, that are descendants of Ma'ad son of Adnan or the Adnanites, that are direct descendants of the Ishmaelites or the sons of Ishmael, the elder son of Abraham.
In a historic artifact dating back to the 8h century called 'The Great Ancestry' by the renowned historian and ancient genealogist al-Kalbi, as the only known copy in existence was examined then verified in 1988 by the scholar Mahmud Firdous al Adm, who found parts of the magnificent piece, in the research of the German Werner Caskel, a historian and professor at the University of Berlin since 1946, and the University of Cologne since 1948, the artifact stated:
'Otaibah' is attributed to a standard; one of the banners that belong to the tribe of Hawazin. (The name derives from a man) and he is, Otaibah Ibn Guzayah Ibn Jusham Ibn Ibn Mu'awiyah ibn Bakr Ibn Hawazin. The clans (subdivisions) of Hawazin all united under one of his descendants in an early time during the first centuries; other nations from Hawazin intertwined around him (as well). After most of the clans of Hawazin departed (resettled away) from the land of Hejaz and Najd to the (great and) wide lands of God. To the Sham (the Levant), Iraq, Egypt, the farthermost western lands (North Africa), the lands of Persia, and its surrounding Persian territories. None was left of them except those who could not leave their land and country. Those who remained, formed the largest Hawazin alliance in our present time, and it was named Otaibah. Additionally, the tribes of Bakr and Taghlib also congregated under its well-known banners.
There is no doubt that Adnan is from the lineage of Ishmeal, the only fact that is disagreed upon (or being disputed) is the number of ancestors between the two. Most of what was said (and known) is that the exact number is forty fathers between Adnan and Ishmeal, and this is (largely) based on what is written among the Christian and Jewish people, who know it from Baruch (the Israelite scribe, disciple, and secretary of Jeremah) writer of The Book of Jeremiah.
Ibn Kathir continued:
And Abu Jafar Al Tabari, and others, have concluded that the almighty God had sent to Jeremiah son of Hilkiah a revelation to go to (the King of Babylon) Nebuchadnezzar (II) and inform him that the almighty God has given him authority over the (ancient) people of Arabia (the Qedarites). God then commanded Jeremiah to take Ma'ad son of Adnan (far away from the imminent conflict) on (a horse). So that he, (Ma'ad), will not be afflicted by any resentfulness (since the victims cursed by the evils of Nebuchadnezzar were his people). (As the command stated) For I, the almighty God, will bring forth from him (Ma'ad son of Adnan) a generous prophet, and the last among prophets. Jeremiah accepted the request, and carried Ma'ad to the land (known as) the levant, where he grew among the sons of Israel; the few whom survived after the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem.
The author Ibn Kathir continued:
The scribe who wrote the Book of Jeremiah, Baruch, transcribed the genealogy of his master (and devoted friend) to have it preserved (with the books) in the library of Jeremiah, and to save the lineage of Ma'ad (perhaps for posterity and future generations), but God only knows (the exact truth). This is the reason why Mailk (a primary scholar of prophetic traditions in the 8th century) disliked tracing the lineage to before Adnan (or attempt to name any of forefathers of Adnan, other than Ishmael himself, because no truthful or precise record exists of these ancestors, save the Book of Jeremiah).
In history, the tribes of the north of Arabia descend from Ishmael; however, the descendants of Ishmael are seldom referred to as the Ishmaelites, and more often described as the Qays ʿAylān. On the opposite side, are the southern tribes who descend from Qahtan, also known as Qahtanites. A clear distinction that dates back prior to the birth of Islam, which was also before there was any hostility between the two. It was only during the Umayyad era where the feud began. W. Montgomery Watt, a Scottish historian, stated "so as to constitute something like a political party" the tribes started to differentiate the people of Arabia along the lines of either Qays ʿAylān, or the other group, Qahtan. The rivalry led to open conflict during the Second Muslim Civil War (680–692).
The people of Arabia could be one of the most important nations specifically in the preservation of bloodlines and lineage. Each person, past and present, bears information about his or her heritage, and would record the facts for future generations. Even if that would be in poetry. Genealogy for the tribe of Otaibah, like many other tribes of Arabia, is significantly important as it has been for centuries. Most of these examinations and oral traditions, which date back to the Middle Ages and beyond, are the center point of pride for the people that are accredited the name of Otaibah by birth.
