The 0s cover the first nine years of the Anno Domini era, which began on January 1st, 1 AD and ended on December 31st, 9 AD. It is one of the two "0-to-9" decade-like timespans (along with 0s BC) that contain 9 years, and are not decades (10 years).
In Europe, the 0s saw the continuation of conflict between the Roman Empire and Germanic tribes in the Early Imperial campaigns in Germania. Tiberius, Ahenobarbus, Vinicius and Varus led Roman forces in multiple punitive campaigns, before sustaining a major defeat at the hands of Arminius in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. Concurrently, the Roman Empire fought the Bellum Batonianum against an alliance of native peoples of in two regions of Illyricum, Dalmatia and Pannonia, led by Bato the Daesitiate. In AD 8, the Breuci of the Sava valley surrendered, but it took a winter blockade and another season of fighting before the surrender in Dalmatia in AD 9. A conflict also took place in Korea, where Daeso, King of Dongbuyeo invaded Goguryeo with a 50,000-man army in 6 AD. He was forced to retreat when heavy snow began to fall, stopping the conflict until the next decade. In China, Wang Mang established the Xin dynasty.
Literary works from the 0s include works from the ancient Roman poet Ovid; the Ars Amatoria, an instructional elegy series in three books, Metamorphoses, a poem which chronicles the history of the world from its creation to the deification of Julius Caesar within a loose mythico-historical framework, and Ibis, a curse poem written during his years in exile across the Black Sea for an offense against Augustus. Nicolaus of Damascus wrote the 15-volume History of the World.
A census was concluded in China in 2 AD: final numbers showed a population of nearly 60 million (59,594,978 people in slightly more than 12 million households). The census is one of the most accurate surveys in Chinese history. Dionysius Exiguus assigned Jesus's birth date in 1 AD, in his anno Domini era according to at least one scholar. However, most scholars think Dionysius placed the birth of Jesus in the previous year, 1 BC. Furthermore, most modern scholars do not consider Dionysius' calculations authoritative, placing the event several years earlier (see Chronology of Jesus).
- 1 Events
- 1.1 AD 1
- 1.2 AD 2
- 1.3 AD 3
- 1.4 AD 4
- 1.5 AD 5
- 1.6 AD 6
- 1.7 AD 7
- 1.8 AD 8
- 1.9 AD 9
- 2 Significant people
- 3 Births
- 4 Deaths
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 Sources
- Tiberius, under order of Emperor Augustus, quells revolts in Germania (AD 1–5).
- Gaius Caesar marries Livilla, daughter of Antonia Minor and Nero Claudius Drusus, in an effort to gain prestige.
- Quirinius becomes a chief advisor to Gaius in Armenia. Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, whose father Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus had served as consul in 16 BC, also serves in the Armenia campaigns.
- Confucius is given his first royal title (posthumous name) of Lord Baochengxun Ni.
- Sapadbizes, Yuezhi prince and king of Kush (Bactria), dies. Heraios succeeds him as king.
- The Kingdom of Aksum, centered in modern-day Ethiopia and Eritrea, is founded (approximate date).
- Amanishakheto, queen of Kush (Nubia), dies. Her son, Natakamani, becomes king of Kush.
- Moxos ceases to be a significant religious area in South America (approximate date).[clarification needed]
- The Teotihuacan culture in Mesoamerica begins (approximate date).
- The Olmec 2 phase of the Olmec civilization begins; San Lorenzo and La Venta grow in population.
Arts and sciences
- Birth of Jesus, as assigned by Dionysius Exiguus in his anno Domini era according to at least one scholar. However, most scholars think Dionysius placed the birth of Jesus in the previous year, 1 BC. Furthermore, most modern scholars do not consider Dionysius' calculations authoritative, placing the event several years earlier (see Chronology of Jesus).
- Following the death of Lucius Caesar, Livia Drusilla persuades Augustus to allow her son Tiberius back into Rome as a private citizen after six years of enforced retirement on Rhodes.
- Gaius Caesar meets with Phraates V, the king of Parthia on the Euphrates. Rather than invade the Parthians, Gaius Caesar concludes peace with them—Parthia recognizes Roman claims to Armenia.
