From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
TLD typeInternationalised (Cyrillic) country code top-level domain
Intended useEntities connected with Ukraine (Cyrillic script)
Registered domains13,923 (2024-02-27)[1]
Dispute policiesProvisions on the Commission for Pretrial Resolution of Domain Disputes
Procedure for resolving domain disputes
Registry websiteUANIC

The domain name .укр (romanized as .ukr; abbreviation of Ukrainian: Україна, tr. Ukrayina) is an approved[2] internationalized country code top-level domain (IDN ccTLD) for Ukraine. It is a common abbreviation used in Ukraine, as in Ukrbank and Ukrnafta.


In June 2008 the ICANN approved a document that foresees the introduction of high-level domain names in Cyrillic and other national non-Latin alphabets.[3]

On 17 November 2009, Ukraine initiated an application to ICANN for assignment of the Cyrillic top-level domain name 'укр'.[3][4] Already in December 2008 the Company Center for Internet names of Ukraine had announced the registration of domain names in two new top-level domains 'укр' and 'блог' (transliterated: bloh).[5] The full set of required documents was submitted to ICANN on 26 November 2009 by the Ukrainian Network Information Center (UNIC).[6] Ukraine was one of the first countries that applied for the creation of domains in their native writing system, following Russia, Egypt and China.[7][8]

The domain was expected to be available in the first half of 2010 since assignment of top-level domain takes about a month.[9][dubious ] In November 2009 UNIC Director Yuriy Honcharuk expected the new domain to start operating on the Internet in February–March 2010.[6]

On 1 March 2011, ICANN announced that the .укр domain had passed string evaluation, the step before delegation.[10]

.укр was approved by the ICANN Board on 28 February 2013.[2] The zone was added to the root servers on 19 March 2013.[11] The very first two domains were тест.укр (xn--e1aybc.xn--j1amh) and уміц.укр (xn--l1ank7d.xn--j1amh).[12] In Ukrainian "тест" stands for "test", and "уміц" stands for "Український Мережевий Інформаційний Центр", Ukrainian Network Informational Centre. According to UNIC Director Honcharuk, registration of .укр domain names could begin in the summer of 2013.[2] Registration is allowed both in Russian and in Ukrainian.[2] The .укр registration of domains of Ukrainian government agencies in the Ukrainian language began on 22 August 2013.[13] On 21 August 2013 the first such site got active — президент.укр (president.ukr). Before the end of 2013, many sites were active.

Doubts about registration[edit]

In June 2008 President Oleksandr Olshansky of the Ukrainian Internet company Internet Invest[14] considered it unlikely that .укр would be assigned by ICANN. According to Olshansky the existing rules for non-Latin domain names stipulate that at least one letter should differ in the shape from the corresponding Latin character.[3] The country name Україна (Ukraine) does not contain any letter whose shape does not exist in any Latin language. In November 2009 UNIC Director Yuriy Honcharuk had stated there were no technical issues preventing the assignment of this Cyrillic domain.[6] Latin ccTLDs contain two letters, whereas .укр contains three, which makes it recognizably distinct, especially with the lack of any such suffix as ".ykp".

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Domain Count Statistics for TLDs - DomainTools
  2. ^ a b c d (in Ukrainian) Україна отримала кириличний домен ".укр". Archived 2020-11-23 at the Wayback Machine According to experts, in Ukraine ". укр" will be some 200,000 domain names, Ukrayinska Pravda (1 March 2013). Retrieved 5 May 2015.
  3. ^ a b c Market operator: Cyrillic .укр domain unlikely to be registered Archived 2021-11-18 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (November 18, 2009)
  4. ^ Ukraine to register domain '.укр' Archived 2012-02-25 at the Wayback Machine, Ukrinform (November 17, 2009)
  5. ^ (in Russian) В Украине появятся кирилличные домены .Укр и .Блог Archived 2009-12-02 at the Wayback Machine, Korrespondent (December 9, 2008)
  6. ^ a b c Cyrillic .ukr domain to start operating on Internet in Feb-March 2010 Archived 2021-11-18 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (November 27, 2009)
  7. ^ (in Russian) Украина регистрирует национальный интернет-домен «.укр» Archived 2011-07-25 at the Wayback Machine, bigmir)net (November 18, 2009)
  8. ^ (in Russian) Русскоязычная доменная зона .РФ заработает в ноябре Archived 2013-02-05 at the Wayback Machine, Lenta.Ru (October 24, 2009)
  9. ^ (in Russian) Ъ: Регистрация сайтов в доменной зоне .укр начнется через полгода Archived 2011-07-23 at the Wayback Machine, (November 17, 2009)
  10. ^ IDN ccTLD Request From Ukraine Successfully Passes String Evaluation Archived 2011-05-14 at the Wayback Machine, ICANN (March 1, 2011)
  11. ^ ".УКР is going live". Habr. March 21, 2013. Archived from the original on March 23, 2013. Retrieved March 21, 2013.
  12. ^ (in Russian) В зоне .УКР появились первые домены Zone .укр appeared first domain Archived 2013-12-13 at the Wayback Machine, ukr.net (21 March 2013)
  13. ^ Azarov: Registration of addresses of government agencies in Cyrillic domain .ukr to begin on August 22 Archived 2021-11-18 at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (21 August 2013)
  14. ^ Archived Whois Archived 2011-09-30 at the Wayback Machine, Who.is
    UNIAN Stock Market Archived 2011-08-13 at the Wayback Machine, UNIAN (June 11, 2008)
  15. ^ "domain launch periods". Archived from the original on 2021-08-12. Retrieved 2021-11-18.