The lineage of the Otaibah tribe among many scholars may vary in exact details, such as attributing Otaibah exclusively to the sons of the Banu Sa'd ibn Hawazin, while others claim that they are composed solely of the Banu Jusham ibn Muawiya ibn Bakr ibn Hawazin, or are strictly of the Banu 'Amir ibn Sa'sa'ah ibn Mu'awiyah ibn Bakr ibn Hawazin. However, all accounts do agree that the lineage is traced back to Hawazin son of Mansur son of Ikrimah son of Khasafah son of Qays ʿAylān son of Mudar son of Nizar son of Ma'ad son of Adnan.
Ottoman Empire Era - Late 16th to Early 20th Century
In the 16th century, the Ottomans added the Red Sea and Persian Gulf coast to the Empire. It then claimed rule over its interior with the fluctuating strength or weakness of the central authority.
During the 18th century, the Mutayr with the aid of the Qahtan initiated a long series of wars against the Anazzah for the pasturages of central Najd, and they were successful in forcing them out northwards. However, they were both superseded by the Otaibah, who remain to this day numerically the largest tribe of central Najd.
For a long time during the late 18th and early 19th, Otaibah and Ḥarb were counterparts in the actual struggle lasting for centuries among the Sharifs of Mecca and the ruling families of Ibn Rashid and Ibn Saud for domination of Najd. The entire history of the Otaibah in the 19th and early 20th centuries is a reflection of the various wars between the powers in Najd and Hejaz, who all endeavoured to win this important tribe over to their interests.
In 1816, the Wahhabi kingdom was vanquished by the Egyptians, and their leader Ibrahim Mohammed Ali persuaded the Otaibah and various Anazzah tribes, by threats and bribes, to assist him against Abdullah bin Saud. Between 1842 and 1872 no less than nine distinct powers were at war with one another in Najd, among them the Otaibah. In 1872, the principal chief of the Otaibah, Muslit bin Rubayan, ravaged western settlements of Riyadh, immediately after which Saud bin Faisal made a raid as an act of retaliation into their territory; he had to retire defeated and was himself critically wounded. In 1881 and 1882, the Otaibah had plundered camps of the Harb tribes who were subjects of Ibn Rashid, and they also attacked the latter in the summer of 1883 but were completely defeated. In the year 1897, members of the house of Ibn Saud joined the Grand Sharif of Mecca, Awn Al-Rafiq, and with the aid of Otaibah undertook campaigns against the possessions of Ibn Rashid.
The tribal war between Otaibah and the Ibn Rashid was initiated after a comment made by the poet Mukhlad Al-Qthami of Otaibah; who stated to the leader of the Rashidi dynasty Muhammed Ibn Abdullah at his court, translated from a nomadic dialect of Arabic. .
- We are the Otaibah. Oh, how many warriors we've slain.
- Because our legions are a steady team.
The Early 20th Century
In the early 20th century, the Ottoman Empire continued to control over most of the peninsula. However, Arabia had its own rulers; a group of tribal chiefs in Najd and its surrounding areas, and the Sharif of Mecca having domain over the Hejaz. The people of Otaibah cooperated with Al Saud of Najd, but tended to side with the Sharifs of Mecca, who used to take refuge with the tribe in time adversity.
During World War I in 1915, Ibn Saud began an ambitious plan to settle the nomadic tribes within his control, which included at the time Najd and the Eastern coast of Arabia. This was brought together with the indoctrination of these tribes into religious ideals imposed by Muhammad ibn Abd Al-Wahhab, as the nomadic Arab Bedouin, including all of the Otaibah tribe, were not considered to be religious. In 1916, with the encouragement and support of Britain, the Sharif of Mecca Hussein bin Ali, led a revolt against the Ottoman Empire to create a united state. The Arab Revolt of 1916 to 1918 failed, but the Allied victory in World War I resulted in the end of Ottoman control of Arabia.
The founder ʿAbd ai-ʿAzīz began to establish settlements called al-Hid̲j̲ar (sing, hid̲j̲ra ), who was then followed by Sultan of Nad̲j̲d, to promote the sedentarization of the people of Saudi Arabia during the first quarter of this century. These came along with an accompanying political, military, and religious movement called the Ikhwan, or translated from Arabic, the 'Brothers.' The founder ʿAbd ai-ʿAzīz attempted to revive the old religious enthusiasm among the rarely pious, virile, but often unpredictable people of the tribes as a starting point for the reclamation and the control of his domain.
