.284 Winchester

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.284 Winchester
.284 Winchester with .223 Rem and .308 Win.JPG
.284 Winchester (center) with .308 Win (left) and 7mm Remington Magnum (right)
Place of originUnited States
Service history
In servicenever issued
Production history
Bullet diameter7.21 mm (0.284 in)
Neck diameter8.13 mm (0.320 in)
Shoulder diameter12.06 mm (0.475 in)
Base diameter12.72 mm (0.501 in)
Rim diameter12.01 mm (0.473 in)
Rim thickness1.02 mm (0.040 in)
Case length55.12 mm (2.170 in)
Overall length71.12 mm (2.800 in)
Case capacity4.29 cm3 (66.2 gr H2O)
Rifling twist254 mm (1 in 10 in)
Primer typeLarge rifle
Maximum pressure (small arms ammunition pressure testing440.00 MPa (63,817 psi)
Ballistic performance
Bullet mass/type Velocity Energy
100 gr (6 g) HDY 100 HP 3,175 ft/s (968 m/s) 2,238 ft⋅lbf (3,034 J)
120 gr (8 g) SPR 120 SP 2,968 ft/s (905 m/s) 2,347 ft⋅lbf (3,182 J)
139 gr (9 g) HDY 139 SP 2,845 ft/s (867 m/s) 2,498 ft⋅lbf (3,387 J)
150 gr (10 g) Super-X Power-Point 2,860 ft/s (870 m/s) 2,724 ft⋅lbf (3,693 J)
Test barrel length: 24 in (610 mm)
Source(s): Winchester Ammunition Accurate Powder [1]

The .284 Winchester is a commercially unsuccessful cartridge that has enjoyed a resurgence due to interest from long-range competitive shooters.[2] Introduced by Winchester in 1963, the .284 Winchester was designed to achieve .270 Winchester and .280 Remington performance from the new Winchester Model 100 autoloader and Winchester Model 88 lever-action rifles.

The end result was a 7 mm cartridge with about the same overall length as the .308 Winchester but with a wider body, that yields a powder capacity about the same as that of the .270 Winchester and .280 Remington.[3]


At one time the Savage Model 99 was available in .284 Winchester, and Ruger produced a small run of Ruger M77 rifles in this caliber, whereas Ultra Light Arms now builds more Model 20 rifles in .284 Winchester than all other calibers combined.[citation needed]

Cartridge dimensions[edit]

The .284 Winchester has 4.29 ml (66 grains H2O) cartridge case capacity. The case has a rebated rim and a body almost as large in diameter as that of typical belted magnum cases.

.284 Winchester.svg

.284 Winchester maximum C.I.P. cartridge dimensions All sizes in millimeters (mm).[4]

Americans would define the shoulder angle at alpha/2 = 35 degrees. The common rifling twist rate for this cartridge is 254 mm (1 in 10 in), 6 grooves, Ø lands = 7.00 mm, Ø grooves = 7.19 mm, land width = 2.79 mm and the primer type is large rifle.

According to the official C.I.P. guidelines the .284 Winchester case can handle up to 440 MPa (63,816 psi) piezo pressure. In C.I.P. regulated countries every rifle cartridge combo has to be proofed at 125% of this maximum C.I.P. pressure to certify for sale to consumers.
The SAAMI pressure limit for the .284 Winchester is set at 56,000 PSI, piezo pressure.[1]

When the cartridge over all length is maintained, deeper-seating is necessary with long heavier bullets. This reduces usable powder capacity and hence performance compared to longer cartridges like the .280 Remington.

The American .280 Remington cartridge is probably the closest ballistic twin of the .284 Winchester. When compared to the .284 Winchester the .280 Remington has a slightly different maximum allowed chamber pressure and case capacity.

Contemporary use[edit]

For open country hunting of deer and pronghorn, the .284 Winchester loaded with the Speer 130-grain (8.4 g) spitzer at 3,100 ft/s (940 m/s) will do anything the .270 Winchester will do and it will do it in a short action rifle. Larger game calls for bullets weighing from 150 to 160 grains (10 g). H4831, H450, H4350, H414, IMR-4350, and IMR-4831 are excellent powders for the .284 Winchester.[5]

These ballistics show that the .284 Winchester is as good as the .280 Remington with the same weight bullet. The short mountain rifles for which the .284 Winchester seems best suited seldom come with 24-inch barrels. Aside from Winchester, no other major company has ever loaded factory ammunition for the .284 Winchester.[5]

The cartridge is sometimes used for long range target shooting like F-Class and 1000 yd/m long range competitions, where participants usually handload their ammunition. For this application the .284 Winchester is loaded with 175 and 180 gr very-low-drag bullets.[6]

The .284 Winchester is not popular in Europe, where it competes with the 7×64mm, to which it is almost ballistically identical. When compared to the .284 Winchester the 7×64mm has a lower C.I.P. maximum allowed chamber pressure and, as a European 7 mm cartridge, has a slightly larger bore. European 7 mm cartridges all have 7.24 mm (0.285 in) grooves Ø diameter. American 7 mm cartridges have 7.21 mm (0.284 in) grooves Ø.


While it has been occasionally factory chambered in various rifles, the chief reason for its survival has always been wildcatting. Wildcats are not governed by C.I.P. or SAAMI rules so wildcatters can capitalize on achievable high operating pressures. With the .284 Winchester as the parent case wildcatters have created 6mm-284, 6.5mm-284, .284 Shehane, .30-284, .338-284,35-284, .450 Bushmaster and the .375-284 variants and the .475 Wildey Magnum pistol cartridge.

Today, the most popular and useful .284 Winchester-case based cartridge is not the original, but rather the 6.5-284 Norma. This former wildcat was developed for long range target shooting where participants usually handload their ammunition. It is currently one of the most used non-wildcat cartridges by match shooters in F-Class and 1000 yd/m benchrest long range competitions.[7]

Many owners of old Swiss service rifles in the United States are also now reforming .284 Winchester cartridge cases up to produce results analogous to the more expensive 7.5×55mm Swiss GP11 cartridge.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b ".284 Winchester data" from Accurate Powder Archived 2006-07-18 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ 7mm Accuracy Cartridges - .284 Winchester at www.accurateshooter.com
  3. ^ .284 Winchester at the reload bench Archived 2012-02-08 at the Wayback Machine[self-published source]
  4. ^ C.I.P. decisions, texts and tables free current C.I.P. CD-ROM version download (ZIP and RAR format) Archived 2008-09-29 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ a b The .284 Winchester by Chuck Hawks
  6. ^ What's Wrong With .30 Caliber? By Bryan Litz
  7. ^ McPherson, M.L. "Wildcatting the .284 Winchester Long-range shooters and wildcatters have kept the .284 alive". Rifle Shooter Magazine. Archived from the original on 2008-01-10. Retrieved 2008-01-13.

External links[edit]