(143651) 2003 QO104

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(143651) 2003 QO104
Discovery [1]
Discovered byNEAT
Discovery siteHaleakala Obs.
Discovery date31 August 2003
Designations
MPC designation(143651) 2003 QO104
2003 QO104
NEO · PHA[1][2]
Apollo[2] · Amor[1]
Orbital characteristics[2]
Epoch 23 March 2018 (JD 2458200.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc36.55 yr (13,349 d)
Aphelion3.2551 AU
Perihelion1.0151 AU
2.1351 AU
Eccentricity0.5246
3.12 yr (1,140 d)
297.32°
0° 18m 57.24s / day
Inclination11.608°
58.224°
183.53°
Earth MOID0.0042 AU (1.6362 LD)
Physical characteristics
Mean diameter
1.88 km (calculated)[3]
2.29±0.54 km[4]
2.31 km[5]
113.3±0.1 h[6]
114±3 h[7]
114.4±0.1 h[8][a]
0.13[5]
0.137±0.140[4]
0.14±0.12[9]
0.20 (assumed)[3]
Q[10] · S (assumed)[3]
B–V = 0.903±0.008[11]
V–R = 0.454±0.011[11] 
V–I = 0.797±0.019[11]
B–V = 0.880±0.020[12]
V–R = 0.450±0.020[12]
16.0[2][3][5]
16.48±0.43[13]

(143651) 2003 QO104, provisional designation 2003 QO104, is a stony asteroid, slow rotator and suspected tumbler on a highly eccentric orbit, classified as near-Earth object and potentially hazardous asteroid of the Amor and Apollo group, respectively. It was discovered on 31 August 2003, by astronomers of the Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking program at the Haleakala Observatory in Hawaii, United States.[1] The Q-type asteroid has a rotation period of 114.4 hours and possibly an elongated shape. It measures approximately 2.3 kilometers (1.4 miles) in diameter and belongs the largest potentially hazardous asteroids known to exist.[14]

Orbit and classification[edit]

2003 QO104 is a member of the Apollo group of asteroids, which are Earth-crossing asteroids. They are the largest group of near-Earth objects with approximately 10 thousand known members. As it just grazes the orbit of Earth, the Minor Planet Center (MPC), groups it to the non-Earth crossing Amor asteroids.[1]

It orbits the Sun at a distance of 1.015–3.3 AU once every 3 years and 1 month (1,140 days; semi-major axis of 2.14 AU). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.52 and an inclination of 12° with respect to the ecliptic.[2] The body's observation arc begins with a precovery taken at the Siding Spring Observatory on in July 1981, more than 18 years prior to its official discovery observation at Haleakala.[1]

Close approaches[edit]

The asteroid has an Earth minimum orbital intersection distance of 0.0042 AU (628,000 km; 390,000 mi), which corresponds to 1.6 lunar distances and makes it a potentially hazardous asteroid due to its sufficiently large size.[2] On the Torino Scale, this object was rated level 1 in early October 2003,[15] and removed on 13 October 2003.[16]

On 18 May 1985, it passed Earth at a nominal distance of 0.00709 AU (2.76 LD) which translates into 1,060,648 km (659,000 mi) and made another approach in June 2009 at a much larger distance of 37 LD.[17] In 2034, 2037 and 2062, it will pass Earth at a distance of 0.18 AU, 0.44 AU and 0.045 AU, respectively. It frequently approaches Jupiter at 1.7–2.0 AU as well.[17]

History of close approaches of large near-Earth objects since 1908 (A)
PHA Date Approach distance (lunar dist.) Abs.
mag