The spread of religious enlightenment through the muṭawwiʿūn (preachers) prepared for the idea of an agricultural, settled life, and the first and most successful hid̲j̲ra, or settlement, was established in 1912 by the tribe of Muṭayr. This settlement was soon followed by another by the tribe of Otaibah. The inhabitants constituted the fraternity of Ik̲h̲wān.The growth of an important cause alongside new religious regulations, standards, and principles, helped nomadic people to leave the desert-dwelling culture behind, and for the first time start to live in groups giving birth to multiple societies. A fact that contributed significantly in the modernization of these nomadic communities in the 21st century. This was a tremendously critical service King Abdul-Aziz has completed successfully for the people. The conflict with both Āl Ras̲h̲īd of Ḥāʾil and the Sharifs in Mecca drove the process of settlement further, and eventually there were about 130 such colonies.
Numerous colonies were established across Arabia. A serious endeavor was made to bring different tribes together in a single hid̲j̲ra, or settlement, to put an end to feuding; however, most of the settlements became affiliated with specific tribes alone. In lists recorded by Oppenheim and Caskel which might give some insight on the exact amount of these settlements according to each tribe: Ḥarb 27, Otaibah 19, Muṭayr 16, Ajman 14, S̲h̲ammar 9, and Qahtan 8. The hid̲j̲ras were gathered throughout Najd and the Eastern coast of Arabia. In the south they reached the edges of al-Rubʿ al-K̲h̲ālī desert, and in the north the Syrian Desert. Towards the west they did not extend further than the high mountains of Hejaz and Asir.
Sultan ibn Bjad the chieftain of the Otaibah tribe, and Eqab bin Mohaya, were influential leaders that belonged to the Otaibah tribe. They enlisted in the Ikhwan movement, and shortly after joining, both became invaluable leaders in the cause. They were then deployed by Ibn Saud against rivals in the region; where they led tribal forces in the occupation of Al-Hasa, Ha'il, Al-Baha, Jizan, Asir, Ta'if, Mecca, and Jeddah.
This was considered to be a significant contribution in gaining control of the Hejaz region in particular. However, after several victories some factions of the movement grew resentful over policies that appeared to favor modernization and an increase of non-Muslim foreigners in the region. The movement was successful in arousing the religious passion of its members that some of the Ik̲h̲wān became more zealous than the founder himself and turned against him in rebellion.
Sultan ibn Bjad joined leaders from other tribes in revolt on December 1928. Eqab bin Mohaya, on the other hand, led his legions of the Otaibah tribe in the aid of King Abdul Aziz to vanquish the threat. Eqab of Otaibah and his followers were not the only ones from the tribe to enter into a strong alliance with the young king, since the revolution was doomed at the moment when an important main section of Otaibah, called Roug, under the command of ʿUmar Ibn Rubayʿān chose to be loyal to Ibn Saud.
In 1926, the inhabitants of Najd and Hejaz have given formal allegiance ( bayʿa ) to ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, accepted the title of King ( malik ) in 1927; he ruled the central and provincial governments, authorized by Islamic legal scholars or ʿulamāʾ unrestricted by any elected or appointed bodies and limited only by Islamic law or S̲h̲arīʿa. Moreover, the centralization policies encapsulated chiefdom practices among the tribes up until the 1960, and did not result in formal recognition of such practices as a norm in the presence of governmental entities. These were not being brought under the bureaucratic control. Subjugation of opposition was the clearest detail of centralization. Factions of the Ikhwan tribal groups, markedly the Muṭayr, parts of the Otaiba and the Ajman, supported the preservation of their own chiefdom systems, including the tribes’ own choice of markets, raiding, and political affiliations, but were defeated in a series of battles during 1929-30. Any kind of political opposition, including the formation of political parties, were subsequently forbidden. Furthermore, centralization was apparent in economic change beginning in 1924 where king ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz began to use civilian taxation and pilgrimage income to build a central treasury. Also, laid down during this period was the forbidding of raids into neighbouring states.
In 29 March 1929, the revolution was finally suppressed at the Battle of Sabilla. Following the crushing defeat, another battle took place between a major branch of the Otaibah tribe, Barka, against the only other major branch in the tribe of Otaibah, Roug. The rebellious Barka branch fled under Sultan ibn Bjad, one of three leaders of the rebels. He and his men were eventually caught and defeated at D̲j̲abala by ʿUmar Ibn Rubayʿān, in command of loyal, to the king, elements of al-Roug of Otaibah. Sultan ibn Bjad was later taken prisoner. In the final crushing of the Ik̲h̲wān rebellion in 1930, some settlements were completely destroyed. The King then set out to create the nucleus of a modern, standing army which proved its worth in establishing peace.