- Juba II of Mauretania joins Gaius Caesar in Armenia as a military advisor. It is during this period that he meets Glaphyra, a Cappadocian princess and the former wife of Alexandros of Judea, a brother of Herod Archelaus, ethnarch of Judea, and becomes enamoured of her.
- Wang Mang begins a program of personal aggrandizement, restoring marquess titles to past imperial princes and introducing a pension system for retired officials. Restrictions are placed on the Emperor's mother, Consort Wei and members of the Wei Clan.
- The first census is concluded in China after having begun the year before: final numbers show a population of nearly 60 million (59,594,978 people in slightly more than 12 million households). The census is one of the most accurate surveys in Chinese history.
- The Chinese census shows nearly one million people living in Vietnam.
- The rule of Emperor Augustus is renewed for a ten-year period.
- Augustus adopts his grandson, Gaius Caesar, with the expectation that he will succeed him. Gaius is made proconsul and sent on a special mission to the East.
- Lucius Aelius Lamia and Marcus Servilius Geminus are consuls of Rome.
- Five German tribes are unified by Marbod, king of the Marcomanni. The unification of the five tribes represents a direct threat to Rome in the area that will become Silesia and Saxony.
- Wang Mang foils a plot by his son, Wang Yu, his brother-in-law, Lu Kuan, and the Wei clan to oust him from the regent's position. Wang Yu and Lu Kuan are killed in the purge that follows.
- Emperor Augustus summons Tiberius to Rome, and names him his heir and future emperor. At the same time, Agrippa Postumus, the last son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, is also adopted and named as Augustus' heir.
- Tiberius also adopts Germanicus as his own heir.
- The Lex Aelia Sentia regulates the manumission of slaves.
- A pact of non-aggression and friendship is signed between the Roman Empire, represented by Tiberius, and the German tribe the Cherusci, represented by their King Segimer. Arminius and Flavus, sons of Segimer, are brought into the Roman army as leaders of the auxiliary troops.
- Julia the Elder returns from exile to live in Rhegium in disgrace.
- Augustus pardons Gnaeus Cornelius Cinna Magnus, along with Aemilia Lepida, the granddaughter of Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, for alleged involvement in a conspiracy against the emperor.
- King Phraataces and Queen Musa of Parthia are overthrown and killed, the crown being offered to Orodes III of Parthia—the beginning of the interregnum.
- Emperor Ping of Han marries Empress Wang (Ping), daughter of Wang Mang, cementing his influence.
- Wang Mang is given the title "superior duke".
Arts and sciences
- Nicolaus of Damascus writes the 15-volume History of the World.
- Rome acknowledges Cunobelinus, king of the Catuvellauni, as king of Britain.
- The Germanic tribes of Cimbri and Charydes send ambassadors to Rome.
- Tiberius conquers Germania Inferior.
- Agrippina the Elder marries Germanicus, her second cousin.
- Livilla marries Drusus Julius Caesar, son of Tiberius.
- Due to a catastrophic fire in Rome, the barracks system - the vigiles, initially manned only by freedmen - was created by the Princeps Augustus to allow quicker response to outbreaks of fire in the city.
- Due to a food shortage in Rome, Augustus doubled the grain rations distributed to the people, sent away his slave retinue, and placed the senate in recess indefinitely. 
- The Princeps Augustus set up a treasury, the aerarium militare (170 million sestertii), with the specific purpose of paying bonuses to retiring legion veterans. This was financed by a 5% tax on inheritances, a system said to have been suggested in Julius Caesar's memoirs.
- The Temple of Castor and Pollux was rededicated in Rome to Tiberius.
- A pamphletting campaign in Rome was quashed by the Princeps Augustus. Publius Plautius Rufus was accused but found innocent of the crime.
- Princeps Augustus banished Agrippa Postumus, one of his adopted sons, to the island of Planasia.
- Tiberius made Carnuntum his base of operations against Maroboduus; The Roman legion XX Valeria Victrix fight with Tiberius against the Marcomanni.
- The building of a Roman fort signified the origin of the city of Wiesbaden.
- The Illyrian tribes in Dalmatia and Pannonia revolted and began the Bellum Batonianum or Great Illyrian Revolt. 
- Troops were levied in Rome to send to Illyricum from freedmen and slaves freed specifically for the purpose.