(H)
Diameter (C)
(m)
Ref (D)
Nomi-
nal(B)
Mini-
mum
Maxi-
mum
(33342) 1998 WT24 1908-12-16 3.542 3.537 3.547 17.9 556–1795 data
(458732) 2011 MD5 1918-09-17 0.911 0.909 0.913 17.9 556–1795 data
(7482) 1994 PC1 1933-01-17 2.927 2.927 2.928 16.8 749–1357 data
69230 Hermes 1937-10-30 1.926 1.926 1.927 17.5 668–2158 data
69230 Hermes 1942-04-26 1.651 1.651 1.651 17.5 668–2158 data
(137108) 1999 AN10 1946-08-07 2.432 2.429 2.435 17.9 556–1795 data
(33342) 1998 WT24 1956-12-16 3.523 3.523 3.523 17.9 556–1795 data
(163243) 2002 FB3 1961-04-12 4.903 4.900 4.906 16.4 1669–1695 data
(192642) 1999 RD32 1969-08-27 3.627 3.625 3.630 16.3 1161–3750 data
(143651) 2003 QO104 1981-05-18 2.761 2.760 2.761 16.0 1333–4306 data
2017 CH1 1992-06-05 4.691 3.391 6.037 17.9 556–1795 data
(170086) 2002 XR14 1995-06-24 4.259 4.259 4.260 18.0 531–1714 data
(33342) 1998 WT24 2001-12-16 4.859 4.859 4.859 17.9 556–1795 data
4179 Toutatis 2004-09-29 4.031 4.031 4.031 15.30 2440–2450 data
2014 JO25 2017-04-19 4.573 4.573 4.573 17.8 582–1879 data
(137108) 1999 AN10 2027-08-07 1.014 1.010 1.019 17.9 556–1795 data
(35396) 1997 XF11 2028-10-26 2.417 2.417 2.418 16.9 881–2845 data
(154276) 2002 SY50 2071-10-30 3.415 3.412 3.418 17.6 714–1406 data
(164121) 2003 YT1 2073-04-29 4.409 4.409 4.409 16.2 1167–2267 data
(385343) 2002 LV 2076-08-04 4.184 4.183 4.185 16.6 1011–3266 data
(52768) 1998 OR2 2079-04-16 4.611 4.611 4.612 15.8 1462–4721 data
(33342) 1998 WT24 2099-12-18 4.919 4.919 4.919 17.9 556–1795 data
(85182) 1991 AQ 2130-01-27 4.140 4.139 4.141 17.1 1100 data
314082 Dryope 2186-07-16 3.709 2.996 4.786 17.5 668–2158 data
(137126) 1999 CF9 2192-08-21 4.970 4.967 4.973 18.0 531–1714 data
(290772) 2005 VC 2198-05-05 1.951 1.791 2.134 17.6 638–2061 data
(A) List includes near-Earth approaches of less than 5 lunar distances (LD) of objects with H brighter than 18.
(B) Nominal geocentric distance from the Earth's center to the object's center (earth radius≈6400 km).
(C) Diameter: estimated, theoretical mean-diameter based on H and albedo range between X and Y.
(D) Reference: data source from the JPL SBDB, with AU converted into LD (1 AU≈390 LD)
(E) Color codes:   unobserved at close approach   observed during close approach   upcoming approaches

Physical characteristics[edit]

2003 QO104 has been characterized as an uncommon Q-type asteroid,[10] that falls into the larger stony S-complex.[3]

Slow rotator and tumbler[edit]

Several rotational lightcurve of this asteroid were obtained from photometric observations during its close approach to the Earth in 2009.[6][7][8] Analysis of the best-rated lightcurve – obtained by Brian Warner at his Palmer Divide Observatory in collaboration with Robert Stephens and Albino Carbognani – gave a well-defined rotation period of 114.4 hours with a high brightness amplitude of 1.60 magnitude (U=3), which is indicative of an elongated shape.[8][a] With a period of more than 100 hours, 2003 QO104 is a slow rotator as most asteroids typically rotate every 2 to 20 hours once around their axis. The asteroid also shows several characteristics of a non-principal axis-rotation, which is commonly known as tumbling.[7][8]

This asteroid has also been studied by radar at the Goldstone and Arecibo observatories by Lance Benner and Mike Nolan.[8][b]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to post-cryogenic observations made by the Spitzer Telescope during the ExploreNEOs survey, this asteroid measures 2.29 and 2.31 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.13 and 0.14,[4][5][9] while the Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link assumes a standard albedo for stony asteroids of 0.20 and calculates a diameter of 1.88 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 16.0.[3]

Naming[edit]