In 23 September 1932, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was established in a successful unification of a large portion of Arabia. Its founder began to arrange the affairs of the inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula that lived in his domain; he implemented powerful polices in favor of its people. Among the tribes, whom in the past centuries were engaged in a constant, unending, and needless wars, the founder has accomplished an impossible, inconceviable task. He has finally strengthened the bonds of unity among the tribes, and sustained peace between all.
The Middle of 20th to the Early 21st Century
An event that gained much popularity among the tribe of Otaibah occurred in the first few years after the establishment of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The country allocated a facility called the House of Supplies which provided food supplies for the people. A person of bad character, an African slave, by the name of Khramis managed the location. His questionable behavior was evident in the fact that he treated men poorly, insulting the pride of the visitors by regularly using a large stick to beat those who considered themselves guests. The poet Hamad Al Rukhees of the Shammar tribe wrote the following poem immortalizing the event.
- Oh (my) creator bestow ease (upon me) and (let me) leave Khramis behind at his door (standing idle with no purpose)
- Certainly (our future) days will (soon) be relieved as the free (falcon) gets full out of its own claw (hard effort and work).
This story illustrates the importance of self-reliance and patience; it was one of the last coherent stories uttered by General Hmood Dawi Al-Qthami; a prominent member of the tribe of Otaibah who wrote famous books on genealogy. Furthermore, one could not mention the history of any tribe in the Arabian Peninsula during the late 20th century without mentioning His Royal Highness King Faisal Al Saud, God rest his soul. Evidenced in a multitude of nomadic poems, he was greatly supported by the Otaibah tribe during his reign and after.
A popular event between the tribe and his majesty happened when he was the Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia (between 1953-1964). As the old story goes, it occurred when people from the tribe of Otaibah were fighting with the Mutayr tribe over a large land near the city of Ta'if. One year, during the season of spring, a committee was set by the government to legally prohibit both tribes from occupying the land until the issue was resolved. His majesty went to the location himself since he felt a need for a conflict resolution between the two tribes. While he was there, his majesty found a roaming shepherd, from the Otibah tribe, herding sheep and camel. He then called upon the shepherd, and asked him: "Who are you?". The shepherd replied: "I am (so-and-so) of the Otaibah tribe". The then crown prince replied: "Very good. Take these verses of mine to your people, and they will know of its meaning".
- Oh son of Otaibah, what say him (when) his mother's cheek (the land) was being defiled (by conflict)
- In the core of all knowledge are solutions, (Therefore) take this message, take it (to them).
In this poem, the young crown prince emphasized that the land (i.e their mother) was being defiled, spoiled, and violated with such a conflict, and how can the tribe of Otaibah stand by something that has so many solutions, or could be resolved easily. The shepherd responded: "Ok. I will take it to them, but I do not know who it is from (or who is its sender)". The crown prince replied: "The person speaking to you is Faisal Ibn Abdul Aziz". The shepherd replied: "A name significantly acknowledged and greatly praised; however, please take its response (in poem) at this moment." 
- Oh, greetings to the greatest of all solutions (manifested) If (we knew) Faisal was against it (the conflict)
- We (the Otaibah) would evacuate the land in (an event of) evacuation, take (accept) this message, take (accept) it
- And my mother (the land) is like an elderly woman, roses (gentle in essence), white (unspoiled) and clean is her cheek
- And (along side) your mother (the land of Arabia), succeeded only by the strongest of King, take (accept) this message, take (accept) it. 