- Tiberius marched back from the northern border to Illyricum to commence operations against the Illyrians.
- Gaius Caecina Severus was made governor of Moesia, and is heavily involved in the first battles of the Bellum Batonianum or Great Illyrian Revolt.
- Marcus Plautius Silvanus was made governor of Galatia et Pamphylia and suppresses an uprising of the Isaurians in Pamphylia. 
- Herod Archelaus, ethnarch of Samaria, Judea, and Idumea, was deposed and banished to Vienne in Gaul.
- Iudaea and Moesia became Roman provinces destroying the Dardani.
- Quirinius conducted a census in Judea (according to Josephus), which resulted in a revolt in the province, led by Judas of Galilee, and supported by the Pharisee Zadok. The revolt was repressed, and the rebels were crucified, but it resulted in the birth of the Zealot movement, the members of which regarded the God of Judaism as their only master.
- January – Some Chinese fear for the life of the young, ailing Emperor Ping Di as the planet Mars disappears behind the moon this month.
- February 3 – The boy emperor, Ping Di, dies of unexpected causes at age 14; Wang Mang alone selects the new emperor, Ruzi Ying, age 2, starting the Jushe era of the Han Dynasty.
- Candidates for government office must take civil-service examinations.
- The imperial Liu clan suspect the intentions of Wang Mang and foment agrarian rebellions during the course of Ruzi Ying's reign. The first of these is led by Liu Chong, Marquess of Ang-Zong (a/k/a Marquis of An-chung), with a small force starting in May or June.
- Illyrian tribes in Pannonia and Dalmatia continue the Great Illyrian Revolt against Roman rule.
- Publius Quinctilius Varus is appointed governor of Germania, charged with organizing Germania between the Rhine and Elbe rivers. He carries out a census, devises tributes and recruits soldiers, all of which create dissension among the Germanic tribes.
- Abgarus of Edessa is deposed as king of Osroene.
- Construction of the Temple of Concord begins.
- Zhai Yi, Governor of the Commandery of Dong (modern Puyang, Henan) declares Liu Zin, Marquess of Yang Xiang (modern Tai'an, Shandong), emperor. This proves to be the largest of the rebellions against Emperor Ruzi of Han.
- Wang Mang puts down the rebellion during the winter. Zhai is captured and executed while Liu Xin escapes.
- August 3 – Roman general Tiberius defeats the Illyrians in Dalmatia on the River Bathinus, but the Great Illyrian Revolt continues.
- Vipsania Julia is exiled. Lucius Aemilius Paullus and his family are disgraced. Augustus breaks off the engagement of Claudius to Paullus' daughter Aemilia Lepida. An effort is made to betrothe Claudius to Livia Medullina.
- Marcus Furius Camillus, Sextus Nonius Quinctilianus, and Lucius Apronius become Roman consuls.
- Roman poet Ovid is banished from Rome and exiled to the Black Sea near Tomis (present-day Constanța).
- Start of Chushi era of the Chinese Han Dynasty.
- Wang Mang crushes a rebellion by Chai I, and on the winter solstice (which has been dated January 10 of the following year) officially assumes the title emperor, establishing the short-lived Xin Dynasty.
- After completing Metamorphoses, Ovid begins the Fasti (Festivals), 6 books that detail the first 6 months of the year and provide valuable insights into the Roman calendar.
- January 10 – Wang Mang founds the short-lived Xin Dynasty in China (until AD 25). Wang Mang names his wife Wang empress and his son Wang Lin Crown Prince and heir to the throne.
- Empress Wang is given the title of Duchess Dowager of Ding'an, while Ruzi Ying, the former Emperor of Han, becomes the Duke of Ding'an. Ruzi Ying is placed under house arrest.
- Lui Kuai, Marquess of Zuziang, attacks the Dukedom of Fuchong under his brother Liu Ying. Lui Kuai is defeated and killed in the ensuing battle.
- c. September 9 – Battle of the Teutoburg Forest: Legio XVII, XVIII and XIX are lured by Arminius into an ambush and defeated by his tribe, the Cherusci, and their Germanic allies. The Roman aquilae are lost and the Roman general and governor Publius Quinctilius Varus commits suicide. The Rhine river is established as the boundary between the Latin- and German-speaking worlds, and Legio II Augusta, XX Valeria Victrix, and XIII Gemina move to Germany to replace the lost legions.
