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-ana (more frequently -iana) is a suffix of Latin origin, used in English to convert nouns, usually proper names, into mass nouns,[1] as in Shakespeareana or Dickensiana, items or stories related to William Shakespeare or Charles Dickens, respectively.

The recognition of this usage as a self-conscious literary construction, typically as a book title, traces back at least to 1740, when it was mentioned in an edition of Scaligerana, a collection of table talk of Joseph Justus Scaliger, from around 150 years previously.[2] By that period Scaliger was described as "the father, so to speak, of all those books published under the title of -ana".[3]

As grammatical construction it is the neuter plural, nominative form of an adjective: so from Scaliger is formed first the adjective Scaligeranus (Scaligeran) which is then put into the form of an abstract noun Scaligerana (Scaligeran things). In Americana, a variant construction, the adjectival form already exists as Americanus, so it is simply a neuter plural (suffix –a on the stem American-); the case of Victoriana, things associated with the Victorian period, is superficially similar, but the Latin adjective form is Dog Latin.


  • Sherlockiana
  • Thraliana
  • Shakespeariana; or the most beautiful topicks, descriptions, and similes that occur throughout all Shakespear's plays; subtitle of Charles Gildon, The Complete Art of Poetry (1718)
  • Gulliveriana: or a Fourth Volume of Miscellanies, being a sequel of the three volumes published by Pope and Swift, to which is added Alexanderiana, or a comparison between the ecclesiastical and poetical Popes and many things in verse and prose relating to the latter by Jonathan Smedley (1728).[4]
  • Johnsoniana: or, Supplement to Boswell (1842), by John Wilson Croker, formed from Samuel Johnson
  • C. A. Moore , Miltoniana (1679–1741), Modern Philology, Vol. 24, No. 3 (Feb., 1927), pp. 321–339. From John Milton.
  • "In all of Vidaliana, there may be no more famous moment than the evening of Wednesday, Aug. 28, 1968." From Gore Vidal.[5]

Use in music[edit]

The suffix -iana, -eana or -ana has often been used in the titles of musical works, as a way of a composer paying a tribute to an earlier composer or a noted performer.

Mauro Giuliani (died 1829) wrote six sets of variations for guitar on themes by Gioachino Rossini, Opp. 119–124. Each set was called "Rossiniana", and collectively they are called "Rossiniane".

Later examples include:

Other examples in music[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ http://www.cycfoundation.org/concepts/Ana-TheSuffix
  2. ^ http://warburg.sas.ac.uk/scaliger/scaligerana.htm
  3. ^ Eva M. Sanford, "Scaligerana", The Classical Journal, Vol. 26, No. 4 (January 1931), pp. 279-286.
  4. ^  "Smedley, Jonathan". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. 
  5. ^ http://www.pitt.edu/~kloman/debates.html
  6. ^ Murray McLachlan Archived July 20, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  7. ^ Neil Butterworth, Dictionary of American Classical Composers. Retrieved 14 June 2016