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The Domain Name System of the Internet consists of a set of top-level domains that constitute the root domain of the hierarchical name space and database. In the growth of the Internet, it became desirable to expand the initial set of six generic top-level domains in 1984. As a result, new top-level domain names have been proposed for implementation by ICANN. Such proposals included a variety of models ranging from adoption of policies for unrestricted gTLDs that could be registered by anyone for any purpose, to chartered gTLDs for specialized uses by specialized organizations. In October 2000, ICANN published a list of proposals for top-level domain strings it had received.
- .geo – Generic geographical locations.
- .ln and .le – Currently being sold by Dennis Hope's "Lunar Embassy Commission" alongside .lunar, .moon, .venus, .mars, .jupiter, .saturn, .uranus, .neptune, .pluto. People who purchase novelty deeds for outer space property from him are also given free domains. None of these TLDs are supported at present by root servers.
- .toronto – was proposed by City of Toronto officials.
Internationalized country code top-level domains
The following ccTLDs (country code top-level domains) have been requested using a procedure known as Internationalized Domain Name (or IDN) ccTLD Fast Track Process.
|DNS name||IDN ccTLD||Country||Transliteration||Script||ccTLD||Year of application|
|xn—wgv71a||.日本||Japan||Nippon or Nihon||Kanji (both Kyūjitai and Shinjitai)||.jp||2008|
|xn—vcst06ab2a||.日本国||Nippon-koku or Nihon-koku||Kanji (Shinjitai)||2012|
The following countries have national languages that use other scripts than Latin, but have no internationalized country code top-level domain, and none proposed in the above list:
- North Korea
Language and community
These proposals are centered on creating an independent Internet identity for linguistic and cultural communities. They are mostly inspired by the success of the .cat domain created for websites in the Catalan language or about the Catalan culture.
|Domain name||Intended use||Sponsor||Year of Proposal||Comments|
|Welsh language and Wales||dotCYM Cyf||2006||It was proposed by dotCYM for Welsh language and Wales, but ICANN has reserved this for eventual assignment to the Cayman Islands. See also .cymru and .wales.|
|.eng||England||DotEng||2008||The DotEng.org website was set up by John Sewell of Maidenhead in Berkshire. Mentioned in PC Pro Online: Campaign begins for .eng domain, Stuart Turton, 23 April 2008|
|.ker||Cornish language and Cornwall||Cornish World Magazine||2008||Proposed domain name derived from "Kernow"|
|.lli||Leonese language and culture||puntuLLI||2007||Several companies, associations, organisations and institutions are involved in this campaign.|
|.nai||Native, Aboriginal, and Indigenous peoples of the Americas||nai||1999||The original proposal for a Native American managed TLD predates ICANN, and its form was adopted by ICANN as the "sponsored" type of application and eventual contract in the 2001 new gTLD round. .nai's mission is to implement a top-level name space with an indigenous policy, provide an alternative to the several thousand indigenous public administrations, and the larger numbers of indigenous non-governmental, linguistic and cultural institutional, public and private economic enterprises, bands and individuals in the Western Hemisphere currently using name spaces operated under for-profit or colonial policies, and promote the economic development of Indian Country.|
|Scotland||dotSCO||2005||dotSCO began in late 2005 and has been campaigning to build support for a new TLD from among the Scots community around the world. The campaign now appears to be defunct, effectively replaced by now approved .scot.|
|.sic||Székely Land||Pontsic Foundation||2009||pontSIC began in late 2008 and has been campaigning to build support for a new TLD from among the Székely community around the world. The campaign was started by the Szekler National Council, and now are involved several companies and institutions. As of September 2009 there are over 33,200 signatories.|
- Note: The dotCYMRU, dotEUS, dotSCOT and dotBZH have formed the ECLID, the European Cultural and Linguistic Internet Domains umbrella group to lobby for the successful and speedy application for the bids.
Technical domain name themes
- .mail – A domain for e-mail networks, proposed to facilitate fighting e-mail spam.
- .web – A domain for general use on the World Wide Web.
Specialized and professional topics
- .eco – environmental causes – Limited existence in 2016 and full launch in 2017.
- .med – medical practitioners and organizations – exists from 2016.
- .shop – electronic commerce sites – exists from 2016.
- .sport – sport sites
- "Names Council Solicitation of Comments for Consideration of New Generic Top-Level Domains". ICANN. 2000-04-01.
- "TLD Applications Lodged". ICANN. 2000-10-10.
- Hope, David. "The Lunar Embassy". Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 24 March 2012.
- IDN ccTLD Form of Interest | Japan
- "About '.日本'". jprs.co.jp.
- "The campaign for a KER Internet domain name". googlepages.com.
- "First Minister announces support for Scots internet domain". dotSCO.org. Archived from the original on 2008-12-24. Retrieved 2008-12-14.
- "SIC domain". Support New TLDs. Archived from the original on 2009-09-11. Retrieved 2009-09-01.
- "BBC NEWS – Technology – Al Gore says domain .eco logical". bbc.co.uk. 6 March 2009.
- "Launch of .eco (Dot Eco) Application to Empower Global Community – Press Releases on CSRwire.com". csrwire.com.
- "For the planet | With a purpose | The new eco domain". .eco Domain Name Registry.
- "site:.eco – Google Search". www.google.com.
- ".med : your safe namespace for medicine". .med. Archived from the original on 2013-09-21. Retrieved 2013-09-20.
- "Sunrise | Medistry". www.nic.med. Archived from the original on 2016-12-20.
- "site:.med – Google Search". www.google.com.
- "Home of the dotShop (.shop) top-level domain (TLD) name from Commercial Connect LLC – Commercial Connect, LLC". commercialconnect.net. Archived from the original on 2016-07-04. Retrieved 2020-05-12.
- "dotSHOP (.shop) by GMO". www.nic.shop.
- "site:.shop – Google Search". www.google.com.
- "Setting a new world record » The .Sport Registry". dotsport.info.