- Suppression of the Bellum Batonianum (Great Illyrian Revolt) in Dalmatia.
- First record of the subdivision of the province of Illyricum into lower (Pannonia) and upper (Dalmatia) regions.
- In order to increase the number of marriages, and ultimately the population, the Lex Papia Poppaea is adopted in Italy. This law prohibits celibacy and childless relationships.
- Roman finances become strained following the Danubian insurrection and the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, resulting in the levying of two new taxes: five percent of inheritances, and one percent on sales.
- Cunobeline is first recorded to be king of the Catuvellauni at Camulodunum (modern-day Colchester) in Britain.
- Erato, Artaxiad Dynasty Queen of Armenia, 8–5 BC, 2 BC – 2 AD, 6–11
- Ariobarzan of Atropatene, Client King of Armenia, r. 1 BC – 2 AD
- Artavazd V, Client King of Armenia, r. 2–11
- Tigranes V, Artaxiad Dynasty King of Armenia, r. 2–6
- Ping Di, Emperor of Han Dynasty China, r. 1 BC – 5 AD
- Ruzi Ying, Emperor of Han Dynasty China, r. 6–9
- Wang Mang, Usurper Emperor of the short-lived Xin Dynasty in China r. 9–23
- Antiochus III, King of Commagene, r. 12 BC – 17 AD
- Arminius, German war chief
- Arshak II, King of Caucasian Iberia, r. 20 BC-1 AD
- Pharasmanes I, King of Caucasian Iberia, r. 1-58
- Strato II and Strato III, co-kings of the Indo-Greek Kingdom, r. 25 BC – 10 AD
- Crimthann Nia Náir, Legendary High King of Ireland, r. 8 BC – AD 9
- Cairbre Cinnchait, Legendary High King of Ireland, r. 9–14
- Suinin, Legendary Emperor of Japan, r. 29 BC – 70 AD
- Natakamani, King of Kush, r. (1 BC – AD 20)
- Abgar V of Edessa, King of Osroene, 4 BC–AD 7, 13–50
- Ma'nu IV, King of Osroene, 7–13
- Phraates V, King of the Parthian Empire, r. 2 BC – 4 AD
- Musa of Parthia, mother and co-ruler with Phraates V, r. 2 BC – 4 AD
- Orodes III, King of the Parthian Empire, r. 4–6
- Vonones I, King of the Parthian Empire, r. 8–12
- Artabanus of Parthia, pretender to the Parthian throne and future King of Parthia
- Caesar Augustus, Roman Emperor (27 BC – AD 14)
- Gaius Caesar, Roman general
- Livy, Roman historian
- Ovid, Roman poet
- Quirinius, Roman nobleman and politician
- Hillel the Elder, Jewish scholar and Nasi of the Sanhedrin, in office c. 31 BC – 9 AD
- Shammai, Jewish scholar and Av Beit Din of the Sanhedrin, in office 20 BC – 20 AD
- Tiberius, Roman general, statesman, and future emperor
- Hyeokgeose, King of Silla, r. 57 BC – 4 AD
- Namhae, King of Silla, r. 4–24
- Izates bar Monobaz, Parthian client king (approximate date)
- Scribonius Largus, Roman physician (approximate date)
- Sextus Afranius Burrus, Roman praetorian prefect (d. AD 62)
- Ban Biao, Chinese historian and official (d. AD 54)
- Geng Yan, Chinese general of the Han Dynasty (d. AD 58)
- Tiberius Claudius Balbilus, Roman politician and astrologer (d. AD 79)
- Columella, Roman Latin writer (d. AD 70)
- Daemusin, Korean king of Goguryeo (d. AD 44)
- Publius Quinctilius Varus (the Younger), Roman nobleman (d. AD 27)
- Some believe that Jesus of Nazareth was actually born this year
- Habib the Carpenter, Syrian disciple and martyr
- Paul the Apostle, Jewish leader of the Christians
- Ruzi Ying, great-grandson of Xuan of Han (d. AD 25)
- Yin Lihua, empress of the Han Dynasty (d. AD 64)
- Gaius Manlius Valens, Roman senator and consul (d. AD 96)
- Jesus, usually considered the latest possible year of birth, based on the Quirinius census in that year (historicity questionable)
- John the Apostle, Jewish Christian mystic (approximate date)
- Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, Roman politician (d. AD 39)
- Matthias, Jewish governor and priest (d. AD 70)
- Milonia Caesonia, Roman empress (d. AD 41)
- Nero Julius Caesar, son of Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder (d. AD 30)
- Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo, Roman general (d. AD 67)
- Julia, daughter of Drusus Julius Caesar and Livilla (d. AD 43)
- Drusus Caesar, member of the Julio-Claudian Dynasty (d. AD 33)
- Titus Flavius Sabinus, Roman consul and brother of Vespasian (d. AD 69)
- Amanishakheto, queen of Kush (Nubia)
- Artaxias II, king of Iberia (Nimrodid dynasty)
- Gaius Antistius Vetus, Roman consul (b. 50 BC)
- Sapadbizes, king of the Kushan Empire
- August 20 – Lucius Caesar, son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder (b. 17 BC)
- Gaius Marcius Censorinus, Roman consul (approximate date)
- Bao Xuan, Chinese politician of the Han Dynasty
- February 21 – Gaius Caesar, son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder (b. 20 BC)
- June 26 – Ariobarzanes II, Roman client king of Armenia (b. 40 BC)
- Gaius Asinius Pollio, Roman orator, poet and historian (b. 65 BC)[a]
- Hyeokgeose, Korean king of Silla (b. 75 BC)
- Lucius Cornelius Lentulus, Roman consul
- February 3 – Ping, Chinese emperor of the Han Dynasty (b. 9 BC)
- Cleopatra Selene II, Egyptian ruler of Cyrenaica and Libya (b. 40 BC)
- Orodes III, king (shah) of the Parthian Empire
- Terentia, wife of Marcus Tullius Cicero (b. 98 BC)
- Athenodoros Cananites, Stoic philosopher (b. 74 BC)
- Aulus Licinius Nerva Silianus, Roman consul
- Glaphyra, daughter of Archelaus of Cappadocia (approximate date)
- Lucius Sempronius Atratinus, Roman politician
- September 15 – Publius Quinctilius Varus, Roman general (b. 46 BC)
- Marcus Caelius, Roman centurion (b. c. 45 BC)
- Declercq 2000.
- Declercq 2002.
- Dunn 2003.
- Klingaman 1990, p. 56.
- Klingaman 1990, p. 64.
- Cassius Dio, The Roman Histories, Book 55, ch 26.
- Cassius Dio, The Roman Histories, Book 55, ch 26-27.
- Cassius Dio, The Roman Histories, Book 55, ch 25.
- Cassius Dio, The Roman Histories, Book 55, ch 27.
- Cassius Dio, The Roman Histories, Book 55, ch 29.
- Cassius Dio, The Roman Histories, Book 55, ch 29.
- Velleius Paterculus, Book 2, Ch 110.
- Velleius Paterculus, Book 2, Ch 110.
- Cassius Dio, The Roman Histories, Book 55, ch 30.
- Velleius Paterculus, Book 2, Ch 111.
- Cassius Dio, The Roman Histories, Book 55, ch 25-30.
- Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars, Tiberius, ch 9 & ch 16.
- Cassius Dio, The Roman Histories, Book 55, ch 28.
- Cassius Dio, The Roman Histories, Book 55, ch 27.
- Klingaman 1990.
- "Ban Biao - Chinese official". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 17 June 2018.
- Sanders 1993.
- Mommsen 1996.
- Roberts, John. The Oxford dictionary of the classical world. Oxford University Press. p. 799. ISBN 9780192801463.
- Declercq, Georges (2000). Anno Domini: The origins of the Christian Era. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols. pp. 143–147. ISBN 978-2503510507.
- Declercq, Georges (2002). "Dionysius Exiguus and the introduction of the Christian Era". Sacris Erudiri. Brussels: Brepols. 41: 165–246. doi:10.1484/J.SE.2.300491. ISSN 0771-7776.
Annotated version of a portion of Anno Domini
- Dunn, James D. G. (2003). Jesus Remembered. Christianity in the Making. 1. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 324. ISBN 978-0802839312.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 0s.|