0s

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Millennium: 1st millennium
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Eastern Hemisphere at the beginning of the 1st century AD

The 0s cover the first nine years of the Anno Domini era, which began on January 1st, 1 AD and ended on December 31st, 9 AD. It is one of the two "0-to-9" decade-like timespans (along with 0s BC) that contain 9 years, and are not decades (10 years).

In Europe, the 0s saw the continuation of conflict between the Roman Empire and Germanic tribes in the Early Imperial campaigns in Germania. Tiberius, Ahenobarbus, Vinicius and Varus led Roman forces in multiple punitive campaigns, before sustaining a major defeat at the hands of Arminius in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. Concurrently, the Roman Empire fought the Bellum Batonianum against an alliance of native peoples of in two regions of Illyricum, Dalmatia and Pannonia, led by Bato the Daesitiate. In AD 8, the Breuci of the Sava valley surrendered, but it took a winter blockade and another season of fighting before the surrender in Dalmatia in AD 9. A conflict also took place in Korea, where Daeso, King of Dongbuyeo invaded Goguryeo with a 50,000-man army in 6 AD. He was forced to retreat when heavy snow began to fall, stopping the conflict until the next decade. In China, Wang Mang established the Xin dynasty.

Literary works from the 0s include works from the ancient Roman poet Ovid; the Ars Amatoria, an instructional elegy series in three books, Metamorphoses, a poem which chronicles the history of the world from its creation to the deification of Julius Caesar within a loose mythico-historical framework, and Ibis, a curse poem written during his years in exile across the Black Sea for an offense against Augustus. Nicolaus of Damascus wrote the 15-volume History of the World.

A census was concluded in China in 2 AD: final numbers showed a population of nearly 60 million (59,594,978 people in slightly more than 12 million households). The census is one of the most accurate surveys in Chinese history. Dionysius Exiguus assigned Jesus's birth date in 1 AD, in his anno Domini era according to at least one scholar. However, most scholars think Dionysius placed the birth of Jesus in the previous year, 1 BC. Furthermore, most modern scholars do not consider Dionysius' calculations authoritative, placing the event several years earlier (see Chronology of Jesus).

Events[edit]

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By place[edit]

Roman Empire[edit]
Asia[edit]
Africa[edit]
Americas[edit]

By topic[edit]

Arts and sciences[edit]
Religion[edit]
  • Birth of Jesus, as assigned by Dionysius Exiguus in his anno Domini era according to at least one scholar.[1][2] However, most scholars think Dionysius placed the birth of Jesus in the previous year, 1 BC.[1][2] Furthermore, most modern scholars do not consider Dionysius' calculations authoritative, placing the event several years earlier (see Chronology of Jesus).[3]

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By place[edit]

Roman Empire[edit]
Europe[edit]
Africa[edit]
  • Juba II of Mauretania joins Gaius Caesar in Armenia as a military advisor. It is during this period that he meets Glaphyra, a Cappadocian princess and the former wife of Alexandros of Judea, a brother of Herod Archelaus, ethnarch of Judea, and becomes enamoured of her.
China[edit]
  • Wang Mang begins a program of personal aggrandizement, restoring marquess titles to past imperial princes and introducing a pension system for retired officials. Restrictions are placed on the Emperor's mother, Consort Wei and members of the Wei Clan.
  • The first census is concluded in China after having begun the year before: final numbers show a population of nearly 60 million (59,594,978 people in slightly more than 12 million households). The census is one of the most accurate surveys in Chinese history.[4]
  • The Chinese census shows nearly one million people living in Vietnam.

[edit]

By place[edit]

Roman Empire[edit]
Europe[edit]
China[edit]
  • Wang Mang foils a plot by his son, Wang Yu, his brother-in-law, Lu Kuan, and the Wei clan to oust him from the regent's position. Wang Yu and Lu Kuan are killed in the purge that follows.
Korea[edit]

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By place[edit]

Roman Empire[edit]
Middle East[edit]
Korea[edit]
China[edit]

By topic[edit]

Arts and sciences[edit]

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By place[edit]

Roman Empire[edit]

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By place[edit]

Roman Empire[edit]
China[edit]
  • January – Some Chinese fear for the life of the young, ailing Emperor Ping Di as the planet Mars disappears behind the moon this month.[20]
  • February 3 – The boy emperor, Ping Di, dies of unexpected causes at age 14; Wang Mang alone selects the new emperor, Ruzi Ying, age 2,[20] starting the Jushe era of the Han Dynasty.
  • Candidates for government office must take civil-service examinations.
  • The imperial Liu clan suspect the intentions of Wang Mang and foment agrarian rebellions during the course of Ruzi Ying's reign. The first of these is led by Liu Chong, Marquess of Ang-Zong (a/k/a Marquis of An-chung), with a small force starting in May or June.[20]