The conflict ended soon after. Perhaps by an effort from the tribe of Mutayr, whom have probably heard of the story and abandoned it first. Decades later in the early 21st century, that same land is inhibited mostly by people of the Otaibah tribe. This story, which was recited by many old folks who remember the incident, demonstrates how his majesty was also unconditionally loved and highly respected among every other tribe, and not only the Otaibah. A majority across the Middle East and North Africa felt the same way; for he inspired innovation in the archaic perspectives of the old, which desperately needed to be changed. He was the first to debate the effectiveness of democratic governments for his people; moreover, he was known during his life to be kind and just to tribes, clans, families, and individuals foreign and domestic. King Faisal worked with an endless undying desire to help all people. In a memorable historic speech at the Third Conference of the Ministry of Exterior he said: "Our Islamic law necessitates that we do good among ourselves as well as the entire human species alike". One of his greatest achievements was making the cultural evolution of the inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula possible; for instance, he strongly advocated advancements in freedom, technology, trade, and especially education. It is widely accepted that the people consider themselves to be forever indebted to him, and to his children who carried out his legacy, since it was his aspirations that transformed the savage, the violent, the unknowledgeable, and illiterate into a significantly important civilization in the world.
In the early 21 century many people from the tribe of Otaibah in Saudi Arabia have enlisted in the Armed Forces of Saudi Arabia. The presence of the tribe is particularly prominent in the Saudi National Guard.
Branches of the Tribe
The Otaibah tribe is subdivided into three major branches: Barga (Arabic: برقا), Roug (Arabic: روق) and Bano Saad (Sons of Saad) (Arabic: بنو سعد). Each major branch is divided into many clans, each clan is divided into various families.
Barga is a main branch of the tribe, and its clans and families are the following:
- Shamlah (Arabic: شملة), is a sub-branch and its clans are divided into:
- Al Nufaei (Arabic: النفيعي), a clan that includes the families of:
- Al Musa'aed (Arabic: المساعيد)
- Al Nakheshah (Arabic: النخشة)
- Thoi Mufarrej (Arabic: ذوي مفرج)
- Thoi Ziad (Arabic: ذوي زياد)
- Thoi Zaid (Arabic: ذوي زايد)
- Al Mahaya (Arabic: المحايا)
- Al Besaisah (Arabic: البسايسه)
- Al Feletah (Arabic: الفلتة)
- Al Salaga (Arabic: السلاقى)
- Al A'elah (Arabic: العيلة)
- Al Rrwais (Arabic: الرويس), a clan that includes the families of:
- Al Mugati (Arabic: المقاطي), a clan that includes the families of:
- Al Tefehi (Arabic: الطفيحي), a clan that includes the families of:
- Al Ababeed (Arabic: العبابيد)
- Al Ja'adah (Arabic: الجعدة)
- Al Husanah (Arabic: الحصنة)
- Al Wethaneen (Arabic: الوذانيين)
- Al Swoatah (Arabic: السوطة)
- Alhulifat (Arabic: الحليفات)
- Al Hoboos (Arabic: الحبوس)
- Al Hulasah (Arabic: الحلسة)
- Al Humayah (Arabic: الحمية)
- Al Wegadeen (Arabic: الوقادين)
- Al Jomaiyat (Arabic: الجميعات)
- Al Nufaei (Arabic: النفيعي), a clan that includes the families of:
- Eial Mansour (Sons of Mansour) (Arabic: عيال منصور) is a sub-branch, and its clans include:
- Al-Qthami (also spelled Al-Quthami, Al-Qathami or Al Guthami) (Arabic: القثامي), a clan that includes the families of:
- Al Khullad (Arabic: الخلد)
- Al Ghashashmah (Arabic: الغشاشمة)
- Al Dahasah (Arabic: الدهسة)
- Thoi Dariweesh (Arabic: ذوي درويش)
- Al Tawali (Arabic: الطوالع)
- Thoi Banya (Arabic: ذوي بنية)
- Al Jinadibh (Arabic: الجنادبة)
- Al Marahia (Arabic: المراهية)
- Thoi Dariweesh (Arabic: ذوي درويش)
- Al Dwaniah (Arabic: الدوانية)
- Al Jabarah (Arabic: الجبرة)
- Al Zooran (Arabic: الزوران)
- Al-Osaimi (Arabic: العصيمي), a clan that includes the families of:
- Al Da'ajani (Arabic: الدعجاني), a clan that includes the families of:
- Al Dughailabi (Arabic: الدغيلبي), a clan that includes the families of:
- Al Shaibani (Arabic: الشيباني), a clan that includes the families of:
- Thoi Saleh (Arabic: ذوي صالح)
