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A .htaccess (hypertext access) file is a directory-level configuration file supported by several web servers, that allows for decentralized management of web server configuration. They are placed inside the web tree, and are able to override a subset of the server's global configuration for the directory that they are in, and all sub-directories.[1]

The original purpose of .htaccess—reflected in its name—was to allow per-directory access control by, for example, requiring a password to access the content. More commonly, however, the .htaccess files override many other configuration settings such as content type, character set, CGI handlers, etc.


For historical reasons, the format of .htaccess is a limited subset of the Apache HTTP server's global configuration file httpd.conf [2] even when used with web servers such as Oracle iPlanet Web Server[3] and Zeus Web Server which have very different native global configuration files.

Common usage[edit]

Authorization, authentication
A .htaccess file is often used to specify security restrictions for a directory, hence the filename "access". The .htaccess file is often accompanied by a .htpasswd file which stores valid usernames and their passwords.[4]
Rewriting URLs
Servers often use .htaccess to rewrite long, overly comprehensive URLs to shorter and more memorable ones.
Use allow/deny to block users by IP address or domain. Also, use to block bad bots, rippers and referrers. Often used to restrict access by web crawlers
Enable server-side includes.
Directory listing 
Control how the server will react when no specific web page is specified.
Customized error responses
Changing the page that is shown when a server-side error occurs, for example HTTP 404 Not Found or, to indicate to a search engine that a page has moved, HTTP 301 Moved Permanently.[5]
MIME types 
Instruct the server how to treat different varying file types.
Cache Control
.htaccess files allow a server to control caching by web browsers and proxies to reduce bandwidth usage, server load, and perceived lag.


Immediate changes 
Because .htaccess files are read on every request, changes made in these files take immediate effect – as opposed to the main configuration file which requires the server to be restarted for the new settings to take effect.
Non-privileged users 
For servers with multiple users, it is often desirable to allow individual users the ability to alter their site configuration. The use of .htaccess files allows such individualization, and by unprivileged users – because the main server configuration files do not need to be changed.[6]


Controlling Apache using the main server configuration file httpd.conf[7] is often preferred for security and performance reasons:[8]

Performance loss 
For each HTTP request, there are additional file-system accesses for parent directories when using .htaccess, to check for possibly existing .htaccess files in those parent directories which are allowed to hold .htaccess files. It is possible to programatically migrate directives from .htaccess to httpd.conf if this performance loss is a concern.[9]
Allowing individual users to modify the configuration of a server can cause security concerns if not set up properly.[10]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "AllowOverride Directive". Retrieved 2009-03-02. 
  2. ^ "Configuration Files". Retrieved 2009-03-02. 
  3. ^ "Using the .htaccess file", Oracle.com
  4. ^ "Apache Tutorial: Password Formats". Retrieved 2009-03-02. 
  5. ^ "Webmaster Tools Help: 301 redirects". Retrieved 2012-03-27. 
  6. ^ "Apache Tutorial: When (not) to use .htaccess files". Retrieved 2008-01-12. 
  7. ^ "Configuration Files - Apache HTTP Server". Retrieved 2008-01-12. 
  8. ^ "When Not to use .htaccess files". Httpd.apache.org. Retrieved 2009-09-02. 
  9. ^ "How to convert .htaccess to httpd.conf entries". 
  10. ^ "Protecting System Settings". Retrieved 2009-03-02. 

External links[edit]