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By place[edit]

Roman Empire[edit]
China[edit]
  • Zhai Yi, Governor of the Commandery of Dong (modern Puyang, Henan) declares Liu Zin, Marquess of Yang Xiang (modern Tai'an, Shandong), emperor. This proves to be the largest of the rebellions against Emperor Ruzi of Han.
  • Wang Mang puts down the rebellion during the winter. Zhai is captured and executed while Liu Xin escapes.
Persia[edit]

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By place[edit]

Roman Empire[edit]
Europe[edit]
Persia[edit]
Judea[edit]
China[edit]
  • Start of Chushi era of the Chinese Han Dynasty.
  • Wang Mang crushes a rebellion by Chai I, and on the winter solstice (which has been dated January 10 of the following year) officially assumes the title emperor, establishing the short-lived Xin Dynasty.[20]

By topic[edit]

Arts[edit]

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By place[edit]

China[edit]
  • January 10Wang Mang founds the short-lived Xin Dynasty in China (until AD 25). Wang Mang names his wife Wang empress and his son Wang Lin Crown Prince and heir to the throne.
  • Empress Wang is given the title of Duchess Dowager of Ding'an, while Ruzi Ying, the former Emperor of Han, becomes the Duke of Ding'an. Ruzi Ying is placed under house arrest.
  • Lui Kuai, Marquess of Zuziang, attacks the Dukedom of Fuchong under his brother Liu Ying. Lui Kuai is defeated and killed in the ensuing battle.
Roman Empire[edit]

By topic[edit]

Literature[edit]

Significant people[edit]

Births[edit]

AD 1

AD 2

AD 3

AD 4

AD 5

AD 6

AD 7

AD 8

AD 9

Deaths[edit]

AD 1

AD 2

AD 3

  • Bao Xuan, Chinese politician of the Han Dynasty

AD 4

AD 6

AD 7

AD 8

AD 9

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jerome (Chronicon 2020) says he died in AD 4 in the 70th year of his life, which would place the year of his birth at 65 BC.
  1. ^ a b Declercq 2000.
  2. ^ a b Declercq 2002.
  3. ^ Dunn 2003.
  4. ^ Klingaman 1990, p. 56.
  5. ^ Klingaman 1990, p. 64.
  6. ^ Cassius Dio, The Roman Histories, Book 55, ch 26.
  7. ^ Cassius Dio, The Roman Histories, Book 55, ch 26-27.
  8. ^ Cassius Dio, The Roman Histories, Book 55, ch 25.
  9. ^ Cassius Dio, The Roman Histories, Book 55, ch 27.
  10. ^ Cassius Dio, The Roman Histories, Book 55, ch 29.
  11. ^ Cassius Dio, The Roman Histories, Book 55, ch 29.
  12. ^ Velleius Paterculus, Book 2, Ch 110.
  13. ^ Velleius Paterculus, Book 2, Ch 110.
  14. ^ Cassius Dio, The Roman Histories, Book 55, ch 30.
  15. ^ Velleius Paterculus, Book 2, Ch 111.
  16. ^ Cassius Dio, The Roman Histories, Book 55, ch 25-30.
  17. ^ Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars, Tiberius, ch 9 & ch 16.
  18. ^ Cassius Dio, The Roman Histories, Book 55, ch 28.
  19. ^ Cassius Dio, The Roman Histories, Book 55, ch 27.
  20. ^ a b c d Klingaman 1990.
  21. ^ "Ban Biao - Chinese official". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 17 June 2018.
  22. ^ Sanders 1993.
  23. ^ Mommsen 1996.
  24. ^ Roberts, John. The Oxford dictionary of the classical world. Oxford University Press. p. 799. ISBN 9780192801463.

Sources[edit]

  • Declercq, Georges (2000). Anno Domini: The origins of the Christian Era. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols. pp. 143–147. ISBN 978-2503510507.
  • Declercq, Georges (2002). "Dionysius Exiguus and the introduction of the Christian Era". Sacris Erudiri. Brussels: Brepols. 41: 165–246. doi:10.1484/J.SE.2.300491. ISSN 0771-7776. Annotated version of a portion of Anno Domini
  • Dunn, James D. G. (2003). Jesus Remembered. Christianity in the Making. 1. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 324. ISBN 978-0802839312.
  • Klingaman, William K. (1990). The First Century: Emperors, Gods and Everyman. Harper-Collins. ISBN 978-0785822561.