- Thoi Khalifah (Arabic: ذوي خليفة)
- Garafi (Arabic: قرافي)
- Al Fihidat (Arabic: الفهيدات)
- Thoi Murshid (Arabic: ذوي مرشد)
- Al Dimokh (Arabic: الدموخ)
- Thoi Najim (Arabic: ذوي نجم)
- Ibn Musaifir (Arabic: ابن مسيفر)
- Thoi Owad (Arabic: ذوي عواد)
- Al Zibajiah (Arabic: الزبالجة)
- Thoi Amr (Arabic: ذوي عمرو)
- Al Fowareen (Arabic: الفوارين)
- Al-Qthami (also spelled Al-Quthami, Al-Qathami or Al Guthami) (Arabic: القثامي), a clan that includes the families of:
Roug is a main branch of the tribe, and its clans and families are the following:
- Talhah (Arabic: طلحة) is a sub-branch, and its clans include:
- Al Asa'adah (Arabic: الأساعدة)
- Al Hufah (Arabic: الحفاة)
- Al Sumarrah (Arabic: السمرة)
- Al Hanateesh (Arabic: الحناتيش)
- Al Gharbiah (Arabic: الغربية)
- Al Karashemah (Arabic: الكراشمة)
- Al Ddalabehah (Arabic: الدلابحة)
- Al Ghawariah (Arabic: الغوارية)
- Al Theebah (Arabic: الذيبة)
- Al Hamameed (Arabic: الحماميد)
- Al Hezman (Arabic: الحزمان)
- Al Maghaibah (Arabic: المغايبة)
- Thoi Zarrag (Arabic: ذوي زراق)
- Al Ghadhabeen (Arabic: الغضابين)
- Al Barqawi
- Al Awazem (Arabic: العوازم)
- Mezhem مزحم is a sub-branch, and its clans include:
The Bano Saad is a main branch of the tribe, and its clans and families are the following:
- Ma'ad son of Adnan, the father of all Ishmaelite Arabian people, mentioned a great number of times in Pre-Islamic poetry, and in the Seven Mu'allaqat. The sacred pagan literature that used to be displayed on the walls of holiest of holy sites from ancient Pagan Arabians and Muslims, The Holy Kaaba in Mecca.
- Halimah Al Sadiah foster-mother of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
- Dorayd bin Al Soma, a poet and a knight who is said in Arabian folklore to have never been defeated in battle.
- Sultan bin Bajad, a leader in the Ikhwan movement, and chieftain of Otaibah in the early 20th century.
- Eqab bin Mohaya, a formidable leader in the Ikhwan movment, and ally of his majesty, the founder of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
- General Hmood Dawi Al-Qthami Ph.D, served in the Directorate of Public Security, part of the Ministry of Interior, and wrote popular books on Arab genealogy that supported information in this article.
- Mutlaq Hamid Al-Otaibi a poet.
- The Settlements of Otaibah
- The Battles of Otaibah
- Oral Traditions
- Banu Sa'd
- Banu Jusham
- Banu 'Amir
- Qays ʿAylān
- Tribes of Arabia
- Kindermann, H. and Bosworth, C.E., Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. (2012). “ʿUtayba”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. ISBN 9789004161214.
- Rentz, G., Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. (2012). “al-Ḥid̲j̲āz”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. ISBN 9789004161214.
- Robertson, Smith W. (1907). Kinship And Marriage In Early Arabia. Adam And Charles Black. p. 160. ISBN 0404159710.
- Robertson, Smith W. (1907). Kinship And Marriage In Early Arabia. Adam And Charles Black. p. 260. ISBN 0404159710.
- Rentz, G., Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs (2012). “Ḏj̲azīrat al-ʿArab”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. ISBN 9789004161214.
- Parolin, Gianluca P. (2009). Citizenship in the Arab World: Kin, Religion and Nation-State. p. 30. ISBN 978-9089640451. "The ‘arabicised or arabicising Arabs’, on the contrary, are believed to be the descendants of Ishmael through Adnan, but in this case the genealogy does not match the Biblical line exactly. The label ‘arabicised’ is due to the belief that Ishmael spoke Hebrew until he got to Mecca, where he married a Yemeni woman and learnt Arabic. Both genealogical lines go back to Sem, son of Noah, but only Adnanites can claim Abraham as their ascendant, and the lineage of Mohammed, the Seal of Prophets (khatim al-anbiya'), can therefore be traced back to Abraham. Contemporary historiography unveiled the lack of inner coherence of this genealogical system and demonstrated that it finds insufficient matching evidence; the distinction between Qahtanites and Adnanites is even believed to be a product of the Umayyad Age, when the war of factions (al-niza al-hizbi) was raging in the young Islamic Empire."