This minor planet was numbered by the MPC on 5 December 2006 (M.P.C. 58189).[18] As of 2018, it has not been named.[1]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Lightcurve plot of (143651) 2003 QO104 by Brian Warner at the Palmer Divide Observatory. Rotation period 114.4±0.1 hours and a brightness amplitude of 1.60±0.03 mag. Quality code of 3. Summary figures at the LCDB and the observatory's website
  2. ^ Radiometric observations of (143651) 2003 QO104 at the Arecibo Observatory by Mike Nolan R2421 in May 2009, and at the Goldstone Observatory by Lance Benner Planning in June 2009

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g "143651 (2003 QO104)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  2. ^ a b c d e f "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 143651 (2003 QO104)" (2018-01-26 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "LCDB Data for (143651)". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  4. ^ a b c Mueller, Michael; Delbo', M.; Hora, J. L.; Trilling, D. E.; Bhattacharya, B.; Bottke, W. F.; et al. (April 2011). "ExploreNEOs. III. Physical Characterization of 65 Potential Spacecraft Target Asteroids". The Astronomical Journal. 141 (4): 9. Bibcode:2011AJ....141..109M. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/141/4/109.
  5. ^ a b c d Trilling, D. E.; Mueller, M.; Hora, J. L.; Harris, A. W.; Bhattacharya, B.; Bottke, W. F.; et al. (September 2010). "ExploreNEOs. I. Description and First Results from the Warm Spitzer Near-Earth Object Survey" (PDF). The Astronomical Journal. 140 (3): 770–784. Bibcode:2010AJ....140..770T. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/140/3/770.
  6. ^ a b Birtwhistle, Peter (October 2009). "Lightcurves for Five Close Approach Asteroids". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 36 (4): 186–187. Bibcode:2009MPBu...36..186B. ISSN 1052-8091.
  7. ^ a b c Koehn, Bruce W.; Bowell, Edward G.; Skiff, Brian A.; Sanborn, Jason J.; McLelland, Kyle P.; Pravec, Petr; et al. (October 2014). "Lowell Observatory Near-Earth Asteroid Photometric Survey (NEAPS) - 2009 January through 2009 June". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 41 (4): 286–300. Bibcode:2014MPBu...41..286K. ISSN 1052-8091.
  8. ^ a b c d e Warner, Brian D.; Stephens, Robert D.; Carbognani, Albino (October 2009). "Analysis of the Slow Rotator (143651) 2003 QO104". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 36 (4): 179–180. Bibcode:2009MPBu...36..179W. ISSN 1052-8091.
  9. ^ a b Thomas, C. A.; Trilling, D. E.; Emery, J. P.; Mueller, M.; Hora, J. L.; Benner, L. A. M.; et al. (September 2011). "ExploreNEOs. V. Average Albedo by Taxonomic Complex in the Near-Earth Asteroid Population". The Astronomical Journal. 142 (3): 12. Bibcode:2011AJ....142...85T. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/142/3/85.
  10. ^ a b Thomas, Cristina A.; Emery, Joshua P.; Trilling, David E.; Delbó, Marco; Hora, Joseph L.; Mueller, Michael (January 2014). "Physical characterization of Warm Spitzer-observed near-Earth objects". Icarus. 228: 217–246. arXiv:1310.2000. Bibcode:2014Icar..228..217T. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2013.10.004.
  11. ^ a b c Ye, Q.-z. (February 2011). "BVRI Photometry of 53 Unusual Asteroids". The Astronomical Journal. 141 (2): 8. arXiv:1011.0133. Bibcode:2011AJ....141...32Y. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/141/2/32.
  12. ^ a b Betzler, Alberto S.; Noaves, Alberto B.; Santos, Antonio C. P.; Sobral, Edvaldo G. (July 2010). "Photometric Observations of the Near-Earth Asteroids 1999 AP10 2000 TO64, 2000 UJ1, 2000 XK44, 2001 MZ7, 2003 QO104, 2005 RQ6, 2005 WJ56, and 2009 UN3". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 37 (3): 95–97. Bibcode:2010MPBu...37...95B. ISSN 1052-8091.
  13. ^ Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007.
  14. ^ "List of the Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  15. ^ "Major News about Minor Objects (2003 QO104)". hohmanntransfer. 27 December 2003. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  16. ^ "NEOs Removed from Impact Risks Tables". Near Earth Object Program. NASA. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  17. ^ a b "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 143651 (2003 QO104)". Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  18. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 20 April 2018.

External links[edit]