Telephone numbers in the Soviet Union

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"+7" redirects here. For current uses, see Telephone numbers in Russia and Telephone numbers in Kazakhstan.
Soviet Union telephone numbers
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (orthographic projection).svg
Location of the Soviet Union after World War II (dark green)
Country Soviet Union
Continent Eurasia
Type Open
NSN length 8~10
Typical format various, see text
Access codes
Country calling code +7
International call prefix 8~10
Trunk prefix 8

The telephone numbering plan of the USSR was a set of telephone area codes, numbers and dialing rules, which operated in the Soviet Union until the 1990s. After the collapse of the USSR, many newly independent republics implemented their own numbering plans. However, many of the principles of the Soviet numbering plan still remain.[citation needed] The former Soviet international code +7 is still retained by Russia and Kazakhstan.

Basic principles[edit]

The Soviet Union used a four-level open numbering plan. The long distance prefix was 8.

  1. One could call a local number without the code. Local numbers usually consisted of 5-7 digits, with seven-digit numbers only occurring in Moscow (since 1968), Leningrad (since 1976) and Kiev (since 1981).
  2. Within the same numbering area (most often within the state or region) the pattern was: 8 2X YYYYYY, where 2 replaced the three-digit area code.
  3. For calls to other areas, one had to first dial long distance prefix 8, then, after the tone, the full code of the numbering area, which consisted of a three-digit code and zone additional digit(X), and then the local phone number.
    For example: 8 09624 XXXXX for a call to the city of Klin, Klinsky District, Moscow Oblast.
  4. For international calls, one should dial 8 10 <country code> <code> <phone number>.
    For example: 8 10 1 212 XXXXXXX for a call to New York City.

Emergency numbers[edit]

A payphone with a list of toll-free numbers

Emergency numbers in the USSR began with 0 and had two digits. When one called the emergency numbers, no tariff was charged.

  • 01 - Fire brigade
  • 02 - Police
  • 03 - Ambulance
  • 04 - Gas leaks

07 was used to order long-distance calls through the operator.[citation needed]

Country code separations[edit]

Area codes[edit]

Basically, area codes were distributed geographically, so that neighboring regions usually had close area code numbers.

Area 0[edit]

Area codes with 0 denotes the republics and Oblasts of the European part of the USSR. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, these codes in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine were preserved, with minor changes. Area codes in the Ukraine and Belarus later dropped initial 0. In Russia, in December 2005 the leading zero in the Oblastal area codes was replaced by a 4.

Area 3[edit]

Area 4[edit]

Area 8[edit]