- Reuven Firestone (1990). Journeys in Holy Lands: The Evolution of the Abraham-Ishmael Legends in Islamic Exegesis. p. 72. ISBN 9780791403310.
- Göran Larsson (2003). Ibn García's Shuʻūbiyya Letter: Ethnic and Theological Tensions in Medieval al-Andalus. p. 170. ISBN 9004127402.
- Al-Qthami, Hmood (1985). North of Hejaz, A Directory of Tribes and Governments. Jeddah: Dar Al Bayan.
- Al Rougi, Hindees. "The Tribe of Otaibah".
- Abid, Abdullah (2015). The Ancestory of the Tribe of Otaibah.
- "Arabia in Ancient History". Centre for Sinai. Retrieved 2009-04-16.
- Dhadha, Zuhair (November 30, 2017). "The History of the Book 'The Great Ancestry' of Ma'ad and Yemen".
- Crone 1994, p. 3.
- Watt 1991, p. 834.
- Crone 1994, pp. 2–3.
- Patai, p. 15.
- Crone 1994, p. 2.
- Haykal, Muhammad Husyan (1968). The Life of Muhamad. India: Millat Book Center. p. 47.
- Mubarakpuri, Safiur Rahman (1979). The Sealed Nectar. Saudi Arabia: Dar-us-Salam Publications. p. 58.
- Bowen, p. 68
- Nikshoy C. Chatterji (1973). Muddle of the Middle East, Volume 2. p. 168. ISBN 0-391-00304-6.
- William J. Bernstein (2008) A Splendid Exchange: How Trade Shaped the World. Grove Press. pp. 191 ff
- Ingham, B, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs (2012). “Muṭayr”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. ISBN 9789004161214.
- Marr, Phebe, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. (2012). “Ḍariyya”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. ISBN 9789004161214.
- Kindermann, H. and Bosworth, C.E., Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs (2012). “ʿUtayba”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. ISBN 9789004161214.
- David Murphy (2008). The Arab Revolt 1916–18: Lawrence Sets Arabia Ablaze. pp. 5–8. ISBN 978-1-84603-339-1.
- Madawi Al Rasheed (1997). Politics in an Arabian Oasis: The Rashidis of Saudi Arabia. p. 81. ISBN 1-86064-193-8.
- Ewan W. Anderson; William Bayne Fisher (2000). The Middle East: Geography and Geopolitics. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-415-07667-8.
- H. Kindermann-[C.E. Bosworth]. "'Utayba." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2007.
- Spencer Tucker; Priscilla Mary Roberts (205). The Encyclopedia of World War I. p. 565. ISBN 978-1-85109-420-2.
- Albert Hourani (2005). A History of the Arab Peoples. pp. 315–319. ISBN 978-0-571-22664-1.
- Kamal, ʿAbd al-Hafez, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs (2012). “al-Hid̲j̲ar”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. ISBN 9789004161214.
- Rentz, G., Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. “al-Ik̲h̲wān”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. ISBN 9789004161214.
- Robert Lacey (2009). Inside the Kingdom. pp. 15–16. ISBN 978-0-09-953905-6.
- Commins, David (2009). The Mission and Saudi Arabia. I.B.Tauris. p. 81.
The significance of Ikhwan military power for the success of Ibn Saud's conquests is another disputed point.
- Kostiner, J., Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs (2012). “al-Suʿūdiyya, al-Mamlaka al-ʿArabiyya”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. ISBN 9789004161214.
- "Battle of Sibilla (Arabian history) - Encyclopædia Britannica". Britannica.com. 1929-03-29. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Buhl, F. and Headley, R.L, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. (2012). D̲j̲abala”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. ISBN 9789004161214.
- "History of Arabia". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- "" لا بد الأيــام منفــرجـه ... والطيــر يشبــع بمخــلابـه " [الارشيف] - منتديات شبكة الإقلاع ®". www.vb.eqla3.com (in Arabic). Retrieved 2017-12-12.
- "قصة العتيبي والملك فيصل - منتديات شبكة قبيلة الغنانيم الرسمية". www.vb.gnanim.com (in Arabic). Retrieved 2017-12-12.
- Commins, David (2009). The Mission and Saudi Arabia. I.B.Tauris. p. 92.
Rank and file Ikhwan fighters formed units in a new military institution, initially the White Army, eventually the National